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8 oktober

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Okt 2006 7:03    Onderwerp: 8 oktober Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 8. Oktober 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT - ÖSTERREICHISCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Das Bombardement der Stadt Antwerpen

Großes Hauptquartier, 8. Oktober, abends.
Vom westlichen Kriegsschauplatz sind Ereignisse von entscheidender Bedeutung nicht zu melden. Kleine Fortschritte sind bei St. Mihiel und im Argonnenwalde gemacht.
Vor Antwerpen ist das Fort Breendonck genommen. Der Angriff auf die innere Fortlinie und damit auch die Beschießung der dahinter liegenden Stadtteile hat begonnen, nachdem der Kommandant der Festung die Erklärung abgegeben hatte, daß er die Verantwortung übernehme.
Die Luftschiffhalle in Düsseldorf wurde von einer durch einen feindlichen Flieger geworfenen Bombe getroffen. Das Dach der Halle wurde durchschlagen und die Hülle eines in der Halle liegenden Luftschiffes zerstört.
Im Osten erreichte eine von Lomsha anmarschierende russische Kolonne Lyck. 1)


Die bisherige Entwicklung der Kämpfe um Antwerpen

Vom Sonderberichterstatter der "Frankfurter Zeitung"

Brüssel, im Oktober.
Seit acht Tagen hören die Brüsseler die Kanonen donnern, die nun schon mehrere der wichtigsten Forts von Antwerpen niedergelegt haben. Viele geben sich freilich noch immer Illusionen hin, obwohl sie die Wirkung der deutschen und österreichischen schweren Artillerie von Lüttich, Namur und Maubeuge her kennen. Sie lassen sich immer wieder von wahnwitzigen Gerüchten betören. Bald sind die Franzosen, die zum Entsatz kommen, schon bis Mons vorgerückt, bald landen Engländer in Ostende. Trägt der Wind den Schall der Kanonen lauter und mächtiger in die Stadt hinein, dann sind die Deutschen vor den ausbrechenden Belgiern auf dem Rückzug.
Dem Fortgehen der Belagerung tun diese Täuschungen der Brüsseler keinen Eintrag. Der amtliche Telegraph hat die ersten Erfolge schon gemeldet. Die tatsächlichen Belagerungsoperationen haben erst vor kurzem begonnen. Nachdem die belgische Armee sich am 20. August in die Festung zurückgezogen hatte, wurde von der deutschen Heeresleitung nur ein "Beobachtungsheer" davor gelegt, und man konnte den Eindruck gewinnen als ob Antwerpens Schicksal von dem Gang der Kriegsoperationen in Frankreich abhängig gemacht werden sollte. Ein Angriff von deutscher Seite erfolgte nicht. Die Gefechte, die stattfanden, waren nur durch die Ausfälle der Belgier oder die Besetzung einiger strategisch wichtiger Punkte wie Termonde notwendig geworden Diese Ausfallsgefechte mehrten sich zwischen dem 9. und 13 September und standen in offenbarem Zusammenhang mit der Zurücknahme des deutschen rechten Flügels von der Marne auf die Aisne in Frankreich. Aber sie hatten nirgends den gewünschten Erfolg. Der Ausfall von Villevorde, der den Aufstand in Löwen veranlaßt hatte, die Züchtigung dieser Stadt nach sich gezogen, die späteren endigten mit der Zerstörung einiger Dörfer, in denen die Zivilbevölkerung sich noch immer nicht versagen konnte, in die Kämpfe einzugreifen. In einer ersten Phase der Operationen stritt man sich auch bereits um den Besitz der Stadt Mecheln, allerdings nur mit fernem Artilleriefeuer, das wenig Schaden tat. Zwischen dem 9. und 13. September und einige Tage später unternahmen die Belgier auch einige Vorstöße auf die deutschen Verbindungslinien, die indessen alle mißlangen.
Daß die deutschen Operationen nach und nach von der reinen Beobachtung zur regelrechten Belagerung übergingen, merkte man auch in Brüssel. Wir sahen mehr und mehr Truppen ankommen, darunter auch die strammen Leute der Marineinfanterie, die Pioniere, die österreichischen Batterien mit ihren Motormörsern und die deutsche Festungsartillerie welche Maubeuge belagert hatten. Bald hörte man, daß auch zwei Kruppsche 42 Zentimeter-Geschütze langsam herankamen. In der Stadt wurde uns ein merkwürdiges Schauspiel geboten: Wir sahen die deutschen Soldaten alle Arten von Tonnen, besonders leere Petroleumfässer auf Wagen durch die Straßen fahren, stets in der Richtung nach Norden. Die Brüsseler begriffen sofort, daß es sich darum handelte, aus diesen Fässern Flöße und Brücken zu bauen, auf denen die überschwemmten Gebiete des Festungsbezirks überschritten werden konnten. In den Tagen vom 9 bis 13. September war es schon zu Wassergefechten gekommen Unsere Marine-Infanteristen schwammen in voller Rüstung, das Gewehr überm Kopf, durch Kanäle zum Sturmangriff auf die feindlichen Festungen.
Die eigentlichen Angriffe auf die Festung begannen am 27. September. Zunächst mußte Mecheln vom Feinde gesäubert werden. Diese Stadt liegt im Schußbereich der stärkstem Forts Waelhem und Wavre-St. Catherine. Ihr Feuer hat wenig Schaden getan, jedenfalls nicht mehr als die von den belgischen Stellungen ausgesandten Granaten und Schrapnells, welche die Deutschem aus der Stadt vertreiben sollten, als noch keine feldgraue Uniform sich dort gezeigt hatte. Mit der Niederlegung der ersten Forts erledigte sich der Kampf um das davorliegende Mecheln von gelbst. Wie die amtlichten Meldungen bereits erkennen ließen, ging man von deutscher Seite bald auf die sich nördlich anschließenden Forts des äußeren Ringes bis Lier über und war bald in der Lage, über die Forts des inneren Ringes in die Vorstädte von Antwerpen zu schießen, wenn man zur Kapitulation auffordern wollte. Östlich und westlich vom Festungsbereich schoben sich deutsche Truppenkörper so weit vor, daß ein Fluchtversuch der Belgier zur Abdrängung ins holländisches Gebiet und damit zu ihrer Entwaffnung führen muß.


Beginn der Beschießung von Antwerpen

Brüssel 8. Oktober. (W. B.)
Gemäß Artikel 26 des Haager Abkommens betreffend die Gesetze des Landkrieges ließ General v. Beseler, der Befehlshaber der Belagerungsarmee von Antwerpen, durch Vermittlung der in Brüssel beglaubigten Vertreter neutraler Staaten gestern Nachmittag die Behörden Antwerpens von dem Bevorstehen der Beschießung verständigen. Die Beschießung der Stadt hat um Mitternacht begonnen.

Amsterdam, 8 Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
Der "Maasbode" meldet aus Putte, daß die Deutschen in der vergangenen Nacht und heute früh auch über das Fort Broechem anrückten, eine andere Heeresabteilung marschierte über Westmalle auf Fort Wyneghem, das in wenigen Stunden vernichtet war. Fort Wyneghem ist das erste Fort des inneren Festunggürtels. Fort Schooten vom äußeren Festungsgürtel, nordöstlich von Antwerpen, suchte den Einmarsch aufzuhalten, wurde aber rasch zum Schweigen gebracht. Bei diesem gewaltigen Anrücken war das belgische Heer gezwungen, über die Schelde zurückzuweichen.

Amsterdam, 8. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
"Nieuws van den Dag" meldet aus Rozendaal: Seit Mitternacht wird Antwerpen beschossen. Die Deutschen haben die Nethe überschritten und schweres Geschütz in Stellung gebracht. Zunächst erfolgte eine Beschießung des Südost-Teils, wo die Vorstadt Berchem schwer litt, dann auch eine des Nordost-Teils. Ein Zeppelinkreuzer warf eine Bombe auf die Öltanks von Hoboken, die infolgedessen teilweise in Brand gerieten; man ließ daraufhin das Petroleum der anderen Tanks auslaufen. Englische Truppen haben mit schweren Schiffsgeschützen hinter dem inneren Festungsgürtel Aufstellung genommen, wo sie die Verteidigung fortsetzen.

Amsterdam, 8. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
In der vergangenen Nacht begann ein wütendes Artilleriegefecht. Die Engländer haben ihre schweren Schiffskanonen hinter dem inneren Festungsgürtel aufgestellt. Während die Granaten in den Vorstädten Berchem, Zurenborgwyk, aber auch im Zentrum der Stadt einschlugen, schwebte ein oder, wie Flüchtlinge berichten, mehrere Zeppeline über der Stadt. Eine abgeworfene Bombe setzte einen Petroleumtank in Brand. Das Feuer ergriff den Südbahnhof, der in Flammen steht. Wie wahnsinnig liefen die Menschen durch die Stadt, und die wilde Flucht der Bevölkerung nahm zu. Vom Südbahnhof konnten keine Züge mehr abfahren, ebensowenig am Hauptbahnhof, wo irgend ein Unfall, angeblich durch das Werfen von Bomben, eingetreten sein muß. Die Scharen der Flüchtenden zogen bis zur nächsten Station. Zu Zehntausenden kamen sie heute in Holland an und die Schätzungen lauten zwischen hunderttausend und dreihundertausend. Ein höherer belgischer Bahnbeamter sagte, daß der stets im Hauptbahnhof bereitstehende Hofzug durch eine Bombe getroffen worden sei.
Die letzten Berichte melden, daß Antwerpen im Stadtteil des Südbahnhofes bei Borgerhout in Flammen stehe. Die Geschosse der Deutschen fliegen selbst über die Stadt hinweg, sodaß der Zug mit den Flüchtigen stundenlang zauderte, nach Norden abzufahren.


Die Stimmung in Paris

Von der Schweizer Grenze, 8. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel)
Das von französischer Seite offiziell zugestandene Auftauchen einer neuen deutschen Armee in Nordfrankreich hat in Paris den ernstesten Eindruck gemacht, weil es das von den Zeitungen so auch noch besonders vom "Petit Parisien" angekündigte Gelingen einer Überflügelung des rechten deutschen Flügels unmöglich macht. "Petit Parisen" ermahnt in einem eindringlichen Artikel die französische Bevölkerung zur Bewahrung der Einigkeit. Es müssen also doch Kundgebungen stattgefunden haben, über die die Presse nichts mitteilen darf.
Die Jahresklasse 1915 wird nach einem Beschluß des Ministerrates spätestens am 1. November d. Js. in Dienst gestellt. Die Rekruten dieses Jahrganges können erst nach Ablauf des Krieges zur Fortsetzung ihrer Studien beurlaubt werden und sich für die weitere Ableistung ihrer Dienstpflicht zurückstellen lassen.
Das Pariser Kriegsgericht befaßte sich während der letzten Tage mit mehreren deutschen Kriegsgefangenen, die wegen Diebstahls angeklagt waren, weil man in ihrem Besetz Zivilkleider und Wertgegenstände gefunden haben soll. Der eine dieser Soldaten besaß eine Brieftasche mit einem französischen Wertpapier, die er angeblich auf dem Marsch aufgerafft hatte und die er im Augenblick seiner Gefangennahme noch besaß. Er wurde von dem ehemaligen Abgeordneten Zevaes als Pflichtverteidiger vertreten. Das Kriegsgericht verurteilte ihn zu einer längeren Gefängnisstrafe.
Der Sohn des Ministerpräsidenten Viviani wird vermißt und ist wahrscheinlich Kriegsgefangener.

Paris, 8. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
Heute erschien wieder eine deutsche "Taube" über Paris und warf mehren Bomben. Eine traf den Bahnhof Saint Denis. Alle Scheiben des Gebäudes sind gesprungen. Später kamen von Issy les Moulineaux französische Aeroplane zur Verfolgung, worauf die "Taube" am Horizont verschwand.


Die französische Artillerie vor der Kathedrale von Reims

Frankfurt, 8. Oktober.
Über die Umstände, die zu der Beschießung der Kathedrale von Reims durch deutsche Artillerie geführt haben, liegen jetzt eingehendere Nachrichten vor. Sie bestätigen unwiderleglich, daß es die Franzosen selbst gewesen sind, die das ehrwürdige Bauwerk der Zerstörungsgefahr ausgeliefert haben. General Joffre hat geleugnet, daß auf dem Turm der Kathedrale ein Beobachtungsposten gestanden sei. Er irrt sich aber noch mehr: selbst wenn er recht hätte, so wäre die Beschießung der Kathedrale zehnfach gerechtfertigt gewesen, denn wir können nun, nachdem die notwendigen Ermittelungen gemacht werden konnten, die Anklage wiederholen, daß tatsächlich unweit der Kathedrale eine Artilleriestellung der Franzosen sich befunden hat.
Eine uns zur Verfügung gestellte Skizze über die Aufstellung der in Betracht kommenden deutschen und feindlichen Artillerie zeigt eine starke Artilleriegruppe der Franzosen, die so aufgestellt war, daß die in geringerer Entfernung hinter ihr liegende Kathedrale sich genau in der deutschen Schußlinie befand und durch jedes zu hochgehende Artilleriegeschoß gefährdet werden mußte. Offenbar lag dieser Aufstellung der französischen Artillerie die Erwägung zugrunde, daß man die Deutschen so in die Zwangslage brachte, zwischen zwei sehr unangenehmen Möglichkeiten zu wählen: entweder sie verzichteten aus Ehrfurcht vor der Kathedrale auf die Beschießung der in ihrer Nähe stehenden Batterien, dann fügten diese, ohne gefährdet zu sein, den deutschen Truppen die schwersten Verluste zu, oder man faßte schweren Herzen, den militärisch übrigens ganz selbstverständlichen Entschluß das Feuer der französischen Batterien zu erwidern, dann hatten die Franzosen die gewünschte Handhabe, uns Deutsche vor aller Welt als rohe Barbaren hinzustellen. Die Aufstellung einer zweiten feindlichen Artillerietruppe vor einem anderen Gotteshause zeigt, daß es sich bei diesem Verfahren nicht um einen Zufall gehandelt hat. Zieht man zu alledem noch die Tatsache in Betracht, daß der nördliche Turm der Kathedrale zur Aufstellung einer Winkerstation für Beobachtungszwecke mißbraucht worden ist, so muß man sagen, daß die bekannten Vorwürfe gegen die deutsche Truppenführung von ebensoviel militärischer Naivität wie perfider Böswilligkeit zeugen. Unsere Flieger haben übrigens festgestellt, daß der Platz vor der Kathedrale dauernd zur Aufstellung von feindlichen Treppen und Munitionskolonnen gedient hat. Schon dieser Umstand allein hätte genügt, die deutsche Beschießung zu rechtfertigen.
Wenn die als Kugelfang benutzte Kathedrale trotz aller hier angeführten Tatsachen vor völliger Zerstörung bewahrt geblieben ist, so liegt darin nicht nur ein Beweis für die große Treffsicherheit unserer Artillerie , sondern auch ein ehrendes Zeugnis dafür, daß deutsche Geistes- und Herzensbildung sich auch inmitten des Krieges betätigen und ebenso ehrlich wie erfolgreich die Denkmäler einer Kultur zu schonen suchen, die in Frankreich leider nur noch durch leblose Zeugen aus alter Zeit verkörpert zu sein scheint.


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Österreichisch-ungarischer Vormarsch gegen Przemysl

Wien, 8. Oktober.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Beim weiteren Vordringen unserer Truppen wurde gestern der Feind an der Chaussee nach Przemysl bei Barycz westlich von Dynow geworfen. Auch Rzeskow wurde wieder genommen, wo viele Geschütze erbeutet wurden. In dem Winkel zwischen Weichsel und San nahmen wir den flüchtenden Russen viele Gefangene und Fuhrwerke ab. Erneute heftige Angriffe auf Przemysl werden glänzend abgeschlagen. Der Feind hatte viele Tausende Tote und Verwundete.
In den siegreichen Kämpfen bei Marmaros-Sziget wetteiferten ungarischer und ostgalizischer Landsturm mit den polnischen Legionären an Tapferkeit.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)


Die Kämpfe an der Weichsel

Die "Frankfurter Zeitung" schrieb am 8. Oktober 1914:
Im südlichen Polen haben sich westlich der hier nach Norden sich wendenden Weichsel in den letzten Tagen lebhafte Kämpfe abgespielt, die mit einem Siege der verbündeten deutschen und österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen endeten. Die Russen wurden zwischen Ostrowiec und Opatow zur Weichsel zurückgeworfen, der wichtige Brückenkopf Sandomir
von unseren Verbündeten besetzt. Bei Radom wurde starke russische Kavallerie, die aus Iwangorod vorbrach, in die Festung zurückgeworfen. Die weiteren Kämpfe in dieser Gegend dürften sich um die Weichsel- und San-Linie und vielleicht auch um die Beherrschung der Bahnlinie drehen, die von Lublin über Iwangorod nach Warschau führt. Die strategische Bedeutung dieser Verbindung bedarf keiner Erläuterung. Für die Russen ist aber auch der Besitz der beiden Flußläufe unbedingt nötig, solange sie die Besetzung eines Teils von Westgalizien aufrecht halten wollen; wenn die Verbündeten sich dieser Linie bemächtigen, bevor Rußland den hinter ihr liegenden Teil Galiziens geräumt hat, wird der russische Rückzug nur unter großen Schwierigkeiten durchzuführen sein. Bei den mangelhaften Verkehrsverhältnissen dieses Kriegsschauplatzes muß damit gerechnet werden, daß sich die Operationen ziemlich langsam entwickeln.


