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15 september

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Sep 2006 6:41    Onderwerp: 15 september Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 15. September 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT - ÖSTERREICHISCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Die Schlacht von Paris bis Verdun

Großes Hauptquartier, 15. September, abends.
Der auf dem rechten Flügel des Westheeres seit zwei Tagen stattfindende Kampf hat sich heute auf die nach Osten anschließenden Armeen bis nach Verdun heran ausgedehnt. An einigen Stellen das ausgedehnten Kampffeldes waren bisher Teilerfolge der deutschen Waffen zu verzeichnen. Im übