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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Sep 2006 5:57    Onderwerp: 20 september Reageer met quote

1918 : U.S. officer George S. Patton writes home after Saint-Mihiel offensive

On September 20, 1918, 32-year-old Colonel George S. Patton of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) writes to his father from the Western Front in France, recounting his experiences during the American-led offensive against the Germans at Saint-Mihiel earlier that month.


Patton had previously served in Mexico in 1916 under General John J. Pershing during the U.S. army’s pursuit of Mexican rebel Pancho Villa. The following year, after the U.S. declared war on Germany, the young officer traveled to France as Pershing’s aide. At Saint-Mihiel, Patton was put in command of the light-tank brigade. The attack marked the AEF’s first major offensive operation as an independent army during World War I, as well as the first time the U.S. had used tanks in battle.


"Dear Papa," Patton began his letter, "we have all been in one fine fight and it was not half so exciting as I had hoped, not as exciting as affairs in Mexico, because there was so much company. When the shelling first started I had some doubts about the advisability of sticking my head over the parapet, but it is just like taking a cold bath, once you get in, it is all right." In the rest of the letter, Patton chronicles his experience in battle alongside a brigade commanded by General Douglas MacArthur (later the commander of all Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II) and his movement on foot across the battlefield, evading German shells and surveying the damage inflicted by the battle. As Patton finally concluded, "This is a very egotistical letter but intersting [sic] as it shows that vanity is stronger than fear and that in war as now waged there is little of the element of fear, it is too well organized and too stupendous."


Later wounded in the leg by a German machine-gun bullet, Patton was evacuated to a military hospital, where he enjoyed a full recovery. He returned home safe from France, receiving a Distinguished Service Cross and the Purple Heart for his service in World War I. Two decades later, as a general, Patton would play a leading role in World War II, becoming one of the most famous and controversial military figures in U.S. history.


www.history.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Sep 2006 5:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 20. September 1916

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:

Die Rumänen über den Szurduk-Paß zurückgeworfen
Zähester feindlicher Widerstand in der Dobrudscha


Großes Hauptquartier, 20. September.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Auf dem Schlachtfelde an der Somme keine Ereignisse von besonderer Bedeutung. Einzelne feindliche Vorstöße wurden abgewiesen. Wir hatten bei Flers im Handgranatenkampf Erfolge. Nachträglich ist gemeldet, daß am 18. September abends ein französischer Angriff aus Clery heraus abgeschlagen wurde.
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz:
Am Westhange des "Toten Mannes" wurden die Franzosen aus einem kleinen von ihnen noch gehaltenen Grabenstück geworfen. 98 Gefangene und 8 Maschinengewehre fielen dabei in unsere Hand. Unsere Patrouillen haben in der Nacht zum 19. September in der Champagne bei erfolgreichen Unternehmungen 46 Franzosen und Russen, heute nacht südlich des Rhein-Rhone-Kanals eine Anzahl Franzosen gefangengenommen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Westlich von Luck, gegenüber den Truppen des Generals v. d. Marwitz, kam die Wiederaufnahme der feindlichen Angriffe am Tage nur teilweise zur Durchführung, während an den meisten Stellen die russische Infanterie auch durch das auf sie gerichtete Feuer der russischen Artillerie nicht zum Verlassen ihrer Gräben zu bewegen war. Erst abends und nachts brachen Angriffe in starken Wellen vor und sind wiederum unter größten Verlusten gescheitert. Vorübergehend bei Szelwow eingebrochener Gegner ist restlos zurückgeworfen.
Front des Generals der Kavallerie Erzherzogs Carl:
An der Narajowka ging der für uns günstige Kampf weiter. Starke feindliche Angriffe wurden abgeschlagen. In den bereits verschneiten Karpathen dauern die russischen Angriffe an. Der Feind hat einzelne Teilerfolge erreicht.
Kriegsschauplatz in Siebenbürgen:
Die Rumänen sind über den Szurdukpaß zurückgeworfen.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
In der Dobrudscha spielten sich heftige wechselvolle Kämpfe ab. Mit eiligst herangeführten Verstärkungen leistet der Feind in seiner Stellung den zähesten Widerstand.
Mazedonische Front:
Bei Florina und am Kaimaktschalan wurden feindliche Angriffe, zum Teil nach Nahkampf, zurückgeschlagen; westlich von Florina wichen Vortruppen dem Stoß aus. Östlich der Stadt wurde der Gegner mit Erfolg überraschend angegriffen. Südlich der Belasitza Planina haben die Bulgaren am 17. September die Italiener aus den Dörfern Matnika und Poroj geworfen und 5 Offiziere, 250 Mann gefangengenommen.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff.1)





Wiederholter Angriff deutscher Flugzeuge an der flandrischen Küste
Berlin, 20. September.
Deutsche Seeflugzeuge griffen am 19. September nachmittags wiederum die vor der flandrischen Küste stehenden feindlichen Streitkräfte mit Bomben an und erzielten auf einem Zerstörer einwandfrei mehrere Treffer.

Der Chef des Admiralstabs der Marine. 1)





Talenge beim Szurdukpaß an der siebenbürgisch-rumänischen Grenze

Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Petroseny den Rumänen entrissen
Wien, 20. September.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front gegen Rumänien:
Die Rumänen wurden südöstlich von Hatszeg (Hötzing) vollständig vertrieben; Petroseny und der Szurdukpaß sind wieder in unserem Besitz.
Heeresfront des Generals der Kavallerie Erzherzogs Carl:
In den Karpathen setzt der Gegner seine Angriffe mit größter Zähigkeit fort. Südlich des Gestütes Luczina und südlich von Bystrzec errang er örtliche Vorteile; sonst schlugen wir ihn überall zurück. Südlich von Lipnica Dolna versucht der Feind vergeblich dem Fortschreiten des deutschen Gegenangriffs durch Massenstöße entgegenzuarbeiten.
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Bei der Armee des Generalobersten v. Tersztyansky wurden tagsüber russische Angriffsversuche im Keime erstickt; abends trieb der Feind zwischen Pustomicy und Szelwow tiefgegliederte Massen gegen die deutschen und österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen des Generals von der Marwitz vor; sie wurden überall geworfen. Heute früh erneuerten die Russen ihre Anstürme. Es gelang ihnen, bei Szelwow an einzelnen Stellen in unsere Gräben einzudringen, rasch einsetzende Gegenangriffe zwangen den Feind aber wieder zum Weichen.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Das italienische Geschützfeuer gegen die Karsthochfläche war zeitweise wieder sehr lebhaft. Angriffsversuche der feindlichen Infanterie kamen dank unserer Artilleriewirkung nicht zur Entwicklung. Wie nun feststeht, hatten die Verteidiger der Hochfläche in den viertägigen schweren Kämpfen 20 Infanteriebrigaden, 1 Kavalleriedivision und etwa 15 Bersaglieribataillone gegenüber. Im Suganaabschnitt griffen die Italiener unsere Stellungen auf dem Civaron und am Masobach an. Sie wurden nach heftigem bis Mitternacht währendem Kampfe unter großen Verlusten vollständig zurückgeworfen.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Sofia, 20. September.
Mazedonische Front:
Die Kämpfe um Lerin (Florina) entwickeln sich zu unserem Vorteil. Durch starke Gegenangriffe, an denen unsere Kavallerie teilnahm, warfen wir den Feind zurück und fügten ihm große Verluste zu. Die Ebene ist mit Leichen des Feindes bedeckt. Wir nahmen 1 Offizier und 11 Reiter von einer russischen Brigade sowie 100 Mann vom 175. französischen Regiment gefangen und erbeuteten 2 Maschinengewehre. Heftige Angriffe des Feindes gegen die Höhe bei Kaimaktschalan scheiterten unter großen Verlusten für ihn. Im Moglenitzatale ist die Lage unverändert. Artilleriefeuer von beiden Seiten und schwache Infanteriegefechte. Östlich und westlich des Vardar Artilleriefeuer. Am Fuße der Belasitza Ruhe. An der Strumafront schwache Artillerietätigkeit.
Rumänische Front:
An der Donau beschoß unsere Artillerie mit Erfolg den Bahnhof. von Turn Severin. Die Schlacht an der Linie Kokardscha-Tusla dauerte gestern mit der größten Erbitterung von beiden Seiten fort. Der Feind hielt sich in seiner stark befestigten Stellung.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_09_20.htm
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Sep 2006 5:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 20. September

1914
Beschießung von Reims
Die Kämpfe in Frankreich
Rabaul in Deutsch-Neu-Guinea besetzt

1915
Deutsche Offensive gegen Serbien
Die Festung Belgrad unter Feuer

1916
Die Rumänen über den Szurduk-Paß zurückgeworfen
Zähester feindlicher Widerstand in der Dobrudscha
Angriff deutscher Flugzeuge an der flandrischen Küste
Petroseny den Rumänen entrissen

1917
Neue englische Angriffe auf breiter Front
Fortdauer der dritten Schlacht in Flandern

1918
Feindliche Angriffe zwischen Omignon-Bach und Somme
Einstellung der Fernbeschießung von Metz
Deutschlands Antwort auf die Wiener Note
Beginn der englischen Palästina-Offensive


http://www.stahlgewitter.com/#chronik
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Sep 2006 6:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
None for 20 September




Births
1 1890 Hans Hoyer
2 1892 Otto Könnecke
3 1894 Charles Pickthorne
4 1895 Joseph Wehner




Deaths
1 1959 Mario Stoppani




Claims
1 1916 Kurt Nachod #3
2 1917 Raymond Brownell #2
3 1917 Rudolf Szepessy-Sokoll #2
4 1917 Edward Booth #1
5 1917 Arthur Brown #4
6 1917 John Crompton #2
7 1917 Lumsden Cummings #1
8 1917 John Manuel #3
9 1917 Emerson Smith #5
10 1917 Frank Soden #4
11 1917 Peter Carpenter #1
12 1917 Edward Clarke #4
13 1917 Philip De Fontenay #1
14 1917 William Jenkins #6
15 1917 Alwyne Loyd #5 #6
16 1917 Henry Moody #3
17 1917 James Payne #3
18 1917 Frederick Sowrey #9
19 1917 Ronald Sykes #1
20 1917 William Wright #7
21 1917 Hans von Adam #18 #19
22 1917 Friedrich Altemeier #7
23 1917 Paul Bäumer #5
24 1917 Rudolf Berthold #21
25 1917 Fritz Kosmahl #9
26 1917 Bruno Loerzer #8
27 1917 Franz Ray #4
28 1917 Richard Runge #4
29 1917 Joseph Veltjens u/c
30 1917 Rudolf Wendelmuth #8
31 1917 Kurt Wüsthoff #17 #18
32 1917 Gerald Maxwell #16
33 1917 Arthur Jones-Williams #7
34 1918 Walter Grant #4
35 1918 Edgar Johnston #15
36 1918 Henry Clappison #1
37 1918 Kenneth Conn #14 #15
38 1918 William Craig #6 #7
39 1918 Carl Falkenberg #13 #14
40 1918 Wilfrid May #12
41 1918 Nicholson Boulton #3
42 1918 John Breakey #6
43 1918 Leslie Hollinghurst #7
44 1918 Malcolm McCall #2 #3
45 1918 Thomas Middleton #26 #27
46 1918 John Warner #6
47 1918 Fritz Anders #6
48 1918 Paul Bäumer #27
49 1918 Franz Brandt #9
50 1918 Carl Degelow #15
51 1918 Hermann Frommherz #23
52 1918 Otto Fruhner #27
53 1918 Georg Meyer #20
54 1918 Wilhelm Neuenhofen #8
55 1918 Friedrich Noltenius #11 #12
56 1918 Karl Scharon #1
57 1918 Otto Schmidt #14
58 1918 Alfred Mills #14 #15
59 1918 Antonio Reali u/c
60 1918 Horace Barton #17
61 1918 David Ingalls #5
62 1918 Frederic Lord #11
63 1918 Elliot Springs #14
64 1918 Harold White #7




Losses
1 1915 Alan Bell-Irvingshot down
2 1917 Ronald Sykesshot down by Paul Baumer
3 1917 Erich Löwenhardtwounded in action; forced to land
4 1918 Hans Böhningwounded in action
5 1918 Otto Fruhnercollided with member of 203 Squadron; baled out




http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/today.cgi
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 18:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

20 September 1914: General Koos de la Rey, Boer leader during the Second Anglo-Boer war, is buried

On 20 September 1914 Jacobus Herculaas de la Rey, known as Koos de la Rey, a Boer general during the Second Anglo-Boer War who is widely regarded as being one of the strongest military leaders during that conflict, was buried in Lichtenburg, Transvaal.

On 15 September 1914 de la Rey was on route to Potchefstroom military camp from Johannesburg. His driver did not stop at a roadblock set up for the Foster gang and police opened fire on the car and de la Rey was killed by a ricochet.

At the burial the situation at the graveside was tense, many people believing that their leader had been killed deliberately. Veteran officers of the Anglo-Boer War flocked to Lichtenburg from all over the country. It was largely due to the pacifying funeral oration by Gen. Beyers that the situation did not develop into a republican demonstration.

Sources:
1.Swart: Kultuuralmanak; Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds) (1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 3, p. 630.
2.Role players, General Jacobus Hercules de la Rey. Website: anglo-boer.co.za


http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/thisday/1914-09-20.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 18:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ben Murray & Benjamin Moore - "The Great War"

20 September 1914 – CEF reviewed by Prime Minister

http://2bens.com/page7.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 18:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag van Zanzibar

De Slag van Zanzibar of de Zeeslag van Zanzibar was een zeegevecht dat plaats vond op 20 september 1914 bij het schiereiland Zanzibar in Oost-Afrika en het begin was van de Oost-Afrika Campagne. Vergeleken met de grote zeeslagen zoals de Zeeslag bij de Doggersbank, was de Zeeslag van Zanzibar een klein zeegevecht. Beide partijen streden tegen elkaar met slechts één kruiser. De HMS Pegasus van de Royal Navy onder bevel van captain John Ingles en de SMS Königsberg van de Kaiserliche Marine onder bevel van Fregattenkapitän Max Looff.

Vlak na het begin van de Eerste Wereldoorlog, op 19 september 1914, bevond de Duitse SMS Königsberg zich in de Rufiji Delta, toen hij bericht kreeg dat een Brits oorlogsschip de haven van Zanzibar binnen voer. Fregattenkapitän Looff van de SMS Königsberg, veronderstelde dat het ofwel de HMS Astraea of de HMS Pegasus kon zijn. Kapitein Looff begon onmiddellijk een aanval te plannen tijdens deze reparaties in de haven van Dar es Salaam.

Toen de middag voorbij was verliet de SMS Königsberg Dar es Salaam en voerde zich naar de Zanzibar haven. Ondertussen lag het Britse schip, de HMS Pegasus, in de haven. Zij voerde in een konvooi dat bestond uit de HMS Astraea en de HMS Hyacinth. Maar door problemen aan de ketels, heeft zij de konvooi moeten verlaten en voerde zich naar de Zanzibar haven voor reparaties.

Bij dageraad op 20 september 1914 kwam de SMS Königsberg aan bij de haven van Zanzibar. Daar werd ze opgevangen door een havensleepboot. Fregattenkapitän Max Looff liet het bevel geven enkele schoten te lossen voor de boeg van de sleepboot, die daardoor werd verjaagd. Eenmaal binnen bereik van HMS Pegasus, begon de SMS Königsberg salvo's te vuren bij een bereik van 9.000 meter. HMS Pegasus lag voor anker in de haven van Zanzibar en de ketels werden juist opgestookt, zodat het schip hulpeloos was. Ongeveer twintig minuten lang vuurde de SMS Königsberg salvo's af terwijl de HMS Pegasus in haar positie bleef liggen. Ondertussen werd de Britse White Ensign gehesen en begon ook de HMS Pegasus te vuren. De HMS Pegasus bezat echter slechts 102mm kanonnen die een bereik konden halen tot ongeveer 7000 meter, dat onvoldoende was om de Duitse tegenstander te raken. De Duitsers waren minstens 2.000 meter buiten bereik van de HMS Pegasus. De strijd duurde ongeveer twintig minuten langer. Na hevige voltreffers van de Duitse kruiser, waarvan de meeste in het dek, begon het schip te zinken. Zonder enige kans om de Duitse tegenstander te verslaan, beval captain John Ingles van de HMS Pegasus de evacuatie van het schip. Het schip kapseisde en zonk later dezelfde dag. Na deze duidelijke Duitse overwinning keerde de SMS Königsberg om en voer terug naar de haven van Rufiji Delta.

De Royal Navy had achtendertig gedode en vijfenvijftig gewonde matrozen te betreuren, terwijl de Duitse Kaiserliche Marine geen enkele dode of gewonde had.

De Duitse Kaiserliche Marine won de dag zodat het moreel aan boord van de SMS Königsberg steeg; maar dit was van korte duur voor de SMS Königsberg. Want tijdens de Slag bij Rufiji Delta werd de SMS Königsberg geblokkeerd en verslagen door schepen van de Royal Navy die bestond uit de HMS Chatham, de HMS Dartmouth, de HMS Weymouth, de HMS Goliath, de HMS Hyacinth, de HMS Mersey en de HMS Severn.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Slag_van_Zanzibar

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 - 1914

20 September 1914
Pegasus, British, Pelorus class Third Class Cruiser
Sunk by the German cruiser Königsberg, Zanzibar.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk14.htm
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Sep 2010 18:24, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 18:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kenneth More

Kenneth Gilbert More CBE (20 September 1914 – 12 July 1982) was a highly successful English film actor[1] during the post-World War II era and starred in many feature films, often in the rôle of an archetypal carefree and happy-go-lucky middle-class gentleman.

One of the best! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_More
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 18:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War One - Etymology

Before World War II, the war was also known as The Great War, The World War, The Kaiser's War, The War of the Nations, The War in Europe, or The European War. In the United Kingdom and the United States it was commonly called The war to end war. In France and Belgium it was sometimes referred to as La Guerre du Droit (the War for Justice) or La Guerre Pour la Civilisation / de Oorlog tot de Beschaving (the War to Preserve Civilisation), especially on medals and commemorative monuments. The term used by official histories of the war in Britain and Canada is First World War, while American histories generally use the term World War I.

The earliest known use of the term First World War appeared during the war. German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel wrote shortly after the start of the war:

There is no doubt that the course and character of the feared "European War" ... will become the first world war in the full sense of the word.
—The Indianapolis Star, 20 September 1914

The term was used again near the end of the war. English journalist Charles à Court Repington wrote:

I saw Major Johnstone, the Harvard Professor who is here to lay the bases of an American History. We discussed the right name of the war. I said that we called it now The War, but that this could not last. The Napoleonic War was The Great War. To call it The German War was too much flattery for the Boche. I suggested The World War as a shade better title, and finally we mutually agreed to call it The First World War in order to prevent the millennium folk from forgetting that the history of the world was the history of war.
—The First World War, 1914-1918 (1920), Volume I, Page 391.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/World_War_I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 18:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Menin Road
20 September 1917



The major operations of the British ‘Flanders Offensive’ [see also ‘The Battle of Messines’] began on 31 July 1917 when British forces, with two French divisions, attacked the German defences along a 16-mile front east of Ypres. For fifteen days before that the British artillery, which included Australian batteries, fired more than four million shells from 3,000 guns. The German defence of the area stretched all the way back to the long sickle-shaped ridge between three and ten kilometres from the town. It was a defence in depth; the front was lightly held and beyond it were arrays of deep concrete shelters or ‘pillboxes’ in which soldiers could shelter from bombardment and emerge to mount machine guns to fire at advancing infantry. Barbed wire was carefully positioned to funnel the advancing men into the fields of fire of the machine guns. Well back, out of sight beyond the ridge, were the German artillery and infantry reserves ready to mount counter-attacks.
The British plan was to batter down this formidable defensive position using mainly so-called ‘bite and hold’ tactics. After an opening bombardment the infantry would advance for a prescribed distance behind a ‘creeping’ barrage of shells. This barrage would keep the Germans in their ‘pillboxes’ until British soldiers were almost upon them. The enemy positions would then be captured, consolidated and protected from counter-attack by artillery. Guns would be brought forward and the next ‘bite’ attempted. In this way the British aimed to work their way from their start lines near Ypres to the heights of the ridge ten kilometres away at Passchendaele village. It was thought that by the time Passchendaele would be reached, the German reserves would be used up. A breakthrough could then be made to the enemy’s rear and towards the Belgian coast to the north. General Sir Douglas Haig, the British commander in chief, viewed the ‘Flanders Offensive’ as his war-winning stroke of 1917.
The Battle of the Menin Road was the first major Australian involvement in the series of British ‘bite and hold’ attacks which began on 31 July 1917. Collectively these operations are known as ‘The Third Battle of Ypres’. After moving through Ypres, the First and Second Australian Divisions manned the front lines opposite Glencorse Wood. The ground was waterlogged in low lying areas but otherwise dry.
Following a five-day bombardment, the two Australian divisions advanced at 5.40 am on 20 September. They were in the centre of an assault by 11 British divisions along Westhoek Ridge facing Glencorse Wood. Charles Bean, the Australian official historian, wrote that the Battle of the Menin Road:
… like those that succeeded it, is easily described inasmuch as it went almost precisely in accordance with plan. The advancing barrage won the ground; the infantry merely occupied it, pouncing on any points at which resistance survived. Whereas the artillery was generally spoken of as supporting the infantry, in this battle the infantry were little more than a necessary adjunct to the artillery’s effort.
Charles Bean, The AIF in France:1917, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume 4, Sydney, 1941, p.761
Enemy opposition was quickly overcome although a machine-gun checked the advance of one battalion for a moment. Lieutenant Frederick Birks and Corporal William Johnston instantly rushed the enemy machine-gun position. They were met with bombs and Johnston was badly wounded, but Birks went on alone, killed the remainder of the enemy and captured the machine-gun. Shortly afterwards he took a small party and attacked another strong point occupied by about 25 of the enemy, killing some and capturing an officer and 15 men. Corporal Johnston was awarded the Military Medal. Lieutenant Birks, who was killed the following day, was awarded the Victoria Cross.
The final objective, 1,500 metres from the start line, was secured in two stages with one-hour and two-hour pauses in between. Although the artillery provided good cover for the Australian infantry and prevented some enemy counter-attacks from being launched there was still hard fighting against pillboxes and other strong points. By noon, the Australians had taken all the objectives and were at the western end of Polygon Wood. Enemy artillery fire was constant throughout the battle but on 21 September became more accurate targeting ‘pillboxes’ captured by the Australians.
On 20 September 1917, the Australians sustained 5,000 killed and wounded but the ‘bite and hold’ tactics had been proven and, combined with the allied superiority in artillery, it showed that, with fine weather, the allies were now in a superior position. Both the British and the Germans suffered similar casualties but while the British were elated at the results, the Germans were crushed by the defeat. In the official history, Charles Bean wrote:
So ended, with complete success, the first step in Haig’s trial of true step-by-step tactics. The British Army did this day precisely what it was intended to do, and did it even more cleanly than at Messines. The objectives being easily within the capacity of the troops … The fact that the Germans were well prepared, and had their counter-attack divisions ready, was actually an advantage. The more the enemy thrust his reserves under that crushing barrage the better, for practically none of them came through.
Charles Bean, The AIF in France:1917, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume 4, Sydney, 1941, p.788

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/battlefields/menin-road-1917.html
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John Redmond

(...) He encouraged members of the Irish Volunteers to join the British army and in a speech at Woodenbridge, Co. Wicklow, 20 September 1914, he pledged his support to the Allied cause. The words he addressed to the Irish Volunteers were:

‘The interests of Ireland—of the whole of Ireland—are at stake in this war. This war is undertaken in the defence of the highest principles of religion and morality and right, and it would be a disgrace for ever to our country and a reproach to her manhood and a denial of the lessons of her history if young Ireland confined their efforts to remaining at home to defend the shores of Ireland from an unlikely invasion, and to shrinking from the duty of proving on the field of battle that gallantry and courage which has distinguished our race all through its history. I say to you, therefore, your duty is twofold. I am glad to see such magnificent material for soldiers around me, and I say to you: “Go on drilling and make yourself efficient for the Work, and then account yourselves as men, not only for Ireland itself, but wherever the fighting line extends, in defence of right, of freedom, and religion in this war”’.

Militant nationalists reacted angrily but the great majority of the Volunteers supported Redmond and became known as the National Volunteers. In May 1915 Redmond declined a seat in the War Cabinet, in which Carson was Attorney General. Despite rebuffs he continued to encourage Irishmen to join the British forces. Over 120,000 Irishmen fought in World War One. His brother was killed at the front in 1917. The minority of Volunteers who disregarded Redmond’s plea were dominated by the IRB and retained the title Irish Volunteers. (...)

http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/John_Redmond
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Touwtrekkers

Brighton, Tasmania. 20 September 1914. The tug of war team representing B Company, 12th Battalion, AIF, which defeated the team from A Company.

Foto... http://www.newtownprimary.tased.edu.au/HISTORY/Anzac/HonRoll/12Battalion/12Batindex.htm
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302nd Infantry Regiment Monument

Next to the Monument at Point X, on the cusp of a crater, is a little stone wall bearing a plaque adorned with a croix de guerre and a plaque that reads: "302e R.I. 20 Septembre 1914, 21 Mars 1915. Les Anciens des 302e et 102e R.I." (302nd Infantry Regiment 20 September 1914, 20 March 1915. Veterans of the 302nd and 102nd Infantry Regiments).

http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichelieu.php?idLang=en&idLieu=3071
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HMAS Melbourne

(...) Following the outbreak of war in August 1914 MELBOURNE spent a brief period in Pacific waters as a unit of the Australian Squadron operating as a counter to the German Pacific Squadron under Admiral Graf von Spee. She took part in the seizure of the German Pacific possessions and on 9 September 1914 landed a naval party on Nauru Island to carry out the destruction of the wireless station. Her return to Sydney on 20 September 1914 ended this phase of operations. The cruiser covered 11,170 miles on Pacific patrols.

http://www.navy.gov.au/HMAS_Melbourne_(I)
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Shell Explosion Cathedral at Rheims

Description "The Cathedral of Notre Dame at Rheims was one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. The framework was still standing when the Germans began their drive in 1918. In this instance shells burst on the cathedral before the eyes of many spectators." (caption)

Date 20 September 1914

Source "Collier's New Photographic History of the World's War" (1919), page 86

Foto... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shell_Explosion_Cathedral_at_Rheims.jpg
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Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion

On 20 September 1914 1st Canadian Division Cyclist Company was formed by the Corp of Guides. Their role was intelligence gathering, topography interpretation, signalling, tactics and usage of the light machine gun (Lewis Gun). Later, traffic control, despatch riders, guards for prisoners of war, trench guides, listening posts and snipers was added to the role. Eventually a Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion was formed , referred to as the "Gas Pipe Cavalry". The battalion suffered 22% casualties and was referred to as a suicide battalion.

http://www.commelec.forces.gc.ca/org/his/bh-hb/chapter-chapitre-03-eng.asp
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Vluchten voor de oorlog. Belgische vluchtelingen 1914-1918

Tussen 20 september en 24 oktober 1914 gingen 35.000 vluchtelingen in Folkstone aan land. Het jaar daarop liep het aantal vluchtelingen aan de overzijde van het kanaal op tot 210.000. Omdat velen naar Frankrijk vertrokken, ging dit cijfer steeds dalen, totdat het zich stabiliseerde rond 150.000.

http://www.verzet.org/content/view/1144/69/
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St. Mihiel

On 20 September 1914 the Germans launched an attack from Metz that was designed to outflank the fortress of Verdun from the south. Although they crossed the Meuse at St Mihiel and held the town they were unable to advance any further. However they occupied a triangular salient from Les Eparges in the west below Verdun, via St Mihiel in the south, to Pont a Mousson below Metz in the east, and it remained in German hands until retaken by the Americans four years later.

http://www.guide-books.co.uk/BattleofStMihiel.html
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GERMAN ATROCITIES, 1914: FACT, FANTASY OR FABRICATION?

The 'atrocities' might also be seen as propaganda due to the explosion of non-governmental accounts and images that started with the invasion, peaked in 1914-15, and continued in the Allied countries, at least, for much of the war. On both sides, there was exaggeration and myth. Tales of mutilation abounded. German newspapers ran stories of Belgian girls gouging out wounded German soldiers' eyes - the victims often speaking of their ordeal from their German hospital beds. The Allied press told of women and above all children whose hands were lopped off by German soldiers. The mass-circulation Parisian newspaper Le Matin, for example, published an editorial on September 20th, 1914, on the supposed discovery of two hands, one of a young woman, the other of a girl, in the pockets of two wounded Germans in a Paris hospital. Similar stories appeared in the British press.

http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/6427863/GERMAN-ATROCITIES-1914-FACT-FANTASY-OR-FABRICATION#
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The Diary. September 20th 1914 to October 24th 1917

Diary written by Fred G. Ainge (Laura Rossi’s great uncle who was a stretcher bearer attached to the 29th Division on 1st July 1916).

http://www.laurarossi.com/diary-1-september-20th-1914-to-october-24th-1917/
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20 September 1915: battalion consisting of ‘Cape Coloured men’, called the Cape Corps, is established

On 20 September 1915 a new battalion consisting of Cape Coloured men, called the Cape Corps was established with the view of being dispatched to East Africa in 1916 to fight on the side of the Allies in World War One. The corps was made up of coloured members of the country's defence force, and at its peak strength it had around 23 000 members. More than 12 000 South African servicemen fought in World War One, and fewer than 4 000 were black, coloured or Indian.