Ein Torpedoboot gesunken

Berlin, 8. Oktober. (Priv.-Tel.)
Wie uns mitgeteilt wird, ist am 6. d. M. nachmittags das Torpedoboot "S 116" während des Vorpostendienstes in der Nordsee durch den Torpedoschuß des englischen Unterseebootes "E 9", das schon die "Hela" zum Sinken gebracht hat, verloren gegangen. Fast die ganze Besatzung konnte gerettet werden.


Beschießung von Papeete durch "Scharnhorst" und "Gneisenau"

Bordeaux, 8. Oktober. (W. B.)
Marineminister Augagneur hat von dem Gouverneur von Französisch-Ozeanien die Bestätigung der Nachricht von der Beschießung Papeetes durch die deutschen Kreuzer "Scharnhorst" und "Gneisenau" erhalten. Die Ortsbehörden verbrannten, um eine Verproviantierung des Feindes zu verhindern, die Kohlenvorräte und machten durch verschiedene Maßnahmen die Einfahrt der Kreuzer in den Hafen unmöglich. Die Deutschen konnten nur das vorher entwaffnete Kanonenboot "Zelee" versenken.
Sie gaben 150 Schüsse auf die Stadt ab, durch die das Handelsviertel in Brand geriet; es ist nur Materialschaden angerichtet worden.



Der 1. Weltkrieg im Oktober 1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Okt 2006 7:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 : ALVIN YORK KILLS 25 AND CAPTURES 132:

During World War I, U.S. Corporal Alvin C. York is credited with single-handedly killing 25 German soldiers and capturing 132 in the Argonne Forest of France. The action saved York's small detachment from annihilation by a German machine-gun nest and won the reluctant warrior from backwater Tennessee the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Born in a log cabin in rural Tennessee in 1887, Alvin Cullum York supplemented his family's subsistence farming by hunting and, like his father, was soon an expert marksman. He also earned a reputation as a hell-raiser, and few imagined he would amount to anything but trouble. Around 1915, however, York experienced a religious conversion after a friend was killed in a bar brawl. He joined the fundamentalist Church of Christ in Christian Union and served as song leader and Sunday school teacher at the local church.

Two months after the United States declared war on Germany in 1917, York received his draft notice. Because his church opposed war, he asked for conscientious objector status but was denied at both the state and local level because the small Church of Christ in Christian Union was not recognized as a legitimate Christian sect. Enlisting in the 82nd Infantry Division, he was offered noncombat duty but eventually agreed to fight after being convinced by a superior that America's cause was just.

On October 8, 1918, York and 15 other soldiers under the command of Sergeant Bernard Early were dispatched to seize a German-held rail point during the Allies' Meuse-Argonne Offensive. The Americans lost their way and soon found themselves behind enemy lines. A brief firefight ensued with a superior German force, and in the confusion a group of Germans surrendered. However, German machine-gunners on a hill overlooking the scene soon noticed the small size of Early's patrol. Yelling in German for their comrades to take cover, the machine gunners opened fire on the Americans, cutting down half the detachment, including Sergeant Early.

York immediately returned fire and with his marksman eye began picking off the German gunners. He then fearlessly charged the machine-gun nest. Several of the other surviving Americans followed his lead and probably contributed to the final total of 25 enemy killed. With his automatic pistol, York shot down six German soldiers sent out of the trench to intercept him. The German commander, thinking he had underestimated the size of the American force, surrendered as York reached the machine-gun nest. York and the other seven survivors took custody of some 90 Germans and on the way back to the Allied lines encountered 40 or so other enemy troops, who were coerced to surrender by the German major that the Americans had in their custody. The final tally was 132 prisoners.

York was promoted to the rank of sergeant and hailed as the greatest civilian soldier of the war by several Allied leaders. He was given a hero's welcome upon his return to the United States in 1919 and was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, the nation's highest military decoration. In the 1920s, he used his fame to raise funds for the York Industrial Institute (now Alvin C. York Institute), a school for underprivileged children in rural Tennessee. He later opened a Bible school. Sergeant York, the 1941 film starring Gary Cooper, was based on his life. York died in 1964.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 17:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En als aanvulling op het verhaal hierboven:

Diary of Alvin York

We were deep in the brush and we couldn't see the Germans and they couldn't see us. But we could hear their machine guns shooting something awful. Savage's squad was leading, and mine, Early's and Cutting's followed. — And when we jumped across a little stream of water that was there, they was about 15 or 20 Germans jumped up and threw up their hands and said, "Kamerad!" So the one in charge of us boys told us not to shoot: they was going to give up anyway.
It was headquarters. There were orderlies, stretcher bearers and runners, and a major and two other officers, They were just having breakfast and there was a mess of beef-steaks, jellies, jams, and loaf bread around. They were unarmed, all except the major.
We jumped them right smart and covered them, and told them to throw up their hands and to keep them up. And they did. I guess they thought the whole American army was in their rear. And we didn't stop to tell them anything different. No shots were fired, and there was no talking between us except when we told them to "put them up." (...)

So by this time some of the Germans from on the hill was shooting at us. Well I was giving them the best I had, and by this time the Germans had got their machine guns turned around and fired on us. So they killed 6 and wounded 3 of us. So that just left 8, and then we got into it right by this time. So we had a hard battle for a little while — (...)

I don't know whether it was the German major, but one yelled something out in German that we couldn't understand. And then the machine guns on top swung around and opened fire on us. There were about thirty of them. They were commanding us from a hillside less than thirty yards away. They couldn't miss. And they didn't!
They killed all of Savage's squad; they got all of mine but two; they wounded Cutting and killed two of his squad; and Early's squad was well back in the brush on the extreme right and not yet under the direct fire of the machine guns, and so they escaped. All except Early. He went down with three bullets in his body. That left me in command. I was right out there in the open.
And those machine guns were spitting fire and cutting down the undergrowth all around me something awful. And the Germans were yelling orders. You never heard such a racket in all of your life. I didn't have time to dodge behind a tree or dive into the brush, I didn't even have time to kneel or lie down.
I don't know what the other boys were doing. They claim They didn't fire a shot. They said afterwards they were on the right, guarding the prisoners. And the prisoners were lying down and the machine guns had to shoot over them to get me. As soon as the machine guns opened fire on me, I began to exchange shots with them. (...)

There were over thirty of them in continuous action, and all I could do was touch the Germans off just as fast as I could. I was sharpshooting. I don't think I missed a shot. It was no time to miss.
In order to sight me or to swing their machine guns on me, the Germans had to show their heads above the trench, and every time I saw a head I just touched it off. All the time I kept yelling at them to come down. I didn't want to kill any more than I had to. But it was they or I. And I was giving them the best I had.
Suddenly a German officer and five men jumped out of the trench and charged me with fixed bayonets. I changed to the old automatic and just touched them off too. I touched off the sixth man first, then the fifth, then the fourth, then the third and so on. I wanted them to keep coming.
I didn't want the rear ones to see me touching off the front ones. I was afraid they would drop down and pump a volley into me. — and I got hold of the German major, and he told me if I wouldn't kill any more of them he would make them quit firing. So I told him all right, if he would do it now. So he blew a little whistle, and they quit shooting and come down and gave up. (...)

I had killed over twenty before the German major said he would make them give up. I covered him with my automatic and told him if he didn't make them stop firing I would take off his head next. And he knew I meant it. He told me if I didn't kill him, and if I stopped shooting the others in the trench, he would make them surrender.
He blew a little whistle and they came down and began to gather around and throw down their guns and belts. All but one of them came off the hill with their hands up, and just before that one got to me he threw a little hand grenade which burst in the air in front of me.
I had to touch him off. The rest surrendered without any more trouble. There were nearly 100 of them. (...)

So we had about 80 or 90 Germans there disarmed, and had another line of Germans to go through to get out. So I called for my men, and one of them answered from behind a big oak tree, and the others were on my right in the brush.
So I said, "Let's get these Germans out of here."
One of my men said, "it is impossible."
So I said, "No; let's get them out." (...)

The major suggested we go down a gully, but I knew that was the wrong way. And I told him we were not going down any gully. We were going straight through the German front line trenches back to the American lines.
It was their second line that I had captured. We sure did get a long way behind the German trenches! And so I marched them straight at that old German front line trench. And some more machine guns swung around and began to spit at us. I told the major to blow his whistle or I would take off his head and theirs too. So he blew his whistle and they all surrendered — all except one. I made the major order him to surrender twice. But he wouldn't. And I had to touch him off. I hated to do it. But I couldn't afford to take any chances and so I had to let him have it. (...)

