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17 september
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2006 8:38    Onderwerp: 17 september Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 17. September 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Die Schlacht zwischen Oise und Maas

Großes Hauptquartier, 17. September.
In der Schlacht zwischen Oise und Maas ist die endgültige Entscheidung immer noch nicht gefallen, aber gewisse Anzeichen deuten darauf hin, daß die Widerstandskraft des Gegners zu erlahmen beginnt. Ein mit großer Bravour unternommener französischer Durchbruchsversuch auf dem äußersten rechten deutschen Flügel brach ohne besondere Anstrengung unserer Truppen schließlich in sich selbst zusammen. Die Mitte der deutschen Armee gewinnt langsam aber sicher Boden Auf dem rechten Maas-Ufer versuchte Ausfälle aus Verdun wurden mit Leichtigkeit zurückgewiesen.

Generalquartiermeister v. Stein. 1)


Die große Schlacht im Westen

Berlin, 17. September. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Das "Tageblatt" meldet aus Kopenhagen vom heutigen Datum: Ein offizieller französischer Bericht über die Schlachtlage warnt vor übereiltem Optimismus. Sehr reserviert schreibt der "Temps" in einem Leitartikel über die militärische Situation: Die Deutschen werden den Kampf fortsetzen bis zum letzten Mann. Unsere Truppen müssen den Deutschen auf ein Gebiet folgen, das sie selbst verwüstet haben, um den Deutschen ihr Vorrücken zu erschweren, und die Deutschen werden die Zerstörung, namentlich an Eisenbahnen, selbstverständlich vollenden. Dazu kommt, daß unsere Truppen ganz erschöpft sind von einem zwanzigtägigen Marsch und Kampf. Wir dürfen uns daher nicht allzugroße Illusionen machen von den Kämpfen, die uns bevorstehen."


Die Beschäftigung Kriegsgefangener

Berlin, 17. September. (W. B.)
Der "Reichsanzeiger" veröffentlicht eine kaiserliche Verordnung, betreffend ein vereinfachtes Enteignungsverfahren zur Beschaffung von Arbeitsgelegenheit zur Beschäftigung Kriegsgefangener. Das vereinsachte Enteignungsverfahren, bei dem an die Stelle des Bezirksausschusses der Regierungspräsident tritt und das von heute bis zum 31. März 1915 gilt, bezieht sich auf Bauausführungen der Eisenbahn-, Wasserbau- und landwirtschaftlichen Verwaltung. Zu den Arbeiten gehören der Ausbau der Oder von Koblau bis Annaberg, die Verbesserung der Oderwasserstraße unterhalb Breslaus, der Ausbau des Plauen-Kanals, Hochwasserregulierungsarbeiten an der Elbe, der Bau des Lippe-Seitenkanals und die Entwässerung von Mooren.


Die deutschen Luftschiffe

Berlin. 17. Septbr. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die "Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung" meldet: Wie aus dem Hauptquartier gemeldet wird, ist keines unserer Luftschiffe, welchen Systems auch immer, in Feindeshand gefallen. Wohl sind mehrere beschädigt worden, doch konnten sie ausgebessert werden und sind und wieder völlig gebrauchsfähig.



Der 1. Weltkrieg im September 1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2006 8:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 : Manfred von Richthofen shoots down his first plane

On this day in 1916, the German air ace Manfred von Richthofen—known to history as the "Red Baron"—shoots down his first enemy plane over the Western Front during World War I.

Richthofen, the son of a Prussian nobleman, switched from the German army to the Imperial Air Service in 1915. He became the star pupil and protégé of Oswald Boelcke, one of Germany’s most successful fighter pilots. After seeing action over the Eastern Front, where he bombed Russian forces and railway junctions, Richthoften began his legendary career in the west. On September 17, 1916, in his first trip in a combat patrol commanded by Boelcke, Richthofen found himself and his Albatross biplane engaged in aerial combat by a plane piloted by British Second Lieutenant Lionel Morris.

Richthofen later recounted the experience: "My Englishman twisted and turned, flying in zig-zags. I was animated by a single thought: ‘The man in front of me must come down, whatever happens.’ At last a favorable moment arrived. My opponent had apparently lost sight of me. Instead of twisting and turning he flew straight along. In a fraction of a second I was at his back with my excellent machine. I gave a short burst of shots with my machine-gun. I had gone so close that I was afraid I might dash into the Englishman. Suddenly I nearly yelled with joy, for the propeller of the enemy machine had stopped turning. Hurrah! I had shot his engine to pieces; the enemy was compelled to land, for it was impossible for him to reach his own lines."

Richthofen followed the enemy plane to the ground, landing close to the German lines, where he discovered that both the pilot and the observer that accompanied him, Lieutenant T. Rees, were mortally wounded. According to Richthofen, "I honored the fallen enemy by placing a stone on his beautiful grave."

By the end of 1916, Richthofen had downed 15 enemy planes. The following year, he surpassed all flying-ace records on both sides of the Western Front and began using a Fokker triplane, painted entirely red in tribute to his old cavalry regiment. Although only used during the last eight months of his career, it was this aircraft with which Richthofen was most commonly associated and that led to an enduring English nickname for the German pilot—the Red Baron. By the time he was shot down and killed over the Somme River on April 21, 1918, the 25-year-old Richthofen had downed 80 enemy aircraft, securing his status as one of the greatest air aces to emerge from World War I on either side of the conflict.

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2006 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Centralen :

1916 : Turkse kanonneerboot Malathia loopt op mijn bij Kara Burne en zinkt. Ook de torpedoboot Kutahaja loopt op een russische mijn in dezelfde omgeving/Zwarte Zee en zinkt

1917 : UC45 zinkt tijdens een duikpanne, werd geborgen en opnieuw in dienst gesteld.

1918 : Sperrbrecher Wigbert loopt op een mijn in de Elbemonding en werd zo zwaar beschadigd dat men het uit dienst nam.

Geallieerden :

1914 : Brits Linieschip Invincible maakt water en dient gesleept te worden

1918 : Italiaanse snelboot MAS18 wordt te Venetie vernietigd door een niet geidentificeerde explosie.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 September 1914 → Commons Sitting

DUMDUM BULLETS.


HC Deb 17 September 1914 vol 66 c973 973

Dr. CHAPPLE asked whether, in view of the conflicting evidence with regard to the use of dum-dum bullets and to atrocities alleged to have been perpetrated in the War, he will ask the United States Government if it would, in the interests and hope of their immediate cessation, if the persistent rumours of their occurrence be true, set up a committee of inquiry into the whole subject?

The UNDER-SECRETARY for FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Mr. Acland) His Majesty's Government would have no objection to an investigation by a committee of inquiry such as my hon. Friend suggests, and would even welcome it; but, in view of the reply which President Wilson is reported to have given to representations from Germany on this matter, it would not appear to be of any use for them to make any proposal to the Government of the United States on the subject.

Dr. CHAPPLE Are we to understand that my hon. Friend has evidence that the United States Government would be willing to undertake such an inquiry, and that the Government would give every facility?

Mr. ACLAND Yes. If we had any evidence that the Government of the United States would undertake such an inquiry, we should welcome it extremely, and I think I may say that we should give it every possible facility.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/sep/17/dumdum-bullets
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 18:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914)

17 september 1914 - Geboorte van Maria Regina Theresia Van Dyck, dochter van de vluchtelingen Leonardus Van Dyck (postbediende uit Pulle) en zijn vrouw Melanie Hoefkens. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=187:05-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1914&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Border Regiment - Battalions of the New Armies

11th (Service) Battalion (Lonsdale)
Formed in Penrith (HQ), Carlisle, Kendal and Workington on 17 September 1914 by the Earl of Lonsdale and an Executive Committee. Moved to Carlisle Racecourse.

http://www.1914-1918.net/border.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Joseph Cook - PRIME MINISTER FROM 24 JUNE 1913 TO 17 SEPTEMBER 1914

When Joseph Cook was first involved in politics in the 1890s, he was a member of the Labor Party. However, during his career as a politician he was a member of several different political parties.

When he became Australia's sixth Prime Minister in 1913, he was the first Prime Minister to lead a Liberal party government.

He was Prime Minister until September 1914 and later served as a minister in Billy Hughes' Nationalist government. (...)

Cook became Prime Minister following the general election on 31 May 1913. He led the Liberal Party to victory with a one-seat majority in the House of Representatives but he failed to win control of the Senate. He took up office as Prime Minister on 24 June 1913, and also served as Minister for Home Affairs from this date.

On 8 June 1914 Cook sought and obtained a double dissolution of parliament from Governor-General RC Munro-Ferguson, after the Senate had twice refused to pass the Government Preference Prohibition Bill. Before the election was held (on 5 August 1914), the UK declared war and over the next five years the First World War and its aftermath were the all-consuming political issues in Australian politics. The general election held on 5 September 1914 resulted in a strong win for Labor, which gained control of both Houses of federal parliament. Cook's term as Prime Minister ended formally on 17 September when Andrew Fisher took office.

http://www.nma.gov.au/education/school_resources/websites_and_interactives/primeministers/joseph_cook/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Petrus Van Nuffel in "De Duitschers te Aalst" over donderdag 17 september 1914:

Het verkeer op den ijzerenweg tusschen Aalst en Gent werd den 17 September hersteld, en eenige Aalstenaars namen de gelegenheid te baat, om zich naar de grens te begeven. Maar weldra vernam men dat de brug opnieuw door den vijand bezet en bewaakt werd. Zekere Van Nuffel, van Lebbeke, kwam in Aalst toe met het volgende nieuws: “de Duitschers hadden hem willen dooden, omdat hij weigerde hen den weg te wijzen; zij ontnamen hem een varken en eene geit, ledigden zijne kassen en stolen zijn proviand; hij bevond zich thans met vrouw en kinderen in onze stad, en dierf niet meer weerkeeren; devijand brandde en moordde nog steeds te Lebbeke en te Sint-Gillis; Wieze zat vol vluchtelingen.” Gedurende zijn verhaal hoorde men in de nabijheid het geknal van hevige ontploffingen. Een groote volksmassa drong verschrikt in de bureelen des burgemeesters, schreeuwende:
- Men vecht op het Burgemeestersplein ! Belgische mitrailjeurs tegen een Duitsche patroelje !
't Einde asem kwam een Aalstenaar toegeloopen, die gilde
- 'k Heb een boer van Moorsel zien doodschieten op den ijzerenweg, aan de Pontstraatpoort !
Het geschut hield heel den morgen aan. Een Duitsch werd, op het Burgemeestersplein, doodelijk gekwetst, en twee zijner landgenooten licht gewond. De patroelje trok achteruit naar Hekelgem, en een Belgische auto rolde door de stad en verdween langs den Gentschensteenweg. Gedurende dit gevecht werd de woning van den schrijnwerker Van den Eynde beschadigd.


Uit Mercatus' onnavolgbare topic: http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=15616
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

September 17, 1914

Second Austrian Invasion of Serbia - The Austro-Hungarian Army is stopped in it's tracks by Serbian counterattacks, but manages to hold on to small gains on the border with Bosnia....

Galician Battles - In response to an appeal for help from Austria, Germany sends it's newly formed 9th Army by rail from East Prussia to reinforce Austrian forces in the south.

http://greatwarforum.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=majorbattles&action=print&thread=627
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Trench Warfare Begins on the Aisne

The following special order has been issued to the troops:

"September 17, 1914.

"Once more I have to express my deep appreciation of the splendid behavior of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the army under my command throughout the great Battle of the Aisne, which has been in progress since the evening of the 12th inst., and the Battle of the Marne, which lasted from the morning of the 6thto the evening of the 10th, and finally ended in the precipitate flight of the enemy.

"When we were brought face to face with a position of extraordinary strength, carefully intrenched and prepared for defense by an army and staff which are thorough adepts in such work, throughout the 13th and 14th, that position was most gallantly attacked by the British forces and the passage of the Aisne effected. This is the third day the troops have been gallantly holding the position they have gained against most desperate counterattacks and the hail of heavy artillery.

"I am unable to find adequate words in which to express the admiration I feel for their magnificent conduct.

"The French armies on our right and left are making good progress, and I feel sure that we have only to hold on with tenacity to the ground we have won for a very short time longer when the Allies will be again in full pursuit of a beaten enemy.

"The self sacrificing devotion and splendid spirit of the British army in France will carry all before it.

"J. D. P. FRENCH, Field Marshal,

"Commander in Chief of the British Army in the Field."

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Trench_Warfare_Begins_on_the_Aisne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

IT MIGHT HAVE ENDED IN SEPTEMBER, 1914

Peace proposals were discussed before the war started, and in the early days of the war President Woodrow Wilson of the United States was busy trying to find a peace formula. The newspaper the Evening World, published in New York on 17th September 1914, carried a stunning report, "based on the highest diplomatic authority," on the Kaiser's response to Wilson. The Kaiser appears, in these remarks to be a man of wisdom and vision, proposing a settlement remarkably close to that eventually agreed after over four years' of warfare.

The Kaiser's main points:

Germany would not stop fighting so long as Britain continued daily to declare that the war must be a fight to the finish, until Germany had been crushed.

If the world at large hoped for disarmament then the crushing of Germans would be the poorest way to accomplish it: a crushed Germany would "repeat the era after the Napoleonic wars and arm every man, child, cat and dog in the Empire for the day of revenge."

Germany was willing to call the war a draw [!]. If this were agreed it would be the most conducive solution towards future peace in Europe and to disarmament. Complete victory on either side would not lead to stable conditions.

Germany would not agree to being dismembered. The German colonies might be discussed.

Germany's borders must not be interfered with by surrounding states. "Every man in the German Empire believes sincerely and honestly today that the war is one of self-defence against the hostile encroachment of Russia, France and England. Live and let live is the policy that Germany wishes its enemies to observe."1

1 Evening World, New York, 17 September, 1914.

http://www.warpoetry.co.uk/end_First_World_War.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Maclean, The War and its Outcome, Justice (17th September 1914)

So far as I can see, it will be impossible to tell whether Russia or Germany is immediately responsible for the war. Some attribute the death of the Austrian Archduke to the usual underground, dirty work of the minions of the Tsar playing upon Servians embittered by the Austrian attempt to seize land right down to Salonica during the Balkan Butchery. This Austrian attempt at grab somewhat upset the Russian purpose of adding to its territory in the Balkans at the same time. We can well imagine, then, that the Russians would foster Servian hatred of Austria and do all in their power to paralyse the imperial desires of Austria.

I think the assassination over-reached itself by giving Austria its chance to crush and steal Servia. In the circumstances Russia had to intervene or its Balkan aspirations would for ever be thwarted. Then Germany had to back up Austria against its dread enemy, Russia. Germany plunged into war, undoubtedly, because it thought the Allies were weak owing to the Caillaux-Calmette murder drama in France, and the sham Irish situation in the British Isles, as well as the unfolding revolution in Russia.

Even supposing Germany is to blame, the motive force is not the ambitions of the Kaiser, nor the brute philosophy of the Prussian mili-tarists, but the profit of the plundering class of Germany. Colonial expansion was denied the Germans because the British, the Russians, and the French had picked up most of the available parts of the world. What could the Germans do but build up an army and a navy that would hold its own against all comers? This it has done steadily for the last generation. It is mere cant to talk of German militarism when Britain has led the world in the navy business. It is merely “the struggle for an existence” on a capitalist national scale. The inspiration of Ger-man militarism comes as much from Darwin and Huxley, and applied by British economists and sociologists against us Socialists, as from Bern-hardi or any other German apologist of organised murder. Capitalism has neither conscience nor morality when it is brought to bay.

Every interested person knew that Germany’s easiest road of entry into France was by Belgium. Sir Edward Grey had only to wait till Belgium’s neutrality had been broken to seize a “moral” excuse for Britain taking up arms. The real reason was, and is, that he and his class knew that war between British and Ger-man capitalism had to come sooner or later. Now was the day, and Britain struck, Plunderers versus plunderers, with the workers as pawns doing the murdering with right goodwill. The working class at home is beginning to be starved, and is being buoyed up with the assertion that this is the last great war.

Unless a social revolution bursts forth in Europe at the close of this present murder campaign, Russia will make a bold bid for Turkey, Asia Minor, Poland, and a bit of the Persian Gulf area, with Sweden added shortly after that. If its allies try to intervene, we may have another war.

Even should this not happen, we all know that .the commercial rivalry of Japan and the United States - similar to that between Britain and Germany - must lead to a war in the Pacific basin. Canada and Australia will side with the States, so that Britain will be dragged in or lose those Colonies. What part China will play in world murder I cannot very clearly see as yet, but we all must admit she is going through a thorough apprenticeship at home.

In view of eventualities like those indicated, it is our business as Socialists to develop a “class patriotism,” refusing to murder one another for a sordid world capitalism. The absurdity of the present situation is surely apparent when we see British Socialists going out to murder German Socialists with the object of crushing Kaiserism and Prussian militarism. The only real enemy to Kaiserism and Prussian militarism, I assert against the world, was and is German Social-Democracy. Let the propertied class go out, old and young alike, and defend their blessed property. When they have been disposed of, we of the working class will have something to defend, and we shall do it.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUmaclean.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Scrimgeours Scribbling Diary: The Truly Astonishing Wartime Diary and Letters of an Edwardian Gentleman, Naval Officer, Boy and Son

"Rape, Ravage and Rant are the German watchwords in this war. Right, Revenge & Retrenchment shall be ours."
- Alexander Scrimgeour, 17th September 1914."

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Scrimgeours-Scribbling-Diary-Astonishing-Edwardian/dp/1844860752
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 17 September, General Zhilinskiy, commander of the Russian Northwest Front, was replaced by General N.A. Ruzskiy from the 3rd Army. Zhilinskiy was appointed Governor General of Warsaw and put in charge of the Warsaw Military District. General Radko-Dmitriev was appointed to replace Ruzskiy as commander of the 3 rd Army.

The Russian government created the Advisory Committee for the wartime Stockpiling of Material Needed by the Army and Fleet. Unfortunately it was to remain a paper organization.

On 17 September, General von Hindenburg received the Kaiser's order to take over command of the newly forming 9th Army, while still retaining control of the 8th Army. Hindenburg took General von Ludendorff with him as his Chief of Staff. General Max von Hoffman was left as the Chief of Staff of the 8th Army, with Crown Prince Leopold von Bayern as the nominal commander. The 9th Army was fully concentrated at Beuthen by the 28th.

The Germans were already rushing four army corps and two divisions on 750 trains to reinforce the weak Austro-Hungarian northern flank near Krakau in Upper Silesia. The Germans intended to advance, along with the Austro-Hungarian 1st Army, from Krakau and Piotrkow, hoping to outflank the northern sector of the Russian Southwest Front.

On the Northern Front, the Russian 10th Army, led by General V.E. Flug, with their HQ at Augustovo, was concentrating in the Bialystok-Grodno area.

France, Russia, and Great Britain solemnly ratified the Pact of London, banning any separate peace negotiations by the Allies. Also adhering to the Pact were Serbia, Japan and Belgium. Italy would join on 30 November 1915, and in October 1916 the Romanians would sign the pact.

Tsar Nicholas II issued an Imperial Decree approving the Council of Ministers' resolution on the manufacture in wartime of the objects and materials needed by the army and navy, requiring that manufacturers satisfy all military demands.

Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich issued a proclamation to the peoples of Austria-Hungary, inviting them to throw off the Habsburg yoke and realize their national aspirations. Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov pressed the Romanian Government to occupy Transylvania and join in the occupation of Bukowina along with Russian troops.

The German High Command (OHL) asserted that it must have Turkish military action against Russia. Turkey responded by stating that mobilization was incomplete and they did not have sufficient war supplies.

http://warchron.com/hindenburg.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spying - First World War - Augusto Roggen

Introduction
One week after the execution of Ernst Melin, another spy was executed at the Tower of London. Augusto Alfredo Roggen was born in Montevideo (Uruguay) in 1881.

Augusto Alfredo Roggen
Augusto Alfredo Roggen's Father was a German who had become a Uruguan citizen in 1885, and that he himself was married to a German lady. He had a good command of English.

Roggen sailed from Rotterdam on the Batavia, arriving at Tilbury Docks on 30 May 1915, After disembarking from the ship, Roggen told the Aliens' Officer that he intended to travel to Scotland. Roggen was allowed to proceed, arriving in Edinburgh on 5 June 1915.

After arriving at the hotel, he stated on the hotel registration that he was a farmer, and that he was interested in agricultural vehicles. Roggen had visited some agricultural companies in London, but they were suspicious about his apparent lack of references or even knowledge of the horses that he was attempting to buy. Later the next day, Roggen got into conversation with the Hotel Manager's wife asking about going around the Trossachs and the availability of local hotels. He also expressed a keenness about fishing, although he had no fishing equipment with him.

Before leaving Edinburgh, Roggen sent two postcards to Holland. They were both intercepted, as they had been sent to addresses familiar to the British Security Services. They were copied and then allowed to carry on their postal journey.

On 9 June 1915, Roggen booked into the Tarbet at Loch Lomond. He purchased a map of Loch Lomond and the head of Loch Long, which is part of the Firth of Clyde. Loch Long was significant as it was a restricted area, and fishing was banned. It had previously been used for testing torpedoes.

By this time, British Security Service had become concerned, and so later on 9 June 1915 Roggen was arrested at his new hotel by Superintendent John Wright. Roggen was taken to London, where Roggen and his luggage were handed over to Inspector Edmund Buckley (Special Branch). Roggen was found to be possession of a Browning revolver with 50 rounds of ammunition, together with fluids used for writing invisible messages. He was also unable or unwilling to explain the postcards sent to known enemy espionage addresses.

Roggen was tried by courts-martial at Middlesex Guildhall, Westminster, on 20 August 1915, before the president Major-General Lord Cheysmore. Roggen gave no evidence and made no statement. He was found guilty and sentenced to death by shooting. Roggen's original execution was postponed, as the Uruguayan Ambassador sent a note to the War Office. However, it was felt that there was nothing in the note, which could change the sentence.

Roggen was shot by a firing squad composed from members of 3rd Battalion, Scot Guards. The execution took place at 6am on 17 September 1915. It was observed that Roggen faced death as a brave man, marching to the chair with a defiant air, refusing to have his eyes blindfolded.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/augusto_roggen.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albert Jack Heard

Service number: 1685A
Rank: Private
Unit: 21st Battalion (Infantry)
Service: Army
Conflict: 1914-1918
Date of death: 17 September 1915
Cause of death: Killed in action
Cemetery or memorial details: Shrapnel Valley Cemetery Anzac II D 33
War Grave Register notes: HEARD, Pte. Albert Jack, 1685A. 21st Bn. Australian Inf. Killed in action 17th Sept 1915. Son of John Samuel and Hannah Martha Heard of 62 Orrong Rd, Elsternwick, Victoria. Native of Horsham, Victoria, Australia.

http://simpsonprize2010.wordpress.com/commemoration/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Training in Kent (Summer 1915)

Donald Fraser, who was at this stage in the 31st, wrote in The Journal of Private Fraser:

"Friday, September 17, 1915: After a four months' training in Kent, England, where we had a very enjoyable time, first at Dibgate in the vicinity of Shorncliffe, then at Lydd where we had a rush shooting practice and finally at Otterpool where water was very scarce, we were considered fit and skilled in the art of warfare, ready to meet the hated Hun. When I think of it, our training was decidedly amateurish and impractical. It consisted mainly of route marches and alignment movements. Our musketry course amounted to nothing; we had only half an idea about the handling of bombs. We were perfectly ignorant regarding rifle grenades."

Private G. Broome (440955, "A" Co., 32nd Battn.) wrote the following to his mother in Canada, from Risboro Barracks, Shorncliffe (N.B. he was in the Third Division which arrived in England as the Second Division left for France):

"17th September 1915: We had a good trip over here & a good time. I kept a diary on the boat a copy of which I am enclosing. You will notice by my address that I am with the 32nd now. It trains the men as they come from Canada & then sends them to other Battn. at the front. We are in a nice place here. About 1 mile from Folkstone & we go down there nearly every night. We see quit of lot of Airoplanes around here. They are sailing around all the time. We go down to the sea every morning at 6 o'clock. The drill is a lot harder here than a Sewell, but we can stand it all night. I am going to London soon I expect"

"29th September 1915: We have had nice weather here till today and its raining cats & dogs. We are fixed up alright though. We are in huts. About 30 men live in each hut and have their beds and tables and chairs and crockery. The food is brought from the cook house and we eat right in our huts. They are pretty big although the name makes one think they are small. I believe I told you that we are near Folkstone. We go there nearly every night. I am learning to roller skate. It is great fun although kind of rough for a learner."


http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~brett/payne/cllpayne_1d.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Berrima Merchant Officer’s Service Record Book c.1909-1915

Wilhelm Köster’s Service Record Book 1909 – 1915

The Service Record book belonged to Wilhelm Köster a 19 year old who was on his first commission on the Pfalz, a freighter of the North German Lloyd Line when the ship was seized in Melbourne at the start of the war. The Pfalz has the distinction of being the vessel to draw the first Australian cannon shot of the war. When on the routine a departure after unloading cargo at Melbourne the bug gun at Fort Nepean fired a shell just astern as a warning shot. Naval officers boarded the vessel and ordered Captain Wilhelm Kühlken to return to Melbourne. The Pfalz and was captured in Melbourne on the 5th August 1914, renamed SS Boorara and converted for Australian defence transport uses. She was rammed by the French cruiser Kleber on the 17th September 1915, torpedoed in the English Channel in March 1918 and torpedoed again near Yarmouth on 23rd September 1918. Boorara survived the war and on 24th June 1919 she was transferred to the Commonwealth Government Line. The crew of the Pfalz were interred and sent to Berrima in 1914.

http://www.migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/exhibition/objectsthroughtime/kosterrecord/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Manfred von Richthofen, My First English Victim (17th September, 1915)

We were all at the butts trying our machine guns. On the previous day we had received our new aeroplanes and the next morning Boelcke was to fly with us. We were all beginners. None of us had had a success so far. Consequently everything that Boelcke told us was to us gospel truth. Every day, during the last few days, he had, as he said, shot one or two Englishmen for breakfast.

The next morning, the seventeenth of September, was a gloriously fine day. It was therefore only to be expected that the English would be very active. Before we started Boelcke repeated to us his instructions and for the first time we flew as a squadron commanded by the great man whom we followed blindly.

We had just arrived at the Front when we recognized a hostile flying squadron that was proceeding in the direction of Cambrai. Boelcke was of course the first to see it, for he saw a great deal more than ordinary mortals. Soon we understood the position and everyone of us strove to follow Boelcke closely. It was clear to all of us that we should pass our first examination under the eyes of our beloved leader.

Slowly we approached the hostile squadron. It could not escape us. We had intercepted it, for we were between the Front and our opponents. If they wished to go back they had to pass us. We counted the hostile machines. They were seven in number. We were only five. All the Englishmen flew large bomb-carrying two-seaters. In a few seconds the dance would begin.

Boelcke had come very near the first English machine but he did not yet shoot. I followed. Close to me were my comrades. The Englishman nearest to me was traveling in a large boat painted with dark colors. I did not reflect very long but took my aim and shot. He also fired and so did I, and both of us missed our aim. A struggle began and the great point for me was to get to the rear of the fellow because I could only shoot forward with my gun. He was differently placed for his machine gun was movable. It could fire in all directions.

Apparently he was no beginner, for he knew exactly that his last hour had arrived at the moment when I got at the back of him. At that time I had not yet the conviction "He must fall!" which I have now on such occasions, but on the contrary, I was curious to see whether he would fall. There is a great difference between the two feelings. When one has shot down one's first, second or third opponent, then one begins to find out how the trick is done.

My Englishman twisted and turned, going criss-cross. I did not think for a moment that the hostile squadron contained other Englishmen who conceivably might come to the aid of their comrade. I was animated by a single thought: "The man in front of me must come down, whatever happens." At last a favorable moment arrived. My opponent had apparently lost sight of me. Instead of twisting and turning he flew straight along. In a fraction of a second I was at his back with my excellent machine. I give a short series of shots with my machine gun. I had gone so close that I was afraid I might dash into the Englishman. Suddenly, I nearly yelled with joy for the propeller of the enemy machine had stopped turning. I had shot his engine to pieces; the enemy was compelled to land, for it was impossible for him to reach his own lines. The English machine was curiously swinging to and fro. Probably something had happened to the pilot. The observer was no longer visible. His machine gun was apparently deserted. Obviously I had hit the observer and he had fallen from his seat.

The Englishman landed close to the flying ground of one of our squadrons. I was so excited that I landed also and my eagerness was so great that I nearly smashed up my machine. The English flying machine and my own stood close together. I rushed to the English machine and saw that a lot of soldiers were running towards my enemy. When I arrived I discovered that my assumption had been correct. I had shot the engine to pieces and both the pilot and observer were severely wounded. The observer died at once and the pilot while being transported to the nearest dressing station. I honored the fallen enemy by placing a stone on his beautiful grave.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWrichthofen.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28th Battalion History - In Canada and England 1914-1915

September 16, 1915 - The event called 'The Retreat from Moscow' by the 28th Battalion. The Battalion received orders to embark for France. The march to embark at Folkstone is diverted onto narrow, dusty side roads for security reasons. High temperatures, high humidity, tall hedges, new webbing & new boots resulted in sore feet, severe chaffing, exhaustion and confusion. Some troops dropped out on the 10-mile march. Sailing was postponed due to reports of submarines in the English Channel so a bivouac was arranged on St. Martin's Plain, one mile from the port. The local guide became lost, leading most of the battalion on a 5-mile trek. Stragglers and separated parties began to fall out and lie down on sidewalks, porches & half a company at the railroad station. Colonel Embury was found it to be quite embarrassing that a fit, well-trained outfit could fall apart so easily. Major Alex Ross gathered the stragglers onto the plain in the early morning. The bivouac was poor as the water supply was limited and all supplies (including food & cookers) were already loaded on the ship.

September 17, 1915 - A night march from St. Martin's Plain to Folkstone harbour takes 1/2 hour. There are none of the incidents of the previous day's march. The Battalion embarks for France.

http://www.nwbattalion.com/history1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harry Farr

Na deze gevechten verzocht hij op 17 september om een medisch onderzoek. Hij werd naar de eerste hulppost gestuurd maar daar werd een onderzoek geweigerd geweigerd omdat hij niet gewond was. Vervolgens werd hem gesommeerd terug te gaan naar het front. Waarop Harry Farr herhaalde keren weigerde daarbij zeggende: ‘I cannot stand it’. De sergeant-majoor gebruikte harde taal om hem te overreden: ‘You are a fucking coward & you will go to the trenches. I give fuck all for my life & I give fuck all for yours & I'll get you fucking well shot’.

Lees verder! http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/shotatdawn.html
Zie ook http://www.rsm.ac.uk/media/pr212.php
Zie ook http://www.rsm.ac.uk/media/downloads/j06-09harry.pdf
Zie ook https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557889/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 17 Sep 2018 9:23, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Raids on Gouzeacourt and Valenciennes (September 1916)

September 17th, 1916, was a bad day for the Royal Flying Corps. No. 12 Squadron - who flew B.E.2c's and whose main role was artillery observation - after an abortive early morning start, set out later in the morning to bomb Marcoing Junction, escorted by F.E.2b's from No. 11 Squadron. The B.E. pilots flew without observers, whose weight was about equivalent to their load of two 112lb. or eight 20lb. bombs. On turning for home after dropping their bombs, the British formation was attacked by three fighters from the newly formed German Jagdstaffel 2, flying for the first time in the new "Albatros D 1" scouts, equipped with more powerful engines and having two machine guns, one each side of the fuselage, which were provided with interrupter gear and so could fire through the arc of the propellor without hitting the blades.

One of the B.E.'s that had successfully bombed a train, was shot down by the Commander of the German Squadron - Hauptman Oswald Boelke - it being his twenty-seventh victim. The pilot, Lieutenant Patterson, died in hospital from his wounds. Another of the No.12 pilots, Raymond Money, who had spent several months in France flying as an observer before qualifying as a pilot in England and returning to France, had engine trouble and his plane was hit by a burst of "Archie". However he managed to survive though he crashed on landing. The F.E.'s of No.11 Squadron put up a valiant fight but four of them were shot down by the much faster and better armed Germans who had been joined by several of their comrades.

Two of the F.E.'s managed to land without killing their crews who were taken prisoner - Captain Gray (Indian Army), his observer Lieutenant Saunders (Middlesex Regiment); Second Lieutenant Tom Molloy (Dorset Regiment), his observer Lieutenant Helder (Royal Fusiliers) who was slightly wounded. The F.E.'s had little chance to cope with the much faster Albatroses who attacked from the rear and out of the line of fire of the F.E. observer's rear-firing Lewis guns which were mounted on the top plane and fired by the observer standing up in his cockpit which projected from the lower plane, with the pilot sitting behind him. So it was impossible for the observer to fire at a plane approaching from the rear without hitting his tailplane.

September 17th - No. 27 Squadron set off early (7 a.m.) to bomb the station at Valenciennes some way behind the lines, and having dropped their bombs were lucky to return home without having run into enemy opposition. But my luck did not hold. It was a lovely morning and nine Martinsydes, each carrying ten 20lb. bombs, with four others acting as escort, had soon got into formation led by my Flight Commander Captain Owen T. Boyd. I was the right hand back man. We flew north towards Arras and met two F.E.'s on early morning patrol who seemed surprised to see us. As we crossed the La Bassee Canal at about 9,000 feet, we ran into a lot of "Archie" near Lens but there was no sign of any hostile machines. Our formation continued to be shelled in spasms on its way to Valenciennes. Suddenly my engine began to misfire and finally stopped. I turned on the emergency petrol tank which fed the carburettor by gravity and pumped up pressure in the main tank with the hand pump.

The engine picked up again for a short time but the pressure gauge showed no reading. I turned for home, dropped my bombs and managed to climb to 11,000 feet, when the engine finally packed up. The Squadron flew back overhead; I fired a Very light but it did not appear to have been noticed. There was nothing more to be done than to glide down and look for a suitable landing place.

I had some tracer ammunition in my Lewis gun drums and as there was a danger that these might be classified as "explosive", I threw them overboard as I passed over a small wood. Shortly afterwards I landed in a stubble field. I jumped out and tried to set fire to the wings of the machine with a "portfire" which we carried in the event of a forced landing in enemy territory. The doped fabric of the lower wing would not burn so I jumped back into the fuselage, broke the glass petrol gauge and set alight the petrol which gushed out. A German soldier driving a hay-rake galloped up yelling, followed by an officer on a horse and a crowd of soldiers who had been exercising nearby. I gave my flying coat to a Bosche to carry and was escorted off by the officer - a major. By this time there was a considerable crowd round the Martinsyde, who bolted when the petrol tank exploded and the Very lights ignited as the plane broke in half. Some staff officers arrived in a car to view the wreck and the German Major with whom I conversed in French, told me I was claimed by an A.A. Battery who had fired at me as I glided down to land. But I denied it. I was picked up by a fat Captain and driven off to Bourlon, where the Air Force Headquarters was located in the Chateau. After waiting some time in a room occupied by clerks, I was interviewed by an officer wearing a monocle and decorated with the Iron Cross, he gave me a cigarette. Later I was interrogated by a very rude officer, but only gave my name, rank and Regiment, which annoyed him. As I was leaving the Chateau, I produced my only German phrase, "Ich danke Ihnen fur Ihre grosse freundlichkeit" causing some surprise! I was then taken to the Mairie, where I was shut up with two German private soldiers. An A.A. Battery in the village kept on firing and I saw several F.E.'s flying overhead. After waiting until about 3 p.m., I was marched off to the station about a mile distant and put on a train to Cambrai.

I was taken to the Fortress which was used as a barracks and put in a very dirty room where I met several other British officers, recently taken prisoner - including Captain Gray, Saunders, Molloy, Helder and Money, all Royal Flying Corps and shot down that morning.

What were one's feelings when it became evident that it was not possible to get back to the British side of the lines? I think that my attention was rivetted on finding a safe landing place rather than realising that I was to fall into enemy hands. I must admit that on my first flights over German-held territory, I was frightened, particularly when anti-aircraft shells exploded - some near enough to cause my plane to bounce.

I had had practically no instructions in how to deal with enemy aircraft, and the very primitive bomb sight fixed on the side of the pilot's seat was quite useless. So when we reached our targets, we had to guess the approximate moment to "pull the plug" and release the bombs. Not too difficult when coming down low over a station full of trucks and carriages, but very uncertain when flying at 10,000 feet!