The most well-known battle that was fought entirely by the Cape Corps was called the Battle of Square Hill, fought against the Turks. The battle of Square Hill was fought entirely by the Cape Corps squadron, as regulations at the time stated that coloureds could not fight against whites, and the Turks were deemed "non-white".

In the battle of Square Hill, the Turkish troops had taken up a post on the hill, making it impossible for British soldiers to pass. They needed to be dislodged. The Cape Corps broke through the enemy's defences in the middle of the night, eventually capturing 8 Turkish officers, 160 soldiers and 181 other Turks as well as an enemy field gun. One Cape Corps member was killed and another wounded. In a second attack at the nearby Kh Jebeit Hill, the Cape Corps faced Turkish forces again during a marathon 12-hour battle. Fifty-one Cape soldiers were killed, a further 101 were wounded and one was captured. (...)

http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/thisday/1915-09-20.htm
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Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

20 September 1915 - On this day Private G J Owen, 28th Battalion, had a lucky escape. While standing on the fire-step of his trench observing the enemy line, he felt a blow to his chest. On examination, he found that a bullet had penetrated his greatcoat and jacket, a wallet in his pocket and then lodged itself harmlessly in a small Bible he always carried.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/september-october-1915.html
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U-boats

The German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg feared the intervention of the Americans, if unrestricted U-boat warfare continued. Although the Chief of the German Naval Staff, Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff, promised the collapse of the British within six months, if he had free hand at sea, before US intervention would take effect - a fairly accurate assessment of the situation - Bethmann-Hollweg achieved a prohibition of attacking passenger ships except under prize rules by the end of August. But U-boat warfare according to prize rules was too risky in British waters. This and the possibility of confusing passenger ships with other ships led to the refraining of U-boat skippers from attacks. On 20th September 1915, the U-boats were withdrawn from British waters, the focus of the U-boat campaign shifted to the Mediterranean with plenty of targets and virtually no Americans present.

http://www.uboat.net/history/wwi/part3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Upton Sinclair

Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. (1878-09-20 – 1968-11-25) was a prolific American author who wrote in many genres, often advocating Socialist views, and achieved considerable popularity in the first half of the twentieth century.

Quote: I know you are brave and unselfish people, making sacrifices for a great principle but I cannot join you. I believe in the present effort which the allies are making to suppress German militarism. I would approve of America going to their assistance. I would enlist to that end, if ever there be a situation where I believe I could do more with my hands than I could with my pen.
- Letter to the "Anti-Enlistment League" organized by Jessie Wallace Hughan (20 September 1915)

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Upton_Sinclair
Zie ook http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jupton.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Frederic Hughes

Major General Frederic Godfrey Hughes CB (26 January 1858 – 23 August 1944) was an Australian Army Major General in World War I. (...)

Hughes was appointed to the First Australian Imperial Force as a colonel on 17 October 1914 and given command of the 3rd Light Horse Brigade. Like most militia brigadiers, Hughes was given a regular officer as a brigade major, in his case, Lieutenant Colonel Antill. Although not an easy man to get along with, Hughes relied heavily on Antill.

The brigade departed for Egypt in February 1915 where it trained until alerted for dismounted action at Gallipoli in May. It arrived on 20 May 1915 and became part of Major General Alexander Godley's New Zealand and Australian Division. The ANZAC commander, Lieutenant General Birdwood, had grave doubts about Hughes capacity.

Godley ordered Hughes to attack the Turkish positions at the Nek at 0430 on 7 August 1915 with a bayonet charge in support of the New Zealand attack on Chunuk Bair. The attack stalled from the very beginning, when the artillery lifted some seven minutes early according to watches on Russell's Top. Then wave after wave of light horsemen charged the Turkish trenches at the Nek, only to be cut down.

Hughes mismanaged the battle. He left his headquarters around the time the second wave of 150 had attacked in order to try and observe the attack, thereby isolating himself from Antill and the rest of his headquarters. After the third wave had been slaughtered, Hughes gave orders for the attack to be discontinued, but not in time to save the fourth wave. He seems to have become completely rattled.

Hughes was evacuated from Gallipoli on 20 September 1915 with typhoid. He was evacuated to Australia in March 1916 suffering from typhoid and pneumonia. In July 1918, he was reappointed to the AIF and served with the Sea Transport Service. He retired in March 1920 with the rank of major general.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederic_Hughes
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Certificate of Marriage

Author Parish of Kirkley, Suffolk
Subject Bowtell, Richard; Blunderfield, Lillie May
Item Date 20th September 1915

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/4501?CISOBOX=1&REC=8
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Ludlow Massacre

Rockefeller speaks to the miners - September 20, 1915
We are all partners in a way. Capital can't get along without you men, and you men can't get along without capital. When anybody comes along and tells you that capital and labor can't get along together that man is your worst enemy. We are getting along friendly enough here in this mine right now, and there is no reason why you men cannot get along with the managers of my company when I am back in New York.

United Mine Workers' leader John Lawson comments on Junior's visit to Colorado - September, 1915
I believe Mr. Rockefeller is sincere… I believe he is honestly trying to improve conditions among the men in the mines. His efforts probably will result in some betterments which I hope may prove to be permanent.

However, Mr. Rockefeller has missed the fundamental trouble in the coal camps. Democracy has never existed among the men who toil under the ground — the coal companies have stamped it out. Now, Mr. Rockefeller is not restoring democracy; he is trying to substitute paternalism for it.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rockefellers/sfeature/sf_8.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rudolf-August Oetker

Rudolf-August Oetker (Bielefeld, 20 september 1916 — Hamburg, 16 januari 2007) was een Duitse ondernemer in de voedingsmiddelenindustrie en één van de grootste Duitse reders. Hij is bekend geworden met de naar zijn grootvader genoemde merknaam (dr. Oetker)).

De koopmanszoon voltooide in Hamburg een handelsopleiding, welke in 1936 door toetreding tot de arbeids- en militaire dienst onderbroken werd. Hij werd lid van de Waffen-SS. Als kleinkind van de oprichter Dr. August Oetker nam hij in 1944 de leiding over van het familiebedrijf Dr. August Oetker voedingsmiddelenfabriek, nadat zijn moeder Ida Oetker, zijn stiefvader Richard Kaselowsky en zijn halfzusters Ilse en Ingeborg bij een bominslag in de kelder van hun villa aan de Johannisberg 10 om het leven waren gekomen (zijn biologische vader Rudolf Oetker was al voor de geboorte van Rudolf-August op 18 maart 1916 gesneuveld bij Verdun). (...)

Wie kent 'm niet... http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf-August_Oetker
Ook hier: https://www.radiobremen.de/bremeneins/serien/as_time_goes_by/audio170744-popup.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

20 September 1916 - A Dance and Card Party was held in the Town Hall, Paddington, Sydney, in aid of the fund for the widow and daughter of Captain A J Shout VC MC. Shout had died of wounds at Gallipoli on 11 August 1915 shortly after the action at Lone Pine for which he had been awarded the Victoria Cross.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/1916-2000.html

Alfred Shout - Australia's Most Decorated Hero at Gallipoli

V.C. CITATION: For most conspicuous bravery at Lone Pine Trenches, in the Gallipoli Peninsula. On the morning of 9th August, 1915, with a small party, Captain Shout charged down trenches strongly occupied by the enemy and personally threw four bombs among them, killing eight and routing the remainder. In the afternoon of the same day, from the position gained in the morning, he captured a further length of trench under similar conditions and continued personally to bomb the enemy at close range, under very heavy fire, until he was severely wounded, losing his right hand and left eye.

This most gallant officer has since succumbed to his injuries.

(London Gazette: 15th October 1915.)

Captain Alfred John Shout, VC., MC., MiD was born in Wellington, New Zealand on 7 August 1881 the eldest child and only son of John Richard and Agnes Mary Shout (nee Kelly).

He was educated privately in New Zealand and it was from there he went to South Africa as a Sergeant with the Border Horse 1900-1902. (New Zealand Contingent).

While serving with the Border Horse he was twice wounded, once in the chest. He was Mentioned in Despatches (Army Orders 23 February 1901.) and made Queen's sergeant; his service medals at that time amounted to The Queen's South Africa Medal, and The Kings South Africa Medal.

He served as a Sergeant with the Cape Field Artillery until 1907. Subsequently married to Rose Alice they had one child, a daughter Florence Agnes Maud Shout who was born at Capetown, South Africa, 11 June, 1905.

When he moved to Australia and joined the Citizen Forces from 1907-1914 Shout served with the 29th Infantry Regiment (Australian Rifles) while working as a carpenter and joiner, living at 116 Darlington Road, Darlington, a Sydney suburb.

He obtained his commission as a 2nd-lieutenant on June 16, 1914 and was appointed to the AIF on 27th August as 2nd-lieutenant; he served with F Company, 1st Battalion, 1st Division, Australian Imperial Forces.

The 1st Battalion was formed at Randwick Racecourse, Sydney, Australia, on 15 August, and just 2 months later on 18 October - following delays due to the presence of German cruisers in the Pacific - it marched to Woolloomooloo through very heavy rain, where they boarded A.19. HMAT Afric, a 12,000 ton vessel that had been requisitioned by the Commonwealth government for the purpose of transporting the AIF overseas. Bound, they thought, for England.

The ship sailed without escort to Princess Royal Harbour, Albany, Western Australia, arriving on 25 October to find 15 other ships already in the Harbour. On 31 October they had a fire onboard Afric before sailing the next day in a convoy of 36 transports which was to transport two New Zealand brigades, and the Australians who together made up the 1st Contingent of ANZAC troops. They were escorted by the Australian light cruisers H.M.A.S. Sydney and H.M.A.S. Melbourne, and the H.M.S. Orvieto and the Japanese cruiser Ibuki.

This convoy, which was made up of passenger and converted cargo ships, carried 20,758 members of the First A.I.F. and 7,479 Horses. On the first day out from Albany they learnt that England had declared war on Turkey.

Five days out they passed the mail steamer Osterley that had itself had a narrow escape from the German raider, Emden.

On 9 November the Contingent watched as H.M.A.S Sydney detached from the convoy and sailed off at full steam to intercept the German cruiser Emden that was attacking a wireless station at Cocos Island.

The H.M.A.S. Sydney was commanded by Captain John C. T, Glossop in what was the first action of the war by the Royal Australian Navy outmanoeuvring the German light cruiser SMS Emden during a 90 minute battle, disabling it before running it aground onto North Keeling island reef.

Their first port of call after crossing the equator on 13 November was Colombo, where they arrived 8am on 15th and were granted leave. Alfred Shout returned to Afric on the 19th before it sailed at 7.30pm, with escort duty taken over by H..M.A.S. Hampshire.

On 21 November the Afric bumped into another ship in the convoy resulting in the death of two soldiers who were lost overboard from the Afric. During this first part of the voyage 329 men throughout the convoy had been treated by the ships' hospitals; of these 62 had measles and 55 influenza.

On 24 November the Hampshire left the convoy which then reached Aden at 5pm the next evening. Alfred was given leave overnight arriving back at 6am on the morning of the 26th when the convoy sailed, staying close to the Arabian Coast. On 28 November they received definite orders to disembark in Egypt and undertake their training there.

The Australians had imagined they were on their way to Salisbury Plain in England for training; however due to the shortage of accommodation and training facilities in England it was decided to send them instead to Egypt.

They called at Port Suez and Port Said before arriving at Alexandria on 5 December, and four days later boarded a train for the 20km journey to Mena, a village located in the shadows of the Sphinx and three Pyramids where they set up a training camp.

Meanwhile Alfred Shout was promoted to Lieutenant on 1 February 1915.

On 25 April 1915 the First Division, as part of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force under the command of General Sir Ian Hamilton, made an amphibious landing at Ari Burnu Point (Anzac Cove).

Two days later, 1km South near Kaba Tepe, Lieutenant Shout showed conspicuous courage by continually exposing himself to the enemy while organizing, planning and leading a successful bayonet charge against the Turks.

Following their charge, in the course of which their newly acquired position was secured, Shout and a Corporal left the trench which was being continually swept with machine-gun fire, and advanced further into no-mans land, where they dug in before proceeding to snipe at the Turks.

In the words of Private Charles Huntley Thompson of the 13th Battalion, "That was the bravest thing I ever saw"; for these actions Shout was awarded the Military Cross and Mentioned in Despatches.

The 1st Division suffered 366 casualties between April 25 and 29, including Lieutenant Shout who was wounded when a bullet passed through his arm and entered his chest; he recovered from his wounds aboard HS Gascon before rejoining his unit on 26 May 1915.

On 29th July Shout was promoted to Captain and given a special Mention in Despatches by General Sir Ian Hamilton.

After months of fighting on Gallipoli, it was decided to create a diversion for a planned British landing in Suvla Bay; part of that diversion would be an attack on the Lone Pine trenches by the 1st Infantry Brigade of the 1st Division of the AIF.

The night preceding the charge at Lone Pine, Shout in an effort to relieve the anxiety of members of his platoon had spoken at length of the coming event. He concluded by telling No 721 L/Cpl Alexander Ross McQueen, "we will make a name for Australia and ourselves tomorrow Mac".

At midday on 6 August 1915 Captain Shout MC., issued his men with a white strip of calico to sew on the arms and back of their tunics. This was to indicate to the artillery the position of the Australian infantry during the soon to be launched Battle for Lone Pine.

At 4pm with the troops in position the Artillery commenced bombarding the Turkish trenches; the Turkish artillery quickly met the challenge and returned fire. At 5.40pm the men of the 1st were lined up ready to go over the top. The 1st Infantry Brigade led the charge: reaching the first trench hey found it difficult to attack as it was covered with logs so, while some stayed and infiltrated the first trench, others were ordered on to the second trench.

The Australians took Lone Pine within the hour; the Turks counter attacked and the Defence of Lone Pine was underway, continuing for five days during which casualties were high on both sides with the Australians losing 80 officers and 2,197 other ranks in five days; the Turkish 16th Division lost almost 7,000 men.

Seven members of the Australian contingent were to be awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions at Lone Pine. One was a posthumous Award was to Captain Alfred John Shout MC., He was awarded the Victoria Cross for the actions on August 9 1915 which cost him his life.

The others were: English born L/Cpl Leonard Keysor of the 1st battalion, and Private John Hamilton from Orange, NSW serving with the 3rd Battalion. The other four were all Victorians from the 7th Battalion: Captain Frederick Tubb, Lieut William Symonds, Cpl Alexander Burton and Cpl William Dunstan.

The 1st Battalion had relieved the 7th on the morning of 9 August, at a section known as Sasse's Sap. Captain Cecil Duncan Sasse (later Lieutenant Colonel) DSO & Bar., of the 4th Battalion had captured a section of the enemy's trench, but when the 1st arrived the enemy had reoccupied a large area of the captured trench.

Shout and Sasse enlisted the aid of eight volunteers and following Sasse's plan of attack that had previously been successful they charged down the trench with Shout bombing and Sasse shooting.

The eight volunteers then built a barricade as each section of trench was secured; all went well and Shout - who was reportedly enjoying the fight - was preparing for the final dash of the day to capture just one more section of the trench.

Lighting three bombs he set off down the trench and had hurled two before the third went off prematurely blowing off his hand and severely injuring his face and body. Shout continued to direct the attack, then murmured "good old First Brigade, well done!" before he lost consciousness through loss of blood, and died from his wounds at sea onboard HMHS Neuralia on 11 August, 1915.

Both Pte Charles Huntley Thompson, from Maitland NSW, and L/Cpl Alexander Ross McQueen from Gloucester, NSW were repatriated back to Australia during the latter part of 1915.

At Home

Rose Shout was advised in a cable dated 5 May 1915 that Alfred had been wounded on April 27 1915; her reply to the cable was received 28 May, in which she sought news of her husband and his whereabouts. It was 15 August before the Army sent a further cable telling Rose that Alfred had been wounded a second time.

Then the system completely broke down completely, while records showed he died 11 August. These were then altered on 20 August to "not dead onboard 'Thermistocles' returning to Australia," The Australian press published news of his return adding that he would arrive in Sydney mid September.

This confusion started when Army Records received a cable from Alexandria saying Shout could not be dead as he was on board 'Thermistocles' wounded and on his way to Australia.

At a later inquiry the official explanation stated that Lieutenant A. J. Shirt the wounded man on board Thermistocles had been mistaken for Lieutenant A. J. Shout. A search of records in both Australia and New Zealand failed to confirm the existence of a Lieutenant A. J. Shirt.

Rose Shout was then informed of her Husbands death, unlike his father John Shout who lived in New Zealand who was to learn belatedly of his son's reported death from a newspaper report. He then wrote to the Army on October 4, seeking conformation of his son's death or wounding.

Things did not improve: Rose Shout was awarded a pension of ninety one pound ($182) per year and her daughter Florence, thirteen pound per year as the widow and child of Lieutenant A. J. Shout. Rose had to remind the Army that her husband was a Captain at the time of his death and also that he was the holder of the Victoria Cross.

While conceding that Shout had been promoted to Captain just days before he was mortally wounded, on November 19, 1915 the Officer in charge of base records still had no knowledge that Captain Alfred Shout's Victoria Cross had been gazetted on 15 October 1915.

The pension paid to Rose was then increased by ten pound ($20) per year and Florence had her pension doubled. The RSL with the assistance of the government of New South Wales launched an appeal in August 1916 to buy a home for Rose and Florence Shout.

Captain Alfred Shout VCs and identity disc was sent to Rose Shout in December 1918, A Certificate acknowledging his being Mentioned in Despatches was not received by Rose until July 1921. It was a further eighteen months before Rose Shout received the Memorial Scroll and King's Message.

Shortly after the war the citizens of Darlington, Sydney commemorated the name of Alfred Shout on a memorial plaque unveiled at Darlington. This plaque is now held at the Victoria Barracks Museum, along with other memorabilia donated in 1980 by Florence Agnes Maud Thomas, the daughter of Alfred and Rose Shout.

In 2001 the Redfern, Sydney. R.S.L. Sub Branch placed a framed montage which included Replica Medals and photographs of Captain Alfred Shout VC., MC., MiD. at Gallipoli in the foyer of the Club.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/shoutvc.htm
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Shout
Zie ook http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19151028.2.31
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BOMBING OF THE WADI FARA, 20TH SEPTEMBER 1918

A squadron of British biplanes bombing Turkish troops and transports making their way through the Wadi Fara. Overturned wagons, dead men and horses lie amongst the rocks of the narrow pass.

Olieverfschilderij door Stuart Reid, 20 september 1918.

https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/22565
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 20 Sep 2018 7:59, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

20, 22-23 september 1917

20 september 1917: Ondertussen werd het E-bataljon bevolen zich klaar te maken voor de volgende tankslag. Die zou gehouden worden op de uiterste linkervleugel van het Ve leger, rond Langemark, onder de sectors van het XIVdc Corps van generaal Watts en het XVIII Corps van generaal Maxse, dus in samenwerking met de 20th Light Division, de 51st Highland Division ("the best of the whole army") en de 58 London Division. Dat was een lijn vanaf de Schreiboom (Langemark) tot Kerselaar (St-Juliaan).

In die lijn nam de 20th Light Division de sector tussen Schreiboom en Eekhoutmolenstraat voor haar rekening. Zij kon Langemark op 20 september helemaal veroveren, maar dat gebeurde met zoveel verliezen en krachtinspanningen dat het uiteindelijke doel van die dag, de beruchte 'Eagle-Stelling", niet bereikt kon worden. Een van de oorzaken was ook nog het gebrek aan voldoende... tanks. Intussen had de infanterie van de 20th Division het dorp doorkruist en de Schreiboom bereikt. De tanks konden de infanterie niet inhalen, want zowel de E42 EXQUISITE (lt. Wilson) als de E43 ELDORADO van lt. Bayliss zakten weg in de modder, de laatste nabij de kerkruïnes.