There were considerably over 100 prisoners now. It was a problem to get them back safely to our own lines. There were so many of them, there was danger of our own artillery mistaking us for a German counterattack and opening upon us. I sure was relieved when we ran into the relief squads that had been sent forward through the brush to help us. (...)

On the way back we were constantly under heavy shell fire and I had to double time them to get them through safely.
There was nothing to be gained by having any more of them wounded or killed. They had surrendered to me, and it was up to me to look after them. And so I did. (...)

I had orders to report to Brigadier General Lindsey, and he said to me, "Well, York, I hear you have captured the whole damned German army." And I told him I only had 132. (...)

So you can see here in this case of mine where God helped me out. I had been living for God and working in the church some time before I come to the army. So I am a witness to the fact that God did help me out of that hard battle; for the bushes were shot up all around me and I never got a scratch. (...)

I noticed the bushes all around where I stood in my fight with the machine guns were all cut down. The bullets went over my head and on either side. But they never touched me.
Account of 8 October 1918

After the Armistice was signed, I was ordered to go back to the scene of my fight with the machine guns. General Lindsey and some other generals went with me.
We went over the ground carefully. The officers spent a right smart amount of time examining the hill and the trenches where the machine guns were, and measuring and discussing everything.
And then General Lindsey asked me to describe the fight to him. And I did. And then he asked me to march him out just like I marched the German major out, over the same ground and back to the American lines.
Our general was very popular. He was a natural born fighter and he could swear just as awful as he could fight. He could swear most awful bad.
And when I marched him back to our old lines he said to me, "York, how did you do it?" And I answered him, "Sir, it is not man power. A higher power than man power guided and watched over me and told me what to do." And the general bowed his head and put his hand on my shoulder and solemnly said, "York, you are right."
There can be no doubt in the world of the fact of the divine power being in that. No other power under heaven could bring a man out of a place like that. Men were killed on both sides of me; and I was the biggest and the most exposed of all. Over thirty machine guns were maintaining rapid fire at me, point-blank from a range of about twenty-five yards.
Addendum to the account of 8 October 1918

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Alvin_C._York
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 17:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 - 8 October, 1914: War on the Eastern Front: The Battle of Wirballen
Reported by Karl H. von Wiegand, Berlin correspondent of the United Press.

ON THE FIRING LINE, NEAR WIRBALLEN, RUSSIAN POLAND, Oct 8. -- Via The Hague and London -- At sundown tonight, after four days of constant fighting, the German army holds its strategic and strongly intrenched position east of Wirballen.

As I write this in the glare of a screened auto headlight, several hundred yards back from the German trenches I can catch the occasional high notes of a soldier chorus. For four days the singers have lain cramped in those muddy ditches, unable to move or stretch except under cover of darkness. And still they sing. They believe they are on the eve of a great victory.

I reached the battlefield of Wirballen shortly before daylight, armed with a pass issued by the general staff and accompanied by three officers assigned to "chaperon" me and furnish technical information.

We had traveled three days by auto and were within three miles of the right wing of the German position when our machine broke down and we went ahead on foot.

Today I saw a wave of Russian flesh and blood dash against a wall of German steel. The wall stood. The wave broke -- was shattered and hurled back.

Rivulets of blood trickled back slowly in its wake. Broken bloody bodies, wreckage of the wave, strewed the breakers.

Tonight I know why correspondents are not wanted on any of the battle lines. Descriptions and details of battles fought in the year of our Lord 1914 don't make nice reading.

We struck the firing line at a point near the extreme right of the German position shortly before daylight and breakfasted with the officers commanding a field battery....

While I was still marveling at the number of details requiring attention in this highly specialized business of man killing, I was yanked out of my reverie by a weird, tooth-edging, spine-chilling, whistling screech overhead.

The fact that the shell was from five hundred to a thousand feet above me and probably another couple of thousand feet beyond, before my ear registered its flight, did not prevent my ducking my head and giving my officer chaperons the chance to laugh that I had resolved not to give them.

A good many shells had passed over my head before I could lose an almost irresistible desire to hug the ground.

For half an hour the German battery paid no attention to the shells passing overhead and out of range. Finally a soldier with a telephone installed on an empty ammunition box began talking and copying notes, which the commander of the battery scanned hastily.

A word of command and a lieutenant galloped along the line giving various ranges to the different battery commanders. The crews leaped to their positions, and the battery went into action.

The firing continued for perhaps fifteen minutes, when there was a halt, more telephoning, a new set of ranges for some of the guns and a resumption of firing....

Now both the German and Russian shells were screeching and screaming overhead in a most uncomfortable if undangerous fashion. In the morning sunlight, from the summit of the hill, I got my first view of the fighting that will go down in history as the battle of Wirballen.

The line stretched off to the left as far as the field glasses would carry, in a great, irregular semicircle, the irregularity being caused by the efforts of both armies to keep to high ground with their main lines.

As we watched, the entire fire of the Russian artillery seemed to be diverted on a village situated on a low plain about 2,000 yards to the northward of our position. The village -- already deserted -- was being literally flattened under a deluge of iron and steel.

The ruins were in flames. After half an hour the reason for shelling the deserted village became evident.

A general advance against the German center was launched and the Russians were making certain that the village, directly in the line of advance, had not been occupied by the German machine guns during the night.

So far, though I had been witnessing a battle of obviously tremendous magnitude, I had not seen the enemy. From our position slightly in the rear of the German flank, it was comparatively easy to trace our own line through the glasses, but the general line of the Russians was hard to determine, being indicated only by occasional flashes of gunfire.

With the start of the Russian attempt on the German center, however, the entire scene changed. Yesterday, for the first time since the start of the battle on Sunday, the Russians attempted to carry the German center position by a storm.

All Sunday and Monday the opposing artillery had been hammering away at t he opposing trenches. The marksmanship of the Russian artillery had been bad, but I was told that a Russian aeroplane had made a reconnaissance of the German position shortly after dawn yesterday.

I saw no machines in flight. Twice under cover of their field artillery the Russian infantry advanced in force yesterday. Twice they were forced back to their defensive positions Now they were to try again.

The preliminaries were well under way, without my appreciating their significance until one of my officer escorts explained.

At a number of points along their line, observable by us, but screened from the observation of the German trenches in the center, the Russian infantry came tumbling out and, rushing forward, took up advanced positions awaiting the formation of the new and irregular battle line.

Dozens of light rapid firers were dragged along by hand. Other troops -- the reserves -- took up semi-advanced positions. All the while the Russian shrapnel was raining over the German trenches.

Every move of the enemy was obviously being communicated to the German center. The German reserve column moved in closer. The rifle fire from the German trenches practically ceased.

The German officers moved along in the open behind the trenches encouraging and steadying their men, preparing them for the shock. Finally came the Russian order to advance.

At the word hundreds of yards of the Russian fighting line leaped forward, deployed in open order and came on. One, two, three, and in some places four and five successive skirmish lines, separated by intervals of from 20 to 50 yards, swept forward....

From the outset of the advance, the German artillery, ignoring for the moment the Russian artillery action, began shelling the onrushing mass with wonderfully timed shrapnel, which burst low above the advancing lines and tore sickening gaps.

But the Russian line never stopped. For the third time in two days they came tearing on, with no indication of having been affected by the terrible consequences of the two previous charges.

As a spectacle the whole thing was maddening. I found my heart thumping like a hammer, and with no weapon more formidable than a pair of binoculars, I was mentally fighting as hard as the men with the guns.

For the first time I sensed the intoxication of battle and learned the secret of the smiles on the faces of the battlefield's dead.

On came the Slav swarm -- into the range of the German trenches, with wild yells and never a waver. Russian battle flags -- the first I had seen -- appeared in the front of the charging ranks.

The advance line thinned and the second line moved up. Nearer and nearer they swept toward the German positions.

And then came a new sight! A few seconds later came a new sound. First I saw a sudden, almost grotesque, melting of the advancing lines. It was different from anything that had taken place before.

The men literally went down like dominoes in a row. Those who kept their feet were hurled back as through by a terrible gust of wind. Almost in the second that I pondered, puzzled, the staccato rattle of machine guns reached us. My ear answered the query of my eye.

For the first time the advancing lines hesitated, apparently bewildered. Mounted officers dashed along the line urging the men forward.

Horses fell with the men. I saw a dozen riderless horses dashing madly through the lines, adding a new terror. Another horse was obviously running away with his officer rider.

The crucial period for the section of the charge on which I had riveted my attention probably lasted less than a minute. To my throbbing brain it seemed an hour.

Then, with the withering fire raking them, even as they faltered, the lines broke. Panic ensued. It was every man for himself. The entire Russian charge turned and went tearing back to cover and the shelter of the Russian trenches.

I swept the entire line of the Russian advance with my glasses -- as far as it was visible from our position. The whole advance of the enemy was in retreat, making for its intrenched position.

After the assault had failed and the battle had resumed its normal trend, I swept the field with my glasses. The dead were everywhere. They were not piled up, but were strewn over acres.

More horrible than the sight of the dead, though, were the other pictures brought up by the glasses. Squirming, tossing, writhing figures everywhere! The wounded!

All who could stumble or crawl were working their way back toward their own lines or back to the friendly cover of hills or wooded spots.

But there appeared to be hundreds to whom was denied even this hope, hundreds doomed to lie there in the open, with wounds unwashed and undressed, suffering from thirst and hunger until the merciful shadows of darkness made possible their rescue -- by the Good Samaritans of the hospital corps, who are tonight gleaning that field of death for the third time since Sunday.

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/wirballen.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 17:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Zeppelin Airships

LZ-25 was used for reconnaissance missions and bombing in northern France. She was destroyed by English bomber in her hall in Düsseldorf on 8 October 1914. She was the last zeppelin built before the outbreak of the Great War.

http://www.pugetairship.org/zeppelins/list_1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 17:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

St. Omer

The town was behind the British Front Line during the war. It was used as a base for Allied flying services. The Royal Flying Corps set up a headquarters at the airfield on 8th October 1914 and from that time it grew into an important base for air operations throughout the war.

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/french-flanders-artois/french-flanders-artois-index.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'A Zeppelin raid, 8 October 1915'

Schilderij... http://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/displayRepro.cfm?reproID=BHC0660&picture=1#content
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 17:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Loos

The fighting subsided on 28 September with the British having retreated to their starting positions. The British attacks had cost over 20,000 casualties, including three divisional commanders; George Thesiger, Thompson Capper and Frederick Wing. Following the initial attacks by the British, the Germans made steady attempts to recapture the Hohenzollern Redoubt. This was accomplished on 3 October. On 8 October the Germans attempted to recapture much of the lost ground by launching a major offensive along the entire line, but abandoned the effort by nightfall due to heavy losses.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Loos
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 17:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

8 October 1915 - The first severe autumn storm lashed the Gallipoli peninsula from the south-west. Considerable damage was done at Anzac Cove, particularly to the water supply.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/september-october-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 17:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

October 1915 - February 1916: The House-Grey Memorandum
From Colonel Edward House's Diary

October 8, 1915: I outlined very briefly a plan which has occurred to me and which seems of much value. I thought we had lost our opportunity to break with Germany, and it looked as if she had a better chance than ever of winning and if she did win our turn would come next; and we were not only unprepared, but there would be no one to help us stand the first shock. Therefore, we should do something decisive now -- something that would either end the war in a way to abolish militarism or that would bring us in with the Allies to help them do it. My suggestion is to ask the Allies unofficially, to let me know whether or not it would be agreeable to them to have us demand that hostilities cease. We would put it upon the high ground that the neutral world was suffering along with the belligerents and that we had rights as well as they, and that peace parleys should begin upon the broad basis of both military and naval disarmament. . . -

If the Allies understood our purpose, we could be as severe in our language concerning them as we were with the Central Powers. The Allies, after some hesitation, could accept our offer or demand and the Central Powers accepted, we would then have accomplished a master-stroke of diplomacy. If the Central Powers refused to acquiesce, we could then push our insistence to a point where diplomatic relations would first be broken off, and later the whole force of our Government -- and perhaps the force of every neutral -- might be brought against them.

The President was startled by this plan. He seemed to acquiesce by silence. I had not time to push it further, for our entire conversation did not last longer than twenty minutes.

http://www.gwpda.org/1916/housgrey.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 18:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Military Intelligence Office
Cairo

[Undated, c. October 1915]

Another letter as there is nothing at all doing, and no hope of
it.... It's getting hot again: we had a week's cool weather about 92°-95°. Today it's up to 105° again. However it affects one very little. I haven't finished any of my maps - except the Gallipoli one, and that I cannot boast about very much. The machines ran for 56 hours doing it, and they have to have electric fans all round the motor to keep it cool!

We are sending Dowson, head of the Survey Department up to
Gallipoli to see the staff, and try and settle some of our differences. I don't think it is very interesting up there.

Did I tell you the wooden bridge at Jerablus had been washed out? The stone and iron has been damaged also. Good business:- I haven't anything else to say. Only there is a post going, that's all.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1915/151000_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 18:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Ancre Heights Regina Trench 8 October 1916

Kaart... http://www.cefresearch.com/matrix/Nicholson/Sketches/sketch33.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 18:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Cleland Richardson

James (Jimmy) Cleland Richardson VC (25 November 1895, Bellshill, Scotland – 8 or 9 October 1916) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 20 years old, born in Scotland and a resident of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and then Chilliwack, BC. He was a Piper in the 72nd Seaforth Highlanders of Canada and he proceeded overseas as part of the large Seaforth contingent of the 16th (Canadian Scottish) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force, during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

Richardson's Bagpipes
Richardson's bagpipes were believed to have been lost in the mud of the Somme for almost 90 years until 2002, when the Pipe Major of The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's) responded to an Internet posting. He discovered that an elementary school in Scotland had possession of a set of bagpipes with the unique Lennox tartan on them, the same tartan used by the pipers of the 16th (Canadian Scottish) Battalion. A British Army Chaplain, Major Edward Yeld Bate, had found the pipes in 1917 and brought them back home after the war to a school in Scotland where he was a teacher. The pipes were unidentified for several decades, and served as a broken, mud-caked, and blood-stained reminder of an unknown piper from the Great War.

Andrew Winstanley of The Canadian Club and Pipe Major Roger McGuire were largely responsible for the investigative work into identifying Richardson's pipes. With the support of The Canadian Club and a group of patriotic citizens, Pipe Major McGuire travelled to Scotland in January 2003 to help identify the pipes that had been displayed at Ardvreck School in Crieff, Perthshire, Scotland, for over seven decades. Tomas Christie, a parent of students there and also a piper, initiated the search for the origin of the pipes.

Their collective effort led to conclusive evidence that identified the pipes as those played by Piper Richardson on that fateful day in 1916. An anonymous donor facilitated the purchase of the pipes on behalf of the citizens of Canada. In October 2006, a party of dignitaries visited Scotland and received the pipes from the Headmaster of Ardvreck School for repatriation to Canada.

On 8 November, 2006, the bagpipes were officially repatriated when troops from The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's) placed them at the British Columbia Legislature as a reminder of a generation's valour. They are currently on public display.

During the Battle of the Ancre Heights on 8 October 1916 at Regina Trench, Somme, France, the company was held up by very strong wire and came under intense fire. Piper Richardson, who had obtained permission to play the company 'over the top' strode up and down outside the wire playing his pipes, which so inspired the company that the wire was rushed and the position captured. Later the piper was detailed to take back a wounded comrade and some prisoners, but after proceeding some distance he insisted on turning back to recover his pipes which he had left behind. He was never seen again.

He is also considered Scottish. Grave/memorial at Buried at Adanac Military Cemetery, France. 6m NE of Albert. Plot III. Row F. Grave 36. Headstone.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Cleland_Richardson
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 19:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LESLIE COULSON

Coulson enlisted in September 1914 in the London Regiment (Royal
Fusiliers). In December 1914, he was hospitalised in Malta with mumps
and wrote his first poem A Soldier in Hospital. In the autumn of 1915,
he went on to serve at Gallipoli (where he was slightly wounded) and in
Egypt. Coulson arrived in France in April 1916. He was on the Somme
in the summer of 1916; on 8 October he was shot in the chest during an
attack at Bray Citadel and died at a casualty clearing station.

Coulson had a background in journalism and was working as a Reuters
correspondent in London at the outbreak of war. Something of a militant
voice, his war poetry is heavy with nostalgia for the English countryside
he loved but could not reconcile with the horrors of life at the front.

"And this murder of old stone, and lichened thatches,
this shattering of little old churches and homesteads
brings the tragedy home to me more acutely. I think
to find an English village like this would almost
break my heart..."


Serjeant Leslie COULSON 7522, 2nd/2nd Battalion London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers)
attached 12th Bn London Regiment (The Rangers),
Died 8 October 1916, age 27; Grove Town Cemetery, Meaulte, France

Mooi PDF'je... http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/cwgc_poets2.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1: American Soldier's Letters Home

This blog is derived from letters home from Paul Hills during the first World War. They begin in April 1917, just after the United States declared war, when he joined a volunteer ambulance unit attached to the French army.

Letter dated October 8, 1917

Dear Mother -:

Things at last seem to be breaking in the right direction. I heard at last from my artillery examination and have been recommended for a 2nd lieutenancy in that branch of the service. As yet I have not actually received the commission but it is as sure as anything in that line ever is and all there is to do now is to wait for orders. The section, too is in the process of being taken over so it has all happened just about the right time. We will be here just a few more days and then when the men who have taken our places arrive , we will be set adrift. I rather hope I am not ordered to active service directly as I am quite fed up on the war in general and would like to go to Cannes for a little rest and quiet, Cousin Josephine having given me a standing invitation of the most attractive sort imaginable.

Since I wrote you last saying how wonderful the weather was it hasn’t stopped raining for a minute and we are living and working in a perfect sea of mud and have no chance to get dry or warm unless you go to bed which isn’t all that it might be as the tents are rather fragile and the only other accommodations are under ground.We have too, for the last few days been working rather hard so you can imagine our state, just walking, shivering cakes of mud.

I don’t quite understand the fall season here. It is colder than it is at home and as yet none of the trees have turned but are still green and fresh looking.

It certainly seems funny – everyone at home getting married or engaged and things. When I do get back there won’t be an unattached soul that I know. I feel it coming: I shall be the official Paul Clark of our crowd. (Paul Clark was, at the time, a still unmarried Auburn contemporary of the parents of Paul Hills. –Ed)

If you want to read a good book about the war and one which in my mind is the truest to the life of the French soldier get a thing called Le Feu (titled Under Fire in translation)
by Henri Barbusse. It is the book of the year here in France and one which everyone has read and talks about simply because of its wonderful reality.

I forgot in my last letter to put in the citation I told you about but I will put it in here for certain.

There isn’t a great deal more to tell you now so I will call a halt.

With love, Paul

http://wwar1letters.blogspot.com/2008/04/letter-dated-october-8-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Cambrai (1918)

The Battle of Cambrai was a battle between troops of the British First, Third and Fourth Armies and German Empire forces during the Hundred Days Offensive of World War I. The battle took place in and around the French city of Cambrai, between 8 October and 10 October 1918. The battle incorporated many of the newer tactics of 1918, in particular tanks, meaning that the attack was an overwhelming success with light casualties in an extremely short amount of time.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cambrai_(1918)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE

8 October 1918
- Lost Battalion survivors walk out.
- Sgt. York of 82nd Division wipes out nest of 35 machine guns and captures 132 German soldiers as part of relief operation.
- Pershing orders the French XVII Corps with American divisions to attack along the east bank of the Meuse.

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/bigshow.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WWI Letter from Harry [Truman] to Bess

Here Harry tells about night marches used to advance troops containing hundreds of thousands of American soldiers from Saint-Mihiel to the Meuse-Argonne to avoid German air attacks.

Somewhere in France, October 8, 1918

Dear Bess:

I wrote you yesterday [or the day before] kind of a dizzy letter and I am going to do the same thing today--trying, you see, to make up for lost time. There were some three or four weeks from September 10 to October 6 that I did nothing but march at night and shoot or sleep in daylight. I thought of you every day and had I been able to write or mail letters even after they were written, I would certainly have written.

I came through absolutely unscathed--didn't even lose a man in the Battery, although every other Battery had from one to a half-dozen fatalities. A couple of my men who were on special duty with the ammunition train were slightly wounded and that's all. The whole thing was a terrific experience and I'm glad I had it, but I'm also [glad] that it's over with. We are now resting up and I guess we'll go in again when our turn comes. It isn't as bad as I thought it would be but it's bad enough. The heroes are all in the infantry. When a man goes up with them he really does something. We are only their supporters and don't get much real action. The easiest and safest place for a man to get is in the air service. They fly around a couple of hours a day, sleep in a featherbed every night, eat hotcakes and maple syrup for breakfast, pie and roast beef for supper every day, spend their vacations in Paris or wherever else it suits their fancy, and draw 20 percent extra pay for doing it. Their death rate is about like the quartermaster and ordnance departments and on top of it all they are dubbed the heroes of the war. Don't believe it, the infantry--our infantry--are the heroes of the war. There's nothing--machine guns, artillery, rifles, bayonets, mines, or anything else--that can stop them when they start. If we could keep up with them, they'd go to the Rhine in one swoop. The Prussian Guards simply can't make their legs stand when the word comes to them that the Yanks are coming. They move on, what's left of 'em. . . .

Please keep on writing because it helps put the pep into me. I love you more and more and shall continue to pile it up at compound interest for future payment.

Yours always,

Harry

http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/personal/large/ww1_letters/pg5_txt.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Coulson Norman Mitchell

Coulson Norman Mitchell VC MC (11 December 1889 – 17 November 1978) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 28 years old, and a Captain in the 1st Tunnelling Company, 4th Canadian Engineers, Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 8/9 October 1918 at the Canal de L'Escaut, north-east of Cambrai, France, Captain Mitchell led a small party to examine the bridges and if possible prevent their demolition. He managed to cut a number of 'lead' wires on one bridge, then in total darkness he dashed across the main bridge which was heavily charged. While he and his NCO were cutting the wires the enemy attacked, whereupon the captain at once went to the assistance of his sentry who had been wounded, killing three of the enemy and capturing 12. Under heavy fire he then continued to cut the wires and remove charges.

Born in Winnipeg on Dec. 11, 1889, Mitchell was a graduate of the University of Manitoba in engineering. He enlisted in the Canadian Army in 1914 and went overseas with a railway construction unit. As an officer with the 1st Tunnelling Company of the 4th Cdn. Engineers he was awarded the Military Cross in 1917.

After the war, Mitchell returned to Winnipeg to practice civil engineering. Early in WW II, he was assigned to the Royal Cdn. Engineers (RCE), at Camp Borden, Ont. In 1940, he went overseas and was put in charge of replacement training. Transferred back to Canada in 1943, he was attached to National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa before joining the staff of the RCE Training Centre at Petawawa, Ont. In 1944, he took command of the Royal School of Military Engineering in Chilliwack, B.C.

He later achieved the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Grave/memorial at Buried at the Last Post Fund National Field of Honour Cemetery, Pointe Claire, Quebec, Canada. Section M. Grave 3051. Headstone.

The Canadian Military Engineers chose to honour Mitchell by naming the main building of the Canadian Forces School of Military Engineering at CFB Gagetown, New Brunswick after him. His Victoria Cross is on display at the museum there.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulson_Norman_Mitchell
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The "Big Show" October 8 1918 - Knoxville's Bloodiest Day

The One Man Gang: “The Big Show” the 117th Infantry Attack 7-10 October 1918

General Sir Henry Rawlinson was not a happy man.

The attack of 29 September across the St. Quentin Canal had worked but not as well as he had hoped.

Typical of Great War high commanders, he had over-promised and under-delivered. Scapegoats were needed and the Americans fit the bill. During the attack, the 27th Division had found itself confronted with uncut wire, strong German defensive positions and little tank support and had fallen about 1000 yards short of its objectives. Having never visited the front himself, Rawlinson nevertheless felt fully justified in berating American II Corps commander MG G.W. Read and 30th Division commander MG E.M. Lewis over their troops' lack of “tactical proficiency.” Now, in the opinion of this writer the idea that ANY British General of the Great War would have the gall to criticize ANYBODY'S tactical proficiency is just unbelievable.

In any event the Americans didn't kick back, they hunkered down and issued lengthy “Battle Instructions” detailing just how the units tasked with the “Big Show” now scheduled for October 7, would carry out their attacks. General Lewis put his boys from Tennessee and South Carolina in the vanguard. BG Tyson's 59th Brigade would jump off at “Zero Hour” set for 0510. For his part Tyson decided to send in the 117th Infantry on the left and the 118th on the right.

Logistical concerns forced Rawlinson to postpone his attack by 24 hours. Zero Hour was now 0510 on 8 October. However, once again, the Americans would have to capture their “start line.” In the case of 59th Brigade, this meant an assault on 7 October to advance about 500 yards east. The 3rd Battalion had only stumbled into line on the night of the 6th and the battalion commander came very close to insubordination in protesting thr orders but he was overruled and the attack went in. The Germans contested every inch of this preliminary attack by 3rd Battalion of the 117th. Col. Spence of the 117th noted several instances of personal valor in some notes he prepared for a project of the North Carolina State Archives this is but one:

“Sergeant Marshall B. Dudderar of Company K, who was directed by Capt. Binkley to take charge of his command when he was evacuated to the rear, had advanced about fifty yards. The increasing intensity of the enemy's machine gun fire was so great that Sergeant Dudderar was obliged to halt his platoon in the protection of a sunken road. Realizing the seriousness of the situation the Sergeant advanced alone some twenty-five yards to the right front in an effort to draw the machine gun fire, thus locating the machine gun nests which were causing the casualties among his men. He then led his men over the top and to the right where the men could advance with less conspicuousness. At this time Sergeant Dudderar was hit by a machine gun bullet and was severely wounded, but turning to Lieutenant Wyman, who had just advanced with another platoon, informed him of his injury stating that he had no intention of being evacuated. A few seconds later he was hit the second time. Although partially stunned, helpless and near death, he managed to call to Lieut. Wyman and tell him he was shot again and with his last breath said, 'Write and tell Mother..”

Sgt. Dudderar was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for gallantry, posthumously.

During a stint at the Infantry School (Fort Benning) Capt. Nathaniel Callen of the 3rd Battalion was blunt in his criticism of the attack plan:

“I am sorry to relate here, however, that the Colonel (Spence) still felt it would be a reflection on the regiment if we did not make the attack and still insisted that it must be done. I frankly state , without meaning to criticize any higher authority, that none of the higher command, (who) had never felt the weight of fire from a well-disposed enemy, could visualize how serious this situation was.”

The preliminary attack succeeded, though, and now 2nd Battalion moved up to jump off at the next morning. The 1st Battalion would follow and 3rd after them.

The attack of 8 October went “over the top” on schedule at 0510. The British barrage made a great deal of noise but didn't do much to the German barbed wire. Fortunately, the ground was still in reasonable shape as the Germans had not had time to heavily fortify it. However, there was still nothing easy about it.

Sam Royall of the 118th Infantry recalled, “During the attack, the enemy had been using artillery and machine guns with telling effect. The artillery supporting us had fiollowed the advance with great rapidity but, on account of faulty liaison, it was not always possible to use the guns as the exact position of the infantry was not always known.”

Capt. Reese Amis wrote, “In the face of furious resistance with all kinds of machine gun nests and an abundance of light artillery, the battalions advanced very rapidly, skillfully knocking out machine guns and maneuvering to the best advantage over the broken ground. The Second Battalion suffered heavy losses during the morning.”

The objective was the village of Premont about 5000 yards for the start line. The 2nd Battalion was in Premont by noon and the 117th dug in and consolidated its positions.

Night brought little rest as another attack was scheduled for the next morning to take the town of Busigny which was about 4000 yards further on. Col. Spence decided that since the German main line was now in American hands to attack in the order the battalions had ended the day with 2nd in front, 1st behind them and 3rd in reserve. However, the phone line to the 2nd Battalion failed and Spence decided to put 1st Battalion in the van. This sounds a lot simpler than it was. Indeed, this whole little switch was the subject of an essay in the Army's “Infantry In Battle” which became the “bible” of infantry operations for World War II.

German resistance was crumbling all along the British 4th Army front and American casualties for the last two days of the “Big Show” were mercifully light. However, the 117th Infantry paid a high price for its victory. Regimental records listed 34 officers and 1051 enlisted men killed wounded and missing during this attack.

Twenty-seven of Knoxville's sons fell during this one assault. The 8th of October 1918 is easily the bloodiest day of battle in the history of Knoxville and Knox County. In addition to those heroes four other Knoxvillians serving with other units died. One man died while onboard ship on his way to France and the other three fell in the tangled forests of the Meuse-Argonne.

A few of the markers at the National Cemetery in Knoxville stand out as, with special dispensations, some soldiers do have more personalized markers than others. Corporal Ralph Boles' (Headquarters Company, 117th Infantry, KIA 8 October 1918) marker is one of these. On it there is a sentiment that would seem to express all that these young men of the Great War and all our wars before and since, those who came back and those who did not, try to say to us through the mists of time:

“Tell them I did my bit.”

http://spsboard.com/SPS/index.php?topic=4042.0;wap2
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Lieutenant Ralph Talbot, USMCR, (1897-1918)

Ralph Talbot was born on 6 January 1897 in South Weymouth, Massaschusetts. He attended Yale University and the Dupont Aviation School (located at Wilmington, Delaware) before joining the U.S. Navy in November 1917. After ground school training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts and flight training at Key West, Florida, he was commissioned as a Navy Ensign in April 1918. A month later, he was transferred to the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve Flying Corps as a Second Lieutenant. Talbot served with Squadron C, First Marine Corps Aviation Force in France during the summer and early autumn of 1918. On 8 October, while on an air raid with his observer, Gunnery Sergeant Robert G. Robinson, USMC, they shot down one of the nine enemy scouts that attacked their bombing group. On 14 October 1918 over Pittham, Belgium, their plane, along with another, became separated from their formation and were attacked by 12 enemy scouts. During the ensuing fight, Robinson was severely injured by enemy fire and collapsed. With his observer unconscious and his motor failing, Talbot shot down another enemy plane. He then flew to the nearest hospital to leave Robinson for treatment. Second Lieutenant Ralph Talbot was killed in a test flight on 25 October. For his "exceptionally meritorious service and extraordinary heroism" in the aerial battles of 8 and 14 October 1918, he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. Robert Talbot was initially interred in France, but his remains were later brought home and are now buried in Mount Wollaston Cemetery, Quincy, Massachusetts.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-t/r-talbot.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Medal of Honor Recipients Portrayed On Film: CHARLES WHITE WHITTLESEY (1884-1921), GEORGE G. McMURTRY (1876-1958), NELSON MILES HOLDERMAN (1885-1953)

Texts of Citations:

WHITTLESEY, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division. Place and date: Northeast of Binarville, in the forest of Argonne France, 2-7 October 1918. Entered service at: Pittsfield, Mass. Birth. Florence, Wis. G.O. No.: 118, W.D., 1918. Citation: Although cut off for 5 days from the remainder of his division, Maj. Whittlesey maintained his position, which he had reached under orders received for an advance, and held his command, consisting originally of 46 officers and men of the 308th Infantry and of Company K of the 307th Infantry, together in the face of superior numbers of the enemy during the 5 days. Maj. Whittlesey and his command were thus cut off, and no rations or other supplies reached him, in spite of determined efforts which were made by his division. On the 4th day Maj. Whittlesey received from the enemy a written proposition to surrender, which he treated with contempt, although he was at the time out of rations and had suffered a loss of about 50 percent in killed and wounded of his command and was surrounded by the enemy.

McMURTRY, GEORGE G.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division.Place and date: At Charlevaux, in the forest of Argonne, France, 2-8 October 1918. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 6 November 1876, Pittsburgh, Pa. G.O. No.: 118, W.D., 1918. Citation: Commanded a battalion which was cut off and surrounded by the enemy and although wounded in the knee by shrapnel on 4 October and suffering great pain, he continued throughout the entire period to encourage his officers and men with a resistless optimism that contributed largely toward preventing panic and disorder among the troops, who were without food, cut off from communication with our lines. On 4 October during a heavy barrage, he personally directed and supervised the moving of the wounded to shelter before himself seeking shelter. On 6 October he was again wounded in the shoulder by a German grenade, but continued personally to organize and direct the defense against the German attack on the position until the attack was defeated. He continued to direct and command his troops, refusing relief, and personally led his men out of the position after assistance arrived before permitting himself to be taken to the hospital on 8 October. During this period the successful defense of the position was due largely to his efforts.

HOLDERMAN, NELSON M.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 307th Infantry, 77th Division. Place and date: Northeast of Binarville, in the forest of Argonne, France, 2-8 October 1918. Entered service at: Santa Ana, Calif. Birth: Trumbell, Nebr. G.O. No.: 11, W.D., 1921. Citation: Capt. Holderman commanded a company of a battalion which was cut off and surrounded by the enemy. He was wounded on 4, 5, and 7 October, but throughout the entire period, suffering great pain and subjected to fire of every character, he continued personally to lead and encourage the officers and men under his command with unflinching courage and with distinguished success. On 6 October, in a wounded condition, he rushed through enemy machinegun and shell fire and carried 2 wounded men to a place of safety.

http://prweb0.voicenet.com/~lpadilla/lostbn.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Chronicle of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Dayton, Ohio

(...) It was now necessary to takes steps beyond just warning and educating the public. Dr. Peters began to put some restrictions in place in Dayton. On October 8, 1918, he issued orders closing the schools, theaters and churches. The following day, he ordered the closing of all saloons, soda fountains, and poolrooms. (The fact that the churches were closed before the saloons was cause for many heated discussions in temperance circles.) He closed these establishments, along with anyplace people tended to gather, until further notice. The order applied "to all places where non-essential activities [were] carried on, and where a considerable number of persons [was] congregating." The main objective of these closings was to safeguard the workforce involved in producing items for the war effort. It was crucial to keep a healthy workforce to support the needs of our fighting troops. (...)

http://www.daytonhistorybooks.com/page/page/2753646.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919 - U.S.A. - Air Race

8th October, 1919: The first transcontinental air race in the United States begins, with 63 planes competing between California and New York .

http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/october8th.html
Zie ook http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1984/may-jun/leary.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Woensdag 8 October 1919.