The room had no furniture except for double-tier wooden bunks in which we slept on straw filled palliasses. The food provided was vile - an unpleasant change after the Mess at Fienvillers - and consisted of vegetable soup served twice a day, black bread and ersatz coffee. Fortunately we had some French money and were able to buy through an interpreter a little jam, chocolate and biscuits. There were no washing facilities but we were allowed half an hour's exercise in the barrack square.

One day while we were there, there was a parade of a Bosche Battalion, which had been made up with drafts - mostly young soldiers - after having suffered severe casualties on the Somme battlefield. The battalion was formed up in square and addressed by a senior officer sitting on his horse. After a long oration, an N.C.O. produced some Iron Crosses from a bag he was carrying. These were duly pinned on the breasts of a number of the "other ranks" - no doubt "pour encourager les autres".

We were kept in Cambrai for about ten days until enough prisoners had been collected to make up a train load. Officers were packed eight to a third class carriage with a German private, who smelt to high heaven, to guard us. After spending a night in the train and passing through Douai, Mons and Brussels, we disembarked in Cologne station. We spent another night in an underground waiting room known to many prisoners-of-war as the "Black Hole of Calcutta". Next day we entrained and in due course arrived at Gütersloh in the province of Hanover where we spent a night in a reception camp located outside the main P.O.W. Lager. A party of twenty-eight R.F.C. officers went on by train to Osnabruck where we were shut up in rooms with windows pasted over with paper so that we could not see out. We were kept there for about a fortnight, and were visited by an attaché from the American Embassy who gave no reason why we were segregated. We learned later that we were kept incommunicado because the British Government was threatening to shoot a captured Zeppelin crew - about fifteen in number - because they were carrying tracer bullets which were held to contravene the Hague Convention. So the Huns picked twice the number of R.F.C. officers in case it became necessary for them to retaliate. Fortunately we were not shot!

To revert to my landing in enemy territory - when I was staying at the Adelphi Hotel in Liverpool in 1940, I saw a senior R.A.F. officer in the lounge whom I seemed to recognize and who turned out to be Air Vice Marshal Owen T. Boyd, my one time Flight Commander. I introduced myself and we had a chat. He remembered my disappearance on September 17th and said he had often wondered what had happened to me. Shortly afterwards on a flight to Egypt, his plane had to make a forced landing in Sicily, so he in his turn became a P.O.W.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/whs_chance_5
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Welsh Air Aces of World War One
Phil Carradice, 14 September 2010

Most people know the name of the Red Baron, Manfred von Richtofen. He was the greatest "ace" of World War One, a conflict where young men took to the air in flimsy, canvas machines and where a pilot's life expectancy could be measured in weeks rather than months.

Richtofen destroyed 80 Allied aircraft before he, too, was eventually shot down and killed.

Wales also had many fliers in the war, people whose names are now long forgotten. They may not have enjoyed the celebrity of Richtofen but, like him, they were brave and fearless. And, like him, they all have stories needing to be told.

One of them, Lieutenant T Rees, who came from Cardiff, had a more than passing involvement with von Richtofen - he was actually the Red Baron's first victim.

Rees was acting as observer for his friend L B F Morris on 17 September 1916 when their old and out-dated reconnaissance plane was spotted by Richtofen.

Despite the best efforts of the Red Baron, Rees kept him at bay for quite some time, loosing off bursts of machine gun fire whenever he came in range. It was an uneven contest, however, as superior speed and manoeuvrability eventually gave Richtofen a chance.

Richtofen attacked from below the British aircraft, Rees was wounded and slumped to the floor of his cockpit. The British plane was now helpless and, after several more attacks, crashed behind German lines.

Richtofen landed to find some souvenirs amongst the wreckage. He himself wrote that Lt Rees was still alive in the wreck. However, as he lifted Rees from the smashed aircraft the young Welshman opened his eyes and, with a smile, died. Richtofen never forgot the courage of his first victim.

Arthur Rhys Davids was the son of a Welshman, even though he had been born in South London. A dashing and brave pilot, he joined the Royal Flying Corps in August 1916 and won the DFC (and Bar) and the MC before he and his aeroplane just disappeared on 27 October 1917.

Before that, however, he had managed to score many victories in aerial combat, one of them being over the great German ace Werner Voss - a man many considered to be braver and a better pilot than the great Manfred von Richtofen.

Wales' highest scoring ace of World War One was Ira "Taffy" Jones. He was born just outside St Clears in April 1896 and joined the RFC in June 1915, first as an observer/gunner and then as a pilot. After training he was posted to No 74 Squadron where he fought alongside the legendary Mick Mannock.

"Taffy" Jones scored 37 victories, six of them coming in an 11-day period in 1918, a feat that earned him the DFC. And yet, Jones was not a great pilot. He often crashed on landing, a problem caused by poor depth perception; he had been lucky even to pass the medical to get into the RFC.

Jones stayed on in what had now become the RAF once the war finished, retiring in 1936 after a career that had lasted 21 years - not bad when most of the men he had fought with had been killed long before. In 1939 Jones rejoined the RAF and flew again in World War Two, a truly indomitable and remarkable figure.

He was not just a fighter pilot. He wrote one of the great books about World War One flying, "King of the Air Fighter," the life of Mick Mannock. He unveiled the war memorial in the main street of St Clears and there is a tablet about this remarkable man alongside the memorial on that site. He died, after falling down the stairs at his home, on 20 August 1966, the last of the Welsh aces.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/waleshistory/2010/09/welsh_pilots_of_world_war_one.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dicta Boelcke

By the summer of 1916, Oswald Boelcke had become Germany's top fighter pilot. Feldflugchef Colonel Thomsen of the German High Command urged Boelcke to draw up a summary of principles that should govern every air fight. His list of 'rules' for success is often referred to as the 'Dicta Boelcke.'

While the Dicta sound simplistic, they represented the rules for successful air combat. The Dicta were still valid for World War II fighter pilots and even into the Korean War. Only when modern high-powered jet combat became 'blind' and electronic, did Boelcke's visually-based rules begin to lose their relevance.


Performance- Knowing the strengths, weakness and capabilities of your own aircraft, and that of your foe, was also critical. Who was faster, who could turn tighter, how many were there, etc.? He argued against foolish acts of 'heroism.' If he could not 'secure advantages,' he would not attack. One of Boelcke's pupils, Manfred von Richthofen, learned this rule very well and became the war's top scoring ace. A documented example of Boelcke 'securing advantages' took place on 17 September 1916. Boelcke and his pilots intercepted a flight of bombers and fighters crossing the lines. He chose not to attack right away, but had his Jasta climb higher above the bombers, keeping themselves between the bombers and the sun. There they circled and waited. When the bomber pilots, observers and fighter escort pilots were preoccupied with the destruction they were causing on the ground, Boelcke signaled for his pilots to attack. Several enemy aircraft went down and Jasta 2 lost no one.

http://www.aviationfans.com/node/19
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EYES OF THE ARMY: The Life and Letters of World War I Aerial Observer Lt. Mortimer M. Lawrence

September 17, 1917
Fort Sill,

Dear Folks:-

Received the papers and was very glad to get them. It seemed good for it was almost two weeks since I had seen a B.D. paper.

Everything here is about the same. There is nothing new to write about for it is just a case of plug along.

Don’t worry about the weather not being warm enough for B.V.D.’s, it is all of that and probably will be for some time to come.

Saturday evening we went to Medicine Park to go swimming. After that we went to the hotel for a little while and who should come down the porch but Lieut. Morrow of Co. N, R.O.T.C. at Fort Sheridan. He is now Capt. Morrow of Battery C of the 14th Field Artillery. He seemed glad to see me and wanted to know what I was doing down here. When I told him he wanted me to transfer to the Artillery, to his battery. So if I don’t get a commission here instead of going back to the 41st I am going to try to transfer to Capt. Morrow’s battery.

Will you please send me a couple of those [crossed out] Never mind I don’t want them. I was going to ask for some of my books and I guess I would like one – it is Merriman’s American Civil Engineers Pocket Book. It is the book with the tracing cloth cover on it and I think it is in the left hand drawer of my bureau.

It is time for mess so must stop for now.

Love to all,

Mortimer.

http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/september-17-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917 Blue Tsarevich Constellation Egg

In de nacht van 16 op 17 september 1917 arriveerde in Moskou een trein uit Sint Petersburg, volgepakt met schatten die behoorden aan de Tsarenfamilie. Daaronder waren ook de Keizerlijke Paaseieren van de firma Fabergé. Van de 50 Eieren zijn er maar 10 in Rusland gebleven, de rest is naar het buitenland verkocht. Maar, het 1917 Ei, het Blue Tsarevich Constellation Egg, waarvan altijd was aangenomen dat het verdwenen was, heeft als elfde Ei al die tijd opgeslagen gelegen in de kelders van het Fersman Mineralogical Museum.

http://www.mieks.com/faberge/eieren/1917-Blue-Constellation-Egg.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MILITARY MEDALS AWARDED TO MEMBERS OF QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S IMPERIAL MILITARY NURSING SERVICE AND THE TERRITORIAL FORCE NURSING SERVICE DURING THE GREAT WAR

BOWLES, Linda
Sister, QAIMNS Reserve
London Gazette 17 September 1917

At Bailleul Ambulance Siding. This lady was on duty on the night of the 6/7th July 1917, at No.11 Casualty Clearing Station. For about three hours bombs were repeatedly dropped in the immediate vicinity of, and eventually into the Casualty Clearing Station, which was under canvas. There were some 250 patients in the Hospital at the time, 27 were killed and 68 wounded amongst the patients and personnel as a result of seven bombs dropped on the Hospital. Throughout she continued her duties amongst the patients helping to calm them and attending to those wounded in the bombardment. She showed most remarkable coolness and devotion to duty, and gave a splendid example under very trying circumstances.

http://www.scarletfinders.co.uk/121.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 16 Sep 2010 20:08, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Zeppelin Staaken R.VI Bomber of the Great War
26 May 2009, Dr David Payne

In terms of the Great War, the name Zeppelin is synonymous with the lighter-than air, hydrogen gas filled, airships (dirigibles) that terrorised the eastern parts of England, and the capital, London, in particular, from January 1915 to August 1918. However, due to increasing losses from more effective British homeland air defences of anti-aircraft guns, fighter aircraft and barrage balloons, they were largely replaced, from May 1917, by the heavier-than-air German bomber aircraft called the Gotha IV and V. These two Gotha types carried out 27 night raids over England; primarily London.