De tankbemanningen verlieten hun machines en voegden zich met hun wapens bij de Schotten van de 51ste Divisie om de Lekkerboterbeek te volgen, dan Pheasant Farm (Jungburg) en de Duitse begraafplaats (meer info) naast de hoeve te veroveren. Ze drongen zelfs door tot Delta House, maar toen stopten ze, uitgeput.

Toen brachten de Duitsers versterkingen aan uit Westrozebeke en heroverden in een nachtelijke tegenaanval hun verloren Delta House. Maar verder kwamen ze niet. Pheasant Farm (Jungburg) en Rose Farm bleven in handen van de Schotten.

http://poelkapelle.wimme.net/Tanks20sept
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A shell burst in Glencourse Wood. Sept 20 1917

http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationalmediamuseum/3007145003/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Derde Slag bij Ieper

Tweede aanvalsfase: van 20 september tot 12 oktober 1917:

Op 20 en 26 september en 4 oktober wordt volgens die nieuwe aanvalstactiek bevredigende vooruitgang gemaakt die bovendien kan geconsolideerd worden. Dat laatste was niet altijd vanzelfsprekend temeer de Duitsers met hun "eingreiftruppen" succesvol "op de tegenaanval speelden".

Vooral de Britse aanval op 4 oktober is een eclatant succes en, volgens Duitse bronnen, de dag met de hoogste verliescijfer voor het Duits leger van de eerste wereldoorlog. De Britten konden Zonnebeke volledig heroveren en een deel van de West-Vlaamse hoogtelijn (die loopt van Beselare tot Westrozebeke) overschrijden in de omgeving van Broodseinde .

Mede doordat na een lange, kurkdroge periode, het weer slecht wordt en het reeds volop herfst is (waardoor de spaarzame opklaringen geen uitdrogend effect meer hebben op de bodem) verloopt de Britse opmars weer moeizamer en wordt de modder (weer) een even geduchte tegenstander als de Duitsers. Doordat het veroverd gebied totaal doorklieft was van de intense bombardementen is het nog moeilijker begaanbaar, zelfs voor infanteristen. Het vooruitbrengen van de artilleriestukken brengt schier onoverkomelijke problemen teweeg en daardoor kunnen geen afdoende "beschermende" vuurwalsen meer voor de oprukkende infanteristen gelegd worden. Het tankwapen is helemaal niet meer inzetbaar.

Rond Zonnebeke stokt de vooruitgang en de poging tot verovering van Passendale op 12 oktober is een complete mislukking. Maar merkwaardig genoeg is het op die dag dat in het aanvalsgebied van de verguisde generaal Gough, het front nog aardig kan opgeschoven worden. De Britten, geflankeerd door enkele Franse divisies bereiken daar immers de rand van het Houthulstbos en kunnen ook de ruines van Poelkapelle innemen en een uitval doen richting Westrozebeke.

Voor de overzichtelijkheid hebben een aantal locaties nogmaals op een rijtje gezet om het verschuiven van het front te verduidelijken

Poelkapelle - Met de aanval van 4 oktober wordt de rand van het dorp bereikt. Op 9 oktober kunnen de Britten de ruines volledig innemen. Op 12 oktober wordt vruchteloos een westelijke uitval gedaan richting Westrozebeke maar samen met de Fransen wordt in noordelijke richting opgerukt tot aan de zuidrand van de bos van Houthulst.

Passendale - Van 9 tot 12 oktober zullen de Britten vanuit verschillende richtingen proberen op te rukken naar de langgerekte hoogte van Passendale. Australiërs kunnen wat terreinwinst boeken én vasthouden langs de weg vanuit Broodseinde. Britten kunnen zelfs eventjes de eerste ruines van het dorp bereiken maar worden teruggeslagen. Nieuw-Zeelanders rukken op vanuit Graventafel, waden door de vallei van de Ravebeek maar de formidabele bunkers van "Bellevue"(sic) en onderdeel van de Flandern1-stellung, verhinderen elke doorbraakpoging.

Zonnebeke - Hier zal de aanvalstactiek van generaal Plumer vrij succesvol zijn. Op 20 september worden de Duitsers teruggedrongen waarbij de "Wilhelmstellung" haast overal wordt doorboort. Beruchte "redoubte" als "Bremen", "Zonnebeke" en "Anzac" worden veroverd. Op 26 oktober wordt opnieuw opgerukt en bereiken de Britten de dorpskom van Zonnebeke die gedeeltelijk wordt ingenomen. De volgende dagen zal met wisselende kansen de ruïnes verloren-heroverd worden maar uiteindelijk worden de Duitsers verder teruggedrongen. Op 4 oktober wordt Broodseinde ingenomen en bereikt men zo de West-vlaamse heuvelrug en de weg Beselare-Passendale die over een afstand van een drietal kilometer overschreden wordt. Daarmee is ook de "Flandern1 stellung" doorbroken.

Beselare - De wijk " Reutel" zal door de Britten veroverd worden op 9 oktober al dan niet toevallig door dezelfde zevende divisie die in oktober 1914 op diezelfde plaats de oprukkende Duitsers bij bosjes neermaaide. de Britten komen heel dicht bij de weg van de "Reutel" naar de"Zwaanhoek" (Beselare) over lager gelegen terrein waar de opmars stokt. Daarna trekken de Britten iets terug naar hoger gelegen gebied en graven zich in om een stevige flank te vormen, want verdere doorbraken worden enkel nog noordelijker gepland (Passendale).

http://users.telenet.be/blindganger/derde_slag_bij_ieper.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Irish History - Thomas Ashe

Thomas Ashe was born and raised in Kinard, Co. Kerry. Educated in the nearby town of Dingle and subsequently at the De La Salle College, Waterford, Ashe became a National School Teacher. Like so many of his contemporaries, he became a member of the Gaelic League and the Gaelic Athletics Association during this time.

Through his links with these organisations, Ashe was recruited for the Irish Republican Brotherhood. An eager participant, he rose quickly through the ranks. Evidence of the respect in which he was held was seen in him being chosen to visit America on a fundraising trip. It was during this time that he met such other notables as John Devoy, Joe McGarrity and Roger Casement.

Back in Ireland, Ashe taught at the National School in Corduff, Co. Dublin. It was there that he trained a group of local men to fight in the planned insurrection. He was scrupulous in his preparations and in the devising of tactics for his troop.

During the 1916 Easter Rising, Ashe commanded this Final Battalion of Irish Volunteers. Capturing significant areas of North County Dublin, this group successfully demolished the Great Northern railway bridge; thus, disrupting access to the capital. In addition, they captured the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) barracks at Ashbourne, Co. Meath. The fight to gain control lasted 6 hours during which time 11 RIC men were killed and over 20 were wounded. By comparison, the Fingal Battalion lost only two men and five were wounded.

It was during this week, that General Richard Mulcahy joined forces with the men at Fingal. How this happened and what part he was to subsequently play has, however, been the source of some debate. Nevertheless, the Fingal Battalion is considered to be one of two successful battles occurring in Dublin during the 1916 Rising.

Imprisonment

Similarly to many of his counterparts, Ashe was arrested for his role in the Rising. Although sentenced to death on 11 May 1916, public uproar resulted in this being commuted to penal servitude for life. From Dublin, he was transported to Lewes Gaol in England where he became one of the leaders of the prisoners at that time alongside Eamon de Valera. It was during his time at Lewes, that he wrote his poem "Let Me Carry Your Cross for Ireland, Lord!"

Return to Ireland

In the Summer of 1917, the Irish prisoners were released and made their way back to Ireland. Ashe resumed his political activities, giving speeches around the country in defiance of orders from the British Authorities. For his own safety, Ashe went into hiding but was subsequently arrested when he attended, and spoke at, a meeting in Dublin.

Hunger Strike

Sentenced at a court martial, Ashe was imprisoned at Mountjoy Gaol, Dublin. Similarly to the Suffragettes at this time, Ashe and his Republican counterparts were denied political status. Demands were issued for a change in their status but to no avail. As a result, these inmates began a hunger strike on 20 September 1917 believing that it was the only means open to them to obtain their demands.

The prison authorities retaliated by taking away the prisoners� bedding and boots. Such actions, however, did not break the resolve of these men.

Force feeding

Forcible feeding, a method for dealing with hunger striking prisoners, began almost immediately. All requests to Ashe to end the hunger strike were refused. He was adamant in his opposition saying: "They have branded me a Criminal. Even though I do die, I die in a good cause."

Administered by a trainee doctor, the process of feeding was often quite brutal. On the third day, Ashe collapsed shortly after the procedure.

It was later discovered that the tube had pierced his lung among other complications. He was released immediately from the prison and when asked where he would like to be taken, he responded to the nearby Mater Hospital. That was 23 September. Two days later, he died of heart and lung failure.

After lying in state at City Hall, Ashe's cortege made its way through Dublin to Glasnevin Cemetery on 30 September 1917. It is estimated that 30,000 people lined the streets, some having travelled great distances and over coming such obstacles as limited transport to attend. The Archbishop of Dublin's car was also visible in the funeral procession. At the graveside, a volley of shots rang out and Michael Collins gave the oration. Ashe was 32 years old.

The memory of Ashe and his accomplishments have faded in the minds of many. There is, however, a large monument erected in his honour outside Ashbourne, Co. Meath and a small statue at his family's now derelict cottage at Kinard, Co. Kerry.

http://irelandsown.net/ashe.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Reginald Roy Inwood

Reginald Roy Inwood VC (14 July 1890 – 23 October 1971 (1971-10-24) (aged 81)) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 27 years old, and a Private in the 10th Battalion (S.A.), Australian Imperial Force during the First World War when he performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross.