Valkenswaard. Valkenvangst. De sedert het uitbreken van den oorlog gestaakte valkenvangst, wordt thans weer beoefend. De heer A. Mollen Jr. wist door middel zijner klapekstertjes twee prachtexemplaren, een jonge en een oude naar beneden te halen en onder zijne netten te trekken. De valkenvangst wordt sinds menschenheugenis door de familie Mollen uitgeoefend.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19192.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2/8th Battalion The Manchester Regiment (TF)

Formed at Ardwick, Manchester during September 1914. November 1914 to 199 Brigade, 66 Division. Trained at Southport until May 1915, then to Crowborough, Cuckfield and Peaspottage in Sussex. March 1916 to Colchester. March 1917 to France and active service on the Western Front. Commanding Officer Lieut Colonel K R Balfour and the Adjutant Captain G McDougall.

April and May were spent alternating between the front line in the Cambrin Right Sector and Brigade Reserve at Noyelles - 4 days on and 4 days off. June began in much the same way. 2nd Lieutenant Bowker of A Company wounded on 9 June; 2nd Lieutenant J P Bruce wounded on 18 June and 2nd Lieutenant Irlam killed on 20 June.

21 June to Bevry and on in motor transport to La Pugnoy where they were billeted. Left La Pugney and entrained at Choques, then marched to St Pol. Most of July spent as working parties moving shells. On night of 30/31 July the battalion took over the Right Sub-Sector at Nieuportbains.

The first two days of October were spent training in the Renescure area. On 3 October marched to Arques and then by train to Brandhoei where they spent the night in huts at Erie Camp. The next evening marched off at 7.30pm for Ypres south and accommodated in ruined houses in Vlamertingue. The following day, after a difficult march in stormy conditions, relieved the 37th and 38th Regiments Australian Infantry in support sector. 7 October relieved the right front battalion of 49th Division. No continuous trench system. Front line troops had to occupy shell holes without any overhead cover.

8 October Considerable shelling particularly around battalion HQ. 9 October assaulting battalions moved up to assembly area in early morning. Battalion had to cover a front of 800 yards. 82 casualties. Battalion relieved late evening of 10 October by 41st Regiment Australian Infantry.

11 October spent in resting at Eric Camp, Brandhoek. A further 33 casualties that day due to extensive enemy shelling of the battalion area.

April 1918 reduced to training cadre. 31st July 1918 disbanded in France. Drafts sent to 2/5th, 2/6th and 2/7th Battalions.

The War Diary of the 2/8th Battalion beginning April 1917 is held in the Archive Collection as are documents relating to individuals

Museum of the Manchester Regiment, http://www.tameside.gov.uk/museumsgalleries/mom/history/territorial1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Spanish Lady and the Newfoundland RegimentW. David Parsons, MD, C.M., FRCP (C)

(...) The Canadian Army had the same experience. Of the 1,057 officers and men on the "City of Cairo" that left Quebec on September 28, 32 died at sea and 224 were hospitalized on arrival in Devonport.#46 It was even worse for the American Army. A convoy arriving at Brest on October 8 with 24,000 men, had 4,000 with the flu and 200 died at sea. In the next few days, over 200 of those hospitalized from the "Leviathan" died.#47

One aspect of the Flu Epidemic in the Regiment, was the men it attacked. Most were young healthy new recruits, barely out of civilian clothes. Those in Newfoundland had regimental numbers over 5,000, meaning they had enlisted after May, 1918. Those in France, were mainly number 3,000 and up, having enlisted after May and June 1917 and arrived in France late in 1917 or early in 1918. I can only find two Veterans of the trenches and battles of 1916 and the first half of 1917 who contracted and died of the flu. Sgt.Joy, M.M.and bar, number 502, returned to St.John's in May, 1918 for Special Duty.

46 History of the Canadian Forces. op.cit. p.272.
47 Crosby, A.W. op.cit. p.124


http://www.vlib.us/medical/parsons.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

October 8, 1919: German Recall from Latvia

Although the Allied Powers had permitted German forces in the Baltic states to continue operations against the Bolsheviks after the Armistice, the Allies ordered the German government to evacuate the German forces in Latvia under General von der Goltz on October 8th. The Germans had succeeded in driving out most of the Red Army from Latvia and had turned on the Latvians by attacking Riga.

http://www.indiana.edu/~league/1919.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Officieele opening van het Provinciaal Stoomgemaal
Bron: Nieuwsblad van Friesland, 8 oktober 1920

Eén druk van H.M. op den electrischen knop, de bel rinkelde - en de gereed staande monteurs brachten tegelijk de vier machtige stoommachines in werking. De geweldige vliegwielen begonnen hun prachtigen, gelijkmatigen, haast geruischloozen gang en de pompen zogen de watermassa's omhoog; met geleidelijk grooter wordende snelheid stroomde het water toe en aan de andere zijde gaf de krachtige beroering in de golven eenig denkbeeld van het geweldige der watermassa's, die in zee werden gestort. Menig zoetwatervischje moest zijn toevallige aanwezigheid voor de zuigbuizen bekoopen met een onvrijwilligen tocht naar de zoute zee.

http://www.frieslandzoalshetwas.nl/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2010 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Polish–Lithuanian War

(...) On October 8, 1920, Polish general Lucjan Żeligowski staged a mutiny among Polish troops and marched on Vilnius to "defend the right of self-determination of local Poles." The mutiny was planned and authorized by Polish chief of state Józef Piłsudski. Żeligowski's forces captured Vilnius, but further advances were stopped by the Lithuanian troops. (...)

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Lithuanian-Polish_War
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Okt 2018 13:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Herdenkingspaneel voor Edmond Van de Woestijne

Gedenkplaat met tekst "Aan Edmond Van De Woestijne, door de Duitschers voor de kop geschoten den 8 oktober 1918." Edmond Van De Woestijne, actief lid van het verzet, werd op 8 oktober 1918 in Gent gefusilleerd.

Foto's op https://meetjes.land/poi/473/herdenkingspaneel-voor-edmond-van-de-woestijne-eeklo
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Okt 2018 13:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8. Oktober 1918: Wil­son for­dert Rückzug der deutschen Truppen

Dienstag, 8. Oktober 1918: Die Antwort des US-amerikanischen Präsidenten Woodrow Wilson auf das deutsche Friedensangebot fällt zurückhaltend aus. Als unerlässliche Vorbedingung für einen Waffenstillstand fordert Wilson die Anerkennung seines 14-Punkte-Programms vom 8. Januar 1918 durch Deutschland sowie den sofortigen Rückzug der deutschen Truppen aus allen besetzten Gebieten. Des Weiteren stellt der amerikanische Präsident klar, dass es ohne eine Demokratisierung und Parlamentarisierung Deutschlands keinen Waffenstillstand geben könne.

https://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2018/kw41-revolutionskalender-6-081018/569828
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Okt 2018 18:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 oktober 1917 - het front bij Moorslede

Op 8 oktober 1917 werd er hard gevochten om de heuvel van Droogenbroodhoek bij Moorslede. De Duitsers konden de Britten afslaan maar aan beide kanten kenden de legers heel wat verliezen.

De komende weken lag het front vlakbij Moorslede. De gemeente en haar omgeving werden volledig in puin geschoten en door het slechte weer werd het landschap een moeras vol granaattrechters.

Op de foto zie je de kerk en het marktplein van het compleet verwoeste Moorslede in oktober 1917.

http://veertienachttien.be/en/node/4575
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Okt 2018 19:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Opfertage - 4. bis 8. Oktober 1916 | K. u. K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei

Omschrijving: "Aus Anlaß des Allerhöchsten Namensfestes Sr. Majestät" - Spendenaufruf - "Gedenket während der Opfertage der Kriegsinvaliden, der tuberkulosen Krieger und der Militär-Witwen und Waisen"

Poster... https://www.europeana.eu/portal/nl/record/9200290/bildarchivaustria_at_Preview_14293475.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Okt 2018 19:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Siegburger Kreisblatt vom 8. Oktober 1916

Zeichnung der Troisdorfer Mannstaedtwerke zur fünften Kriegsanleihe.

Troisdorf, 5. Okt. Die Werkange-
hörigen der Mannstedtwerke haben zur
5. Kriegsanleihe 288.680 Mark gezeichnet.

https://archivewk1.hypotheses.org/30146
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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