But there was another Zeppelin product, one of its stable of heavier-than-air aircraft that was also to terrorise the British population from the 17th September 1917. This was a strategic bomber aircraft called the Zeppelin-Staaken R.VI. (R=Riesenflugzeug = Giant aircraft). It flew 52 missions over Britain releasing 2,772 bombs weighing a total of 196 tonnes (193 tons) including the first bomb of 1,000kg (2,200lbs) which fell on the Royal Hospital, Chelsea in London on the 16th February 1918. It had the largest wingspan (= 42.2m/138.5ft) of any bomber aircraft of the Great War being even bigger than British Lancaster bomber of the Second World War (wingspan = 31.1m/102.1ft).

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-at-sea-in-air/aircraft-types/953-zeppelin-staaken-rvi-bomber-great-war.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Return to the UK in 1917

In 1917, all Europe was at war. In February of that year, the people of Russia rose up against the Czar. As the year went on, the British families at Hughesovka realised that the situation was serious, and they needed to leave. But because of the war, they were unable to travel by either of the usual routes, overland through Europe, or by sea from the Black Sea through the Mediterranean.

Mavis Calderwood lived in Hughesovka at the time. She was seven years old, and the daughter of the chief engineer. In an oral history interview in the early 1990s, she recounted the dramatic experiences of the family's journey home through revolutionary Russia and war-torn Europe.

Mavis told how, at the end of July 1917, her family - herself, her parents, older brother, four-year-old sister and baby brother - left Hughesovka. They travelled for 9 days by train from the southern Ukraine northwards across Russia to St Petersburg, by then renamed Petrograd. They spent the whole journey in the corridor of the train - only soldiers were allowed in the compartments.

The family stayed in Petrograd for three weeks, waiting for the papers that would allow them to leave the country. They were robbed of their money, their supply of food was almost finished, and the baby was very ill with bronchitis. Revolutionaries were firing constantly in the streets outside.

Eventually, at three o'clock one morning the police came with their papers, and told them to be on the train at Finland Station within the hour. They travelled by train through Finland, Sweden and Norway, arriving at Voss in Norway at the beginning of September.

They spent two weeks in Voss, and then boarded one of two converted cattle ships in Bergen. The Royal Navy was there to escort them across the North Sea, but a German U-boat sank one of the ships. Mavis and her family were on the other ship, and arrived safely at Aberdeen on 17 September 1917. Her mother had to be carried off the ship on a stretcher, and the family were down to their last few pence.

http://www.glamro.gov.uk/Hughesovka/hka-return.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Megiddo (1918)

The Battle of Megiddo, from 19 September to 1 October 1918, and its subsequent exploitation, was the culminating victory in British General Edmund Allenby's conquest of Palestine during World War I. British Empire forces made a massive push into the Jezreel Valley from the west, through the Carmel Ridge, then engulfed the Ottoman forces in the valley and on the River Jordan. When he was made a viscount, Allenby took the name of this battle as his title, becoming the First Viscount Allenby of Megiddo. (...)

Opening attack

On 17 September 1918, Arabs under T. E. Lawrence and Nuri as-Said began destroying railway lines around the vital rail centre of Deraa. Lawrence's initial forces (a Camel Corps unit from Feisal's Army, an Egyptian Camel Corps unit, some Gurkha machine gunners, British and Australian armoured cars and French mountain artillery) were soon joined by up to 3,000 Rualla and Howeitat tribesmen, under noted fighting chiefs such as Auda abu Tayi. Although Lawrence was ordered by Allenby only to disrupt communications around Deraa for a week and Lawrence himself had not intended a major uprising to take place in the area immediately, to avoid Ottoman reprisals, a growing number of local communities spontaneously took up arms against the Turks.

As the Turks reacted, sending the garrison of Al-Fuleh to reinforce Deraa, the units of Chetwode's Corps made attacks in the hills above the Jordan, intending to further divert the Turks' attention to this flank, although this did not fool the Ottomans. At the last minute, an Indian deserter warned the Turks about the impending main attack, but while the commander of Turkish XXII Corps wished to withdraw to forestall the attack, his superior (Jevad Pasha, commanding the Turkish Eighth Army) and Liman (who feared that the deserter was himself an attempted intelligence bluff) forbade him to do so.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Megiddo_(1918)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hindenburg Line

17 September 1918 - Australian attack on Hindenburg Line in the Picardy region of France.

http://fffaif.org.au/

The 1st and 4th Australian divisions were successful in breaching the forward edge of the main German defensive line across the Picardy region of France.

http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/thismonth/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 16 Sep 2010 20:25, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Louise de Bettignies (1880 - 1918), "Joan of Arc of the North"

Louise de Bettignies died on 17 September 1918 as a result of a complications during an operation on a pleural abscess. She was buried at Bocklemünd cemetery in Westfriedhof.

Interessant afrtikel! http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichegh.php?idGH=341&idLang=en
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

David Ferguson Hunter

David Ferguson Hunter VC (28 November 1891 - 14 February 1965) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 26 years old, and a corporal in the 1/5th Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 16/17 September 1918 at Moeuvres, France, Corporal Hunter was detailed to take on an advanced post which was established in shell holes close to the enemy. There was no opportunity for reconnoitring adjacent ground, and the following afternoon Corporal Hunter found that the enemy had established posts all round him, isolating his command. He determined to hold out and despite being exceedingly short of food and water this NCO managed to maintain his position for over 48 hours until a counter-attack relieved him. He repelled frequent enemy attacks and also barrage from our attacks, which came right across his post.

He later achieved the rank of sergeant.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Museum of The Royal Highland Fusiliers (Glasgow, Scotland).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Ferguson_Hunter
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Woodrow Wilson Quotes

"My fellow citizens, I believe in Divine Providence. If I did not I would go crazy."
-Sept. 17, 1919, one week before his collapse

http://www.woodrowwilson.org/learn_sub/learn_sub_show.htm?doc_id=472697
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Byron Kelley at wheel of car on Colborne Street, Oakville

James Bryon Kelley is shown here in the uniform of the Royal Flying Corps. The Oakville News announced his return to Oakville on Wednesday, September 17th, 1919 with the following front-page article: "Welcome Home. Once more we use the familiar heading "Welcome Home" to welcome two more of our soldier boys from overseas. This time it is a double welcome in both cases, J. Byron Kelley and Harold Wilson each having returned with a pretty English bride. They came on the Str. Cedric and arrived in town on Monday."

http://images.oakville.halinet.on.ca//details.asp?ID=16023
Zie ook http://oakvilleatwar.opl.on.ca/war_images.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 20:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

JOHN J. PERSHING - CAREER FACT SHEET

September 17, 1919 - JJP leads a victory parade down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington. Two days later he addresses a Joint Session of Congress.

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/pershing.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garrett War Diary - SEPTEMBER 1916

17/09/1916
Left for the scrap at about 10.00 a.m. and watered at SALMANA about 7 miles east. From SALMANA to MAZA is waterless. At about 8.00 a.m. we halted in a rather deep gully, for these parts. The track clearly defined running below. Halted fed up and had brekker, boiled billy. The last hour of this part of the journey was specially a snorter, horses pouring sweat, hot sun and no wind. The Brigade Field Ambulance rigged up a marque hospital and a couple of bell tents. A scouting Taube came over, circled around once or twice and made off. We are supports to the 2nd and 3rd Brigades and the Camel Corps (Imperial?). Who attacked 2,300 Turks, strongly entrenched at MAZA.

At about midday these Brigades passed us going back. They made no serious attack and from what I can see of the stunt it was only a reconnaissance in force. Their horses had not been watered since the previous day and were feeling it. Brought back between 20 and 30 prisoners, regulars and Bedouins.. Regulars are dressing in a light yellowish cloth, red sash and Bedouin style head gear, good puttees. Rifles are Martini-Peabody (U.S.A.) a little wallar on a donkey and two young cow camels, several camels, and 1 Turk Officer. We had several casualties, one officer killed, 5 killed and 20 wounded, I heard, but perhaps wrong, that two batteries, RHA, supported our chaps.

Colonel COX is in charge of our Brigade. We started back at about 2.00 p.m. SALMARA at 6.00 p.m., watered, salty water. BIR EL ABD at 8.30 p.m., drew rations and water and slept. The other Brigades operating from HOD ES AMARA not ROMANI.