Inwood was awarded the Victoria Cross for actions during the period 19 September - 22 September 1917 in an attack at Polygon Wood, near Ypres, Belgium during the Battle of Menin Road:

“ For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the advance to the second objective. He moved forward through our barrage alone to an enemy strong post and captured it, together with nine prisoners, killing several of the enemy. During the evening he volunteered for a special all night patrol, which went out 600 yards in front of our line, and there - by his coolness and sound judgment - obtained and sent back very valuable information as to the enemy's movements. In the early morning of the 21 September, Private Inwood located a machine gun which was causing several casualties. He went out alone and bombed the gun and team, killing all but one, whom he brought in as a prisoner with the gun ”
—-Commonwealth Gazette No. 31 March 17, 1918

He later achieved the rank of Sergeant. Inwood's two younger brothers also served and saw action on the Western Front. Pte Harold Ray Inwood, 43rd Bn, returned to Australia in 1917; while Sergeant Robert Minney Inwood, also of the 10th Bn, fought at Gallipoli and was killed in action on the second day of the Battle of Pozières on 24 July 1916 at the age of twenty.

Post-war life - Inwood returned to a hero's welcome in Broken Hill in October 1918 but at an event organised in his honour gave a controversial public speech. He claimed he had "been stoned by mongrels at the train"[3] when he had departed to fight and with his return "those mongrels were the first to shake me by the hand".[4] He told the crowd "I would like to be at one end of the street with a machine-gun and have them at the other end". In the House of Representatives Rep Michael Considine accused Inwood of trying "to incite trouble between returned soldiers and the working classes".

No longer welcome in Broken Hill Inwood moved to Adelaide where he found difficulty finding work. Inwood married a 23 year old widow, Mabel Alice Collins Weber on 31 December 1918 but they divorced in 1921, whereupon he moved to Queenstown, Tasmania to work in the mines. He later moved to Kangaroo Island where he worked in a Eucalyptus distillery. Inwood married Evelyn Owens in 1927 and following her death married Louise Elizabeth Gates in 1942. Returning to Adelaide in 1928 he was employed as a labourer by the Adelaide City Council until 1955 when he retired. During World War II, Inwood served as a warrant officer with the Australian Militia Force.

Inwood died on 23 October 1971, given a military funeral he was buried at the West Terrace AIF Cemetery, Adelaide, South Australia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reginald_Roy_Inwood
Bekijk de recommendation - http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/inwood.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 20 September 1917.

Valkenswaard. Op de Maandag j.l. gehouden hondenmarkt waren c.a. 15 stuks aangevoerd en een gelijk getal konijnen. De handel was dan ook zeer gering, alhoewel er toch een talrijk publiek aanwezig was.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1917

20 September 1917 - Gilbert, 20, and Thomas Holt, 22, died whilst serving with the 5th Battalion, the Australian Imperial Force. Sons of Thomas Grosvenor Holt and Elizabeth E. Holt (nee Mitchell). Natives of Stratford, Victoria, Australia. The brothers have no known graves and are commemorated on the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing, Ypres.


Also 20 September 1917: two died on one day, a third the next - George, 25, and Theo Seabrook, 24, died whilst serving with the 17th Battalion, the Australian Imperial Force. Sons of William George and Fanny Isabel Seabrook of Great North Road, Fivedock, New South Wales. The brothers have no known graves and are commemorated on the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing, Ypres. Their brother Second Lieutenant William Seabrook, 21, was wounded in the same incident and died next day. He is buried in Lijssenthoek Military Cemetery.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canada - Income War Tax Act

On Sept. 20, 1917, the federal government promulgated the Income War
Tax Act to help fund Canada’s strained war effort. Income taxes quickly
became a central feature of Canada’s tax system, with Ottawa and the
provinces now using it to collect over $200 billion annually in personal
and corporate taxes. In fact, income tax is the most important source of
government revenue.

The Act’s introduction provoked a substantial debate over key issues affecting
the livelihood of Canadians, including the effect of an income tax on Canada’s
competitiveness. Its major flaw was its discrimination against productivityenhancing
investment.

The 10-page 1917 Act, mercifully short compared to today’s volumes of tax
legislation and regulations, reflected both simplicity and the economic relationships
of that time. Individuals paid no taxes if income was less than $1,500 and the top
rate of 25 percent applied to incomes above $100,000. Married individuals, or those
with dependants, had an extra $2,000 exemption. By comparison with today, after
adjusting for inflation, taxes were much less punitive in 1917. For example, using
2004 dollars, no single individual with an income less than $25,980 would have
paid tax, while today the federal exemption level is $8,012. The top rate in 1917
applied to incomes above $1.73 million in 2004 dollars, while the current top
federal rate kicks in at $113,805.

Corporations paid tax at 4 percent, while individuals were able to credit any
corporate taxes collected on their share of profits in a company against their
personal taxes. Some individuals and organizations were tax exempt, including the
governor general, diplomats, municipal corporations, charities, labour
organizations, farmer associations and the military.

The definition of income for tax purposes was relatively simple in 1917, with
few of the special deductions or credits that are found today. Income included any
net profit, including wages, salaries, fees, business income, dividends and
undistributed corporate profits, as well as interest. Capital gains and life insurance
proceeds were not subject to tax. The Act allowed some deductions, such as an
allowance for capital depreciation and contributions to some patriotic and war
funds.

Although income tax revenue was critical to the war effort, the Act raised
several contentious issues at the time. One particular concern related to Canada’s
competitiveness. In the early 20th Century, Canada was losing immigrants to the
United States, a fact well recognized by then-finance minister Sir Thomas White,
who said: “Canada has been and will continue to be a country inviting
immigration. I have thought it desirable that we should not be known to the
outside world as a country of heavy individual taxation.”

http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/ebrief_6.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alfred Joseph Knight

Alfred Joseph Knight VC MBE (24 August 1888 - 4 December 1960) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He is currently the only Post Office Rifleman ever to receive this award.

Knight was 29 years old, and a sergeant in the 2/8th (City of London) Battalion, The London Regiment (Post Office Rifles), British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 20 September 1917 at Alberta Section, Ypres, Belgium, when his platoon came under very heavy fire from an enemy machine-gun, Sergeant Knight rushed through our own barrage and captured it single-handed. He performed several other acts of conspicuous bravery single-handed, all under heavy machine-gun and rifle fire and without regard to personal safety. All the platoon officers of the company had become casualties before the first objective was reached, and this NCO took command not only of all the men of his own platoon but of the platoons without officers and his energy in consolidating and reorganising was untiring. He later achieved the rank of second lieutenant.

His medal is held by the British Postal Museum & Archive.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Knight
Zie ook http://postalheritage.org.uk/history/people/sergeantalfredknight
Voor de geschiedenisdocenten onder ons - http://postalheritage.org.uk/learning/teachers/freeresources/lastpost/secondaryresources/downloads/Secondary%20Johnson%20Beharry%20and%20Alfred%20Knight.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Megiddo (1918): Destroyed Turkish transport

Description The Battle of Megiddo, September 1918: Turkish carts and gun carriages destroyed by British aircraft on the Nablus-Beisan road.

Date 20 September 1918

Foto... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_Megiddo_(1918)_Destroyed_Turkish_transport.jpg
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 20 Sep 2018 7:57, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Some bloody soldiers – Hindenburg Outpost Line

(...) Thus, wrote Padre Devine, the 48th Battalion gained its one and only Victoria Cross of the war awarded for an action during its very last engagement – the seizure of the ‘Hindenburg Outpost Line’. For Devine this fact added a particular poignancy to the deaths of those killed in these final actions. The battalion dead were recovered from the battlefield and initially buried further towards Le Verguier at Dean Copse. Devine drew particular attention to a Port Adelaide labourer, Private Nathaniel Lunt, age 33, who had joined the battalion when it was formed in Egypt in early 1916.

Lunt was considered one of the characters in the battalion, the ‘hero of many fights both in the line and out of it’. Lunt’s personal AIF dossier at the Australian National Archives reveals a number of these incidents earning him undoubtedly the title of ‘larrikin’:

14 March 1916 – appearing unshaven;
24 April 1916 – not parading when ordered to do so;
19 May 1916 – failing to comply with an order;
21 June 1916 – creating disturbance after lights out;
11 July 1916 – using abusive language to an NCO;
19 July 1916– wilfully damaging Government property.


But ‘larrikin though he may have been Lunt did his share of the fighting’ for the 48th Battalion. He was badly wounded in the hell that was Pozières in August 1916. As his record shows, in November 1916 a large piece of metal was removed surgically from this wound.

Lunt lies today in Plot 4, Row B, Grave 2, in the Bellicourt British Cemetery about six kilometres north–east of where he died on 20 September 1918 as the 48th Battalion consolidated its position in the trenches south of the 4th Division Memorial. There is no epitaph on his headstone and perhaps Padre Devine can be allowed to speak for this forgotten ‘digger’ and his two mates, Privates Punch Donovan and Cork Daly, men Devine regarded as ‘essential to the identity of the 48th’:

Always conspicuous in an attack, but as soon as the climax of that excitement had passed sought fresh interest in the odd jobs that ensued from it. If prisoners were to be taken to the rear, the duty of escort was regarded as theirs by right, and many were the antics with which they performed the task … They received decorations, and none were better deserved, but the same gipsy character which made them so useful to the Battalion as regular and irregular scouts, made promotion impossible.
- William Devine, The Story of a Battalion, Melbourne, 1919, p.151

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/bellenglise/hindenburg-outpost-line.html
For Lunt’s file online see http://naa12.naa.gov.au/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Edmund Allenby on the Battle of Megiddo, 20 September 1918

Following the British success in capturing Jerusalem in December 1917 further progress north was effectively stalled in the face of strengthened German forces until September 1918. In part this was because troops had been hastily transferred to the Western Front in March 1918 to assist in the Allies' defence against the German Spring offensive.

Thus on 18 September Sir Edmund Allenby - British regional Commander-in-Chief launched the Battle of Megiddo at Rafat. This set in trail an unbroken series of victories including those at Damascus and Beirut (the latter seized by a French fleet). It was in light of these overwhelming victories that Turkey sued for an armistice of surrender, which was duly agreed on 30 October 1918 in Mudros. British forces subsequently took possession of Constantinople on 10 November 1918.