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/sept1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harry Fell

Aged 24 years and unmarried, Harry Fell had initially been posted as missing in action by the War Office, his name appearing in ‘The Scarborough Mercury’ of Friday the 22nd of September 1916;
‘Lieut. Fell Missing - A telegram received last night by Mrs Fell, Rydale Mount, Osborne Park, intimated that Lieut. Harry Fell, Yorks. Regt., her son, was reported missing on Sunday last. Lieut Fell, who was very well know in football circles, [In the 1912-13 season Harry had played for Scarborough F.C. on twenty eight occasions and had scored eleven goals] was twice previously wounded. He came home on leave in autumn last after being wounded, and was granted a commission’…

Harry was eventually officially posted as ‘believed to have been killed in action’ on Sunday September 17TH 1916 [possibly the 15th], and his name had appeared in the ‘Scarboro Casualties’ column of the Scarborough Mercury of Friday November 3RD 1916 as having been killed in action.

http://www.scarboroughsmaritimeheritage.org.uk/greatwar/f27-martinpuich.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd Lt. Oswald Nixon - Royal Flying Corps

Killed in Action 17th September 1916
Buried in Serre Road No.2 Cemetery, France

Nixon entered the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst in the late summer of 1914 and was gazetted as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Essex Regiment in March 1915 and was sent to France as a replacement on the 23rd March 1915. He immediately joined his regiment in the trenches outside Loos. The Battalion War Diary holds the following record:

24th March: Battalion subjected to a persistent and spiteful bombardment of HE (High Explosive) and shrapnel shells, and many casualties were inflicted by this bombardment.

A further draft of replacements were received including:

2nd Lt J E Compton
2nd Lt O S Nixon
2nd Lt L K R Bakewell

Bombardment lasted until 4am, and trenches were relieved by 2 Royal Berkshires. Battalion moved into reserve and the relief was completed by 5.35am.


Records further show that on the 1st May 1915 2nd Lt Nixon was removed to base camp hospital suffering from a gun shot wound to the left hand.

He enlisted into the Royal Flying Corps in October 1915 and commenced his basic training as an observer at Nieupoort in Belgium. On completion of his basic training, he then entered Pilot training, and passed out as a Pilot on the 2nd September 1916. He fortunately missed the Battle of the Somme as he was still in his basic training.

Nixon was posted to join 70 Squadron Royal Flying Corps, and was allocated to be pilot of a Sopwith Strutter, identified as aircraft A1913. He was appointed Lt Edgar Wood as his observer.

He was posted to Louverain air field near Cambrai, Northern France and completed his first mission on the 17th September 1916; it was during this first solo flight as a qualified pilot that he was killed. He was posted to undertake a general reconnaissance mission over the German lines.

Whilst climbing over the German lines, Nixon was attacked by a squadron of German Jasta 2 aircraft and despite his best efforts he was shot down and killed. The kill was later attributed to Lt Erwin Böhme, who later went on to become one of the German air forces highest aces with 33 kills. He himself was shot down and killed in early 1917.

The observer Lt Wood although badly wounded survived the crash and was taken prisoner by the Germans.

Nixon’s body remained at the crash site in No Mans Land until the 25th when it was recovered by men from the Lancashire Fusiliers. The cause of death was noted to be a single bullet wound to the head. He had been qualified as a pilot for just 15 days.

http://bloxhamschoolwardead.co.uk/id4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian Legion in France during 1916-1919

Two infantry Brigades, the 1st and the 3rd, were sent to France in 1916 by Tsar Nicholas II both as a morale booster to the Allies on the Western Front and as a part of "men for arms" trade arranged with the French government. Originally 40,000 soldiers per month were to be sent to France, but this arrangement was never carried out in full. Nevertheless, a total of four brigades were sent to the West, with the 1st and 3rd brigades going to France and 2nd and 4th brigades going to the Macedonian Front at Salonika. First brigade, composed of the 1st and 2nd Special purpose regiments and commanded by Major General Nikolai Alexandrovich Lokhvitsky boarded their trains at Moscow on February 2, 1916, and traveled across Siberia to the port of Dal'ny, where they sailed in four ships past Hong Kong and via the Suez Canal to Marseilles. They arrived in France in April of 1916. By April 23rd, the First brigade of the Russian Expeditionary Forces in France was training at camp Mailly-le-Grand in Champaigne. The 3rd brigade of the REF arrived in Brest from Archangel in September of 1916. On September 17, 1916 Joffre ordered the 1st and 3rd brigades to form a Division at Mourmelon-le-Grand in Champaigne.

http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?134105-Russian-Legion-in-France-during-1916-1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

81st Division Organized

The famous 81st “Wildcat” Division was organized here on 25 August 1917. By 17 September, Camp Jackson’s first Post Commander and Commanding General of the 81st, Brigadier General Charles H. Barth, moved his Division into permanent quarters. During the month more than 8,000 draftees arrived to fill the Division’s ranks. Later the Division’s infantry went to Camp Sevier, Greenville, South Carolina, before going overseas, where its members saw action in the Lorraine and Meuse-Argonne Campaigns. The “Wildcat” artillery remained at Jackson until going to Europe.

A military uniform tradition was established at Camp Jackson by the 81st Division. Men of this unit, training on the southeast corner of the reservation near Wildcat Creek, began to wear crude cloth emblems of wildcat heads on their sleeves. The emblem was designed by Corporal Dan Silverman of Company I, 321st Infantry Regiment. As the 81st “Wildcat” Division joined the American Expeditionary Force in France in August 1918, this custom found wide popularity and eventually these unique unit identification patches were worn throughout the Army.

http://www.jackson.army.mil/Museum/History/CHAPTER%20I.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Book Review: Setting the Desert on Fire by James Barr

(...) Even today, from time to time, a young Englishman falls under the spell of the British Empire; and since he can no longer govern it, he usually decides to write about it instead. James Barr, the author of "Setting the Desert on Fire" (Norton, 382 pages, $27.95) is a fine example of the type. There is no real reason why, in order to write this book about Lawrence of Arabia, Mr. Barr had to visit the sites of Lawrence's exploits. Yet every few chapters, Mr. Barr interrupts his narrative to tell us that, 90 years after Lawrence crossed this desert or attacked that railroad station, he was there as well. "From the police station, three hundred yards away to the west, I could see a dark hill that rises steeply out of a dusty plain," he writes in one typical aside. "It must have been from there that, on the night of 17 September 1917, Lawrence ... looked down on the station behind me, which was blazing with yellow light from within." This is not just history writing, but channeling, or even an elevated kind of play-acting — the author imagining himself as the soldier that, a hundred years ago, he might have been.

As Mr. Barr proves, this is just the right spirit in which to approach T.E. Lawrence. For if generations of readers (and moviegoers) have imagined themselves playing Lawrence — riding on camelback through a blazing waste, leading proud tribesmen on lightning raids — Mr. Barr shows that the first person to revel in playing Lawrence of Arabia was Lawrence himself. Reporting to a friend about an attack on a Turkish troop train, he wrote, "I hope this sounds the fun it is ... It's the most amateurishly Buffalo-Billy sort of performance." At times, he was even oppressed by the sense that he was a kind of vaudeville cowboy, and Arabia a "foreign stage on which one plays day and night, in fancy dress, in a strange language.... The whole thing is such a play, and one cannot put conviction into one's daydreams." (...)

http://www.nysun.com/arts/arabian-knights/71551/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AMERICAN RED CROSS MISSION TO RUMANIA

(...) The Red Cross Mission to Rumania remained at its post in Jassy for the remainder of 1917 and into 1918. The medical staff of the American Red Cross Mission in Russia — the seven doctors — quit in disgust in August 1917, protested the political activities of Colonel Thompson, and returned to the United States. Consequently, in September 1917, when the Rumanian mission appealed to Petrograd for American doctors and nurses to help out in the near crisis conditions in Jassy, there were no American doctors or nurses in Russia available to go to Rumania.

Whereas the bulk of the mission in Russia occupied its time in internal political maneuvering, the mission in Rumania threw itself into relief work as soon as it arrived. On September 17, 1917, a confidential cable from Henry W. Anderson, chairman of the Rumania mission, to the American ambassador Francis in Petrograd requested immediate and urgent help in the form of $5 million to meet an impending catastrophe in Rumania. Then followed a series of letters, cables, and communications from Anderson to Francis appealing, unsuccessfully, for help. (...)

http://www.reformed-theology.org/html/books/bolshevik_revolution/chapter_05.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Spanish Lady (influenza) Comes to De Kalb

I had a little bird,
Its name was Enza.
I opened the window,
And in-flu-enza .

- Children’s Jump Rope Rhyme, circa 1919

The flu returned to North America on ships carrying cargo to various North American ports in August 1918. By Labor Day a major outbreak had begun in Boston, Massachusetts. From there, the epidemic began to march inexorably towards the North Country and De Kalb. The local press took no notice of the raging epidemic in Boston until September 29 th .

US Surgeon General Rupert Blue was so alarmed by the epidemic that on September 17, 1918 he called upon military officials to stop shipment of all exposed military personnel in the US and immediately stop induction of new recruits. As surgeon general, he could only recommend, not order, and his requests were ignored. On October 4 th, he asked all State health officers to “ close all public gathering places if the community is threatened with epidemic.”

http://dekalbnyhistorian.org/LocalHistoryArticles/SpanishInfluenza/article.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 flu pandemic in South Dakota remembered

PIERRE, S.D. – On Tuesday, Sept. 17, 1918, Mrs. Arthur Nielson of Hot Springs
received word that her brother had died while serving his country in Cambridge,
Massachusetts. The local South Dakota newspaper noted that, “He died of the new
disease, Spanish Influenza, and was only sick three days.” Her brother was buried at
White Rock, SD, and became one of the first documented South Dakota casualties of the
1918 flu pandemic.
More deaths followed throughout the United States and the world. The Spanish flu was a
global disaster and affected a high percentage of the population, hence the term
“pandemic.” Reports indicated that about a fifth of the world’s population contracted the
Spanish flu over a two-year period. Deaths world-wide ranged anywhere from 25 to 50
million people; estimates show that about 675,000 Americans died of the flu in 1918.

http://history.sd.gov/Archives/forms/spanishflu/Spanish%20Flu%20Article.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Public health interventions and epidemic intensity during the 1918 influenza pandemic

The first cases of disease among civilians in Philadelphia were reported on September 17, 1918, but authorities downplayed their significance and allowed large public gatherings, notably a city-wide parade on September 28, 1918, to continue. School closures, bans on public gatherings, and other social distancing interventions were not implemented until October 3, when disease spread had already begun to overwhelm local medical and public health resources. In contrast, the first cases of disease among civilians in St. Louis were reported on October 5, and authorities moved rapidly to introduce a broad series of measures designed to promote social distancing, implementing these on October 7.

http://www.pnas.org/content/104/18/7582.full
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spanish Flu Epidemic of 1918 Strikes Dover

Spanish Influenza first appeared in Dover on September 17, 1918. Patients, mostly from the shipyards in Portsmouth and Newington, were under medical care in Dover. Clarence Post was the first to die of the flu, on September 20. He was only 27 years old. Five days after his death, the health board issued a general order closing schools, theatres, and any kind of public gatherings. They were too late in acting; the disease had already taken hold. His was the first of many deaths.

http://www.dover.lib.nh.us/DoverHistory/spanish_flu_epidemic.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2018 8:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Troonrede van 17 september 1918

Te midden van U, leden der Staten-Generaal, is het Mij eene behoefte openlijk uiting te geven aan de zorg en de smart, die de buitengewone nooden van Mijn Volk, waarmede Ik zonder ophouden medeleef en medegevoel, in Mij opwekken.

Te grooter is de dankbaarheid, waarmede Ik jegens God vervuld ben, nu voor ons land de vrede bewaard bleef.

De nog steeds woedende wereldoorlog blijft van ons geheele Volk zware offers eischen, die, naar Ik vast vertrouw, ook verder bereidwillig zullen worden gebracht.

Niettegenstaande gerezen moeilijkheden, ten gevolge waarvan de economische toestand een voortdurend ernstiger karakter aanneemt, bleven onze betrekkingen met alle Mogendheden van vriendschappelijken aard. De verplichtingen, die op een neutralen Staat rusten, zal Ik met onveranderde nauwgezetheid en vastberadenheid blijven nakomen. De beproefde eensgezindheid der natie geeft Mij steun bij Mijn onwrikbaar voomemen onze onafhankelijkheid tegen iedere aanranding tot het uiterste te verdedigen.

Dit belet niet, dat getracht zal worden de lasten der mobilisatie, zonder vermindering der weermacht, te verlichten.

De voorziening in het uit de tijdsomstandigheden voortvloeiend gebrek aan noodzakelijke levensbehoeften blijft het onderwerp van Mijn voortdurende zorg. Ik ben er op bedacht de daartoe strekkende maatregelen zoo weinig mogelijk drukkend te doen zijn en te streven naar zekerheid van de rechten naast de plichten der ingezetenen.

Reeds thans zal volle aandacht worden geschonken aan de maatregelen, die na den oorlog zoowel hier te lande als in de koloniën zullen moeten worden getroffen om den zoozeer ontwrichten handel en nijverheid de voorlichting en steun te geven, die zij alsdan zullen behoeven.

De toestand van ‘s lands schatkist wordt steeds meer zorgwekkend en vordert dringend zooveel mogelijk beperking van uitgaven. Daarnevens zullen ingrijpende maatregelen tot versterking van middelen niet kunnen uitblijven.

Instelling van een Departement van Onderwijs, Kunsten en Wetenschappen en een ander voor Arbeidsaangelegenheden ligt in Mijn voornemen. De uitvoering van het gewijzigd artikel 192 der Grondwet zal in den geest van onderling vertrouwen en toenadering die de herziening heeft gekenmerkt, ten spoedigste en met kracht worden ter hand genomen. Zonder dat deze uitvoering wordt vertraagd, zullen, ter wille van de billijkheid, onverwijld de noodige voorstellen worden ingediend tot wegneming van de steeds toenemende ongelijkheid in bezoldiging van openbare en bijzondere onderwijzers.

Aan de in 1913 tot stand gekomen verzekeringswetten zal zonder vertraging uitvoering worden gegeven. Voorstellen tot aanvulling van die wetten zullen U vervolgens worden gedaan. De opbouw der sociale wetgeving zal worden voortgezet; regeling der collectieve arbeidsovereenkomst, zoo wat de publiekrechtelijke als de privaatrechtelijke zijde betreft, zal worden ter hand genomen.

De uitvoering van waterstaatswerken, daaronder begrepen de drooglegging der Zuiderzee, zal met kracht worden voortgezet en ondernomen. Het ontwerp der Indische Begrooting dat U zal worden aangeboden, is dit jaar voor het eerst in Indië in openbare behandeling voorbereid. De goede verzorging van de geestelijke en stoffelijke belangen der Inlandsche bevolking heeft Mijn voortdurende aandacht.

Met stipte eerbiediging van de godsdienstige overtuiging der ingezetenen, wordt dankbaar de steun aanvaard, dien het Westersch particulier initiatief biedt en met name de hooge beteekenis erkend van den arbeid der Christelijke zending.

Tegen drank- en opiummisbruik zal de strijd krachtig worden voortgezet. Ruimer deelneming van de ingezetenen aan de behartiging van de locale belangen en uitbreiding van autonomie en zelfbestuur zullen zoowel de eigen geaardheid der bevolking tot haar recht doen komen als de vrijwillige saamhoorigheid met het Moederland sterken.

Deze strekke tot hechten grondslag voor de krachtige economische en militaire weermacht, waarvan de vorming zooveel mogelijk zal worden voortgezet.

In de West-Indische koloniën wordt mede de druk der tijdsomstandigheden gevoeld; naar sterking van haar draagvermogen zal worden gestreefd. Bij het toenemen der binnen- en buitenlandsche moeilijkheden vertrouw Ik des te vaster op Uwe onverdeelde medewerking.

Met de bede, dat God ons Volk in eendracht moge sterken en door de zware tijden tot betere dagen moge voeren, verklaar Ik de gewone zitting der Staten-Generaal geopend.

http://www.troonredes.nl/troonrede-van-17-september-1918/
Bewegend beeld: https://www.vpro.nl/speel~WO_VPRO_041215~haghe-film-17-september-1918-opening-der-staten-generaal-1918-kabinet-cort-van-der-linden~.html ... of hier: https://www.npostart.nl/opening-der-staten-generaal-1918-kabinet-cort-van-der-linden/27-12-2010/WO_VPRO_041215
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 17 Sep 2018 8:48, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2018 8:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hondenslachterij ontdekt in de Agniesebuurt in Rotterdam
Door Britte Kramer 17 september 2018

(...) In het Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad van 17 september 1918, dus precies honderd jaar geleden, kwamen we het volgende bericht tegen over de ontdekking van een hondenslachterij (ja, echt!) in de Vrouw-Jannestraat.

“Een hondenslachterij ontdekt. In het souterrain van pand 36 aan de Vrouw Jannestraat is een hondenslachterij ontdekt. Een partij hondenvleesch, drie nog in leven zijnde honden, benevens een aantal messen en andere slagersgereedschappen zijn in beslag genomen. Tegen den bewoner van het benedenhuis, A. B. genaamd, is door de politie proces-verbaal opgemaakt.”

https://indebuurt.nl/rotterdam/toen-in-rotterdam/say-what-100-jaar-geleden-werd-er-een-hondenslachterij-ontdekt-in-de-agniesebuurt~62800/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2018 8:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 september 1918 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Emiel Dekneuvele is op 30 mei 1885 geboren in de Henegouwse gemeente Ploegsteert, nu een deelgemeente van de Waalse stad Komen. De zoon van Edouard Louis en Marie Sidonie Gesquièr is gehuwd met Marie Louise Verstraete. Samen krijgen ze drie kinderen: Paul Arthur, Marie Louise en Marie Germine.

Op 3 augustus 1918 wordt hij het slachtoffer van een tragisch ongeval in Woesten. Hij is belast met het behandelen van resterende munitie. Op het moment dat hij zich in de opslagplaats bevindt van gerecupereerde metalen, ontploft een vijandelijk projectiel. Zwaar gekwetst wordt hij geëvacueerd naar het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Beveren-aan-de-IJzer, waar men zijn beide benen moet amputeren. Hij overlijdt daar op 17 september 1918 om 5.35 uur 's morgens.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 19 september 1918 begraven op het kerkhof van Beveren-aan-de-IJzer, grafnummer 483, en op 28 juli 1924 herbegraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van De Panne, grafnummer J-107.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/17-september-1918
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