Reproduced below is the text of Allenby's official report on fighting at Megiddo, dated 20 September 1918.

General Allenby's Report on Fighting at Megiddo, 20 September 1918

Our left wing, having swung around to the east, had reached the line of Bidieh, Baka, and Messudiyeh Junction, and was astride the rail and roads converging at Nabulus.

Our right wing, advancing through difficult country against considerable resistance, had reached the line of Khan-Jibeit, one and one-fourth miles northeast of El-Mugheir and Es-Sawieh, and was facing north astride the Jerusalem-Nabulus road.

On the north our cavalry, traversing the Field of Armageddon, had occupied Nazareth, Afule, and Beisan, and were collecting the disorganized masses of enemy troops and transport as they arrived from the south. All avenues of escape open to the enemy, except the fords across the Jordan between Beisan and Jisr-ed-Dameer were thus closed.

East of the Jordan Arab forces of the King of the Hejaz had effected numerous demolitions on the railways radiating from Deraa, several important bridges, including one in the Yurmak Valley, having been destroyed. Very severe losses have been inflicted on the masses of Turkish troops retreating over the difficult roads by our air services.

A German airplane, later ascertained to have been carrying mails, landed in the midst of our troops at Afule. The pilot, who believed the place still to be in Turkish hands, destroyed the machine and its contents before he could be secured.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/megiddo_allenby.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Shaumyan, Stepan (1878-1918)

Stepan Shaumyan was the son of an Armenian merchant, born in Tbilisi in 1878. While studying at Riga Polytechnic he joined the Russian Social Democratic Party.

Arrested for taking part in student politics, Shaumyan was exiled to the Caucasus. He escaped and went to live in Germany where he met Plekhanov, Lenin and Julius Martov.

Shaumyan returned to the Caucasus where he became a teacher and the leader of the Bolsheviks in Tiflis; joined the Bolsheviks at the 1903 Congress. In 1907 he moved to Baku where he helped to build up and lead the workers' movement.

Led the Bolshevik campaign against nationalism in the Caucasian working class; led the 1914 Baku General Strike, for which he was jailed.

After the February Revolution Shaumyan was elected chairman of the Baku Soviet. He took part in the October Revolution and joined the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party.

After the October Revolution he became Commissar Extraordinary for the Caucasus and Chairman of the Baku Council of People's Commissars.

In March, 1918, there was a Muslim uprising in Baku. Shaumyan and 25 other Baku commissars fled but were arrested by British troops in Krasnovodsk. Stepan Shaumyan was executed on 20th September, 1918.

http://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/s/h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sudetenland

Sudetenland is the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by ethnic Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. (...)

Sudetenland was incorporated into a newly created Czechoslovakia, a multi-ethnic state of several nations: Czechs, Germans, Slovaks, Hungarians, Poles and Ruthenians. On 20 September 1918, the Prague Government asked the United States's consent for the annexation of the Sudetenland. President Woodrow Wilson sent ambassador Archibald Coolidge into the newly created state Czechoslovakia. After Coolidge became witness of Czech police brutality against peaceful Sudetengerman demonstrators (54 killed, among them women and children), Coolidge suggested the possibility of ceding certain German-speaking parts of Bohemia to Germany (Cheb) and Austria (South Moravia and South Bohemia). He also insisted that the German inhabited regions of West and North Bohemia remain within Czechoslovakia. However, the American delegation at the Paris talks, with Allen Dulles as the American's chief diplomat who emphasized preserving the unity of the Czech lands, decided not to follow Coolidge's proposal.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Sudetenland
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stockport Soldiers who died 1914 - 1918

JOSEPH BALL - Corporal, 265823. 1/6 th Battalion, Cheshire Regiment. Killed in action 20 September 1917, aged 22. Enlisted: Stockport. Son of William & Harriett Alice Ball. Commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, Belgium.

TOM BATTY - Private, 235263. 1/4 th Battalion, South Lancashire Regiment (formerly 5662, Cheshire Regiment). Died of wounds 20 September 1917, aged 26. Born: Accrington. Lived: Burnley. Enlisted: Stockport. Husband of Ada, Rose Grove, Burnley. Buried in Brandhoek New Military Cemetery No. 3, Ieper, Belgium.

WILLIAM BOOTH - Private, 235266. 1/4th Battalion, South Lancashire Regiment (formerly 3456, Cheshire Regiment). Killed in action, 20 September 1917. Born & lived: Hyde. Enlisted: Stockport. Commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, Belgium.
There are several war memorial commemorations in the Hyde area to men called William Booth. It cannot be known if this man is one of them.

WALTER BRADBURY - Believed to be Private, 109234. 3rd Company, Canadian Machine Gun Corps. Reported to have died of wounds 8 August 1918. Buried in Crouy British Cemetery, Crouy-sur-Somme, France
Stockport Advertiser, in its edition of 20 September 1918 reported the death of a Walter Bradbury of Paris, Ontario and late of Gorton Road, Reddish. The details above are of the only man of a likely name recorded by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission as having recently died. He was reported to have been an old scholar of Houldsworth School and to have attended St Agnes’ Church Sunday School. Had worked as moulder before emigrating in about 1900.
Understood to have been “Mentioned in Despatches” for bringing in wounded from No Man’s Land whilst under heavy fire.

http://www.stockport1914-1918.co.uk/b.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Canal du Nord - 1st Canadian Division planning map

Description - High Resolution Map [1:20,000]. Two maps joined to (51a SW) titled: "Special Edition showing revision to 20-09-18 in LIGHT BLUE". German trenches shown in blue and appears to have hypsometric tinting but colour has faded. Shows distroyed bridges, P.O.W. camps, aerodromes, dumps, etc.

Annotated green pencilled line labelled "Divisional Boundary"; "A Coy. 2/10/18", "B Co.", "C Coy. 7/10/18" etc. pencilled with arrows or circles showing location

Date 20 September 1918

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_the_Canal_du_Nord_-_1st_Canadian_Division_planning_map.jpeg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mystics of the Church - Padre Pio: The Saint who wore gloves

(...) On the 20th September, 1918, Padre Pio collapsed in the chapel and was found to be bleeding profusely from five deep wounds in his hands, feet and side. When he regained consciousness he begged his fellow monks to keep the event secret, but word soon spread and people flocked to the monastery from all over the country to see the stigmata for themselves, and to confess their sins to this ‘living saint’. During the next few years Padre Pio was forced to endure a series of medical investigations and attempted cures, none of which changed the character of the wounds. He never talked about himself or complained, but when someone foolishly asked him if his wounds hurt, he replied: ‘Do you think that the Lord gave them to me for a decoration?’ (...)

http://www.mysticsofthechurch.com/2010/03/padre-pio-saint-who-wore-gloves.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Home coming, Calumet Co. boys, Chilton, Wis., Sept. 20, 1919

http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/3006359682/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charlotte Mew, “The Cenotaph (September 1919)”

Charlotte Mew supported herself during World War I by publishing poems and stories in London periodicals. The following poem appeared shortly after the unveiling of the Cenotaph in Whitehall.

Not yet will those measureless fields be green again
Where only yesterday the wild sweet blood of wonderful youth was shed;
There is a grave whose earth must hold too long, too deep a stain,
Though for ever over it we may speak as proudly as we may tread.
But here, where the watchers by lonely hearths from the thrust of an inward sword have more
slowly bled,
We shall build the Cenotaph: Victory, winged, with Peace, winged too, at the column’s head.
And over the stairway, at the foot—oh! here, leave desolate, passionate hands to spread
Violets, roses, and laurel, with the small, sweet, tinkling country things
Speaking so wistfully of other Springs,
From the little gardens of little places where son or sweetheart was born and bred.
In splendid sleep, with a thousand brothers
To lovers—to mothers
Here, too, lies he:
Under the purple, the green, the red,
It is all young life: it must break some women's hearts to see
Such a brave, gay coverlet to such a bed!
Only, when all is done and said,
God is not mocked and neither are the dead
For this will stand in our Marketplace—
Who’ll sell, who’ll buy
(Will you or I
Lie each to each with the better grace)?
While looking into every busy whore’s and huckster’s face
As they drive their bargains, is the Face
Of God: and some young, piteous, murdered face.


http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/20century/topic_1_05/cmew.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spanish Legion

September 20 [1920] – The first soldier joins the Spanish Legion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1920

Spanish Legion

The Spanish Legión (Spanish: Legión Española, La Legión or colloquially El Tercio), formerly Spanish Foreign Legion, is an elite unit of the Spanish Army. Founded as the Tercio de Extranjeros ("Foreigners Regiment"), it was originally intended as a Spanish equivalent of the French Foreign Legion, but in practice it recruited almost exclusively Spaniards. The Spanish Legion's animal mascot is the Legión's goat. (...)

On September 2 of that same year [1920], King Alfonso XIII conferred command of the new regiment on Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry José Millán Astray, chief proponent of its establishment. Millán Astray was an able soldier but an eccentric and extreme personality. His style and attitude would become part of the mystique of the Legion.

On September 20 the first recruit joined the new Legion; this date is celebrated yearly. The initial make-up of the regiment was that of a headquarters unit and three battalions (known as Banderas, or "flags"). Each battalion was in turn made up of a headquarters company, two rifle companies and a machine gun company. The regiment's initial location was at the Cuartel del Rey en Ceuta on the Plaza de Colón. At its height, during the Spanish Civil War, the legion consisted of 18 banderas, plus a tank bandera, an assault engineer bandera and a Special Operations Group. Banderas 12 through 18 were considered independent units and never served as part of the tercios.

Francisco Franco was one of the founding members of the Legion and the unit's second-in-command. The Legion fought in Morocco in the War of the Rif (to 1926). Together with the Regulares (Moorish colonial troops), the Legion made up the Spanish Army of Africa. In 1934 units of both the Legion and the Regulares were brought to Spain by the new Republican Government to help put down a workers revolt in the area of Asturias.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Legion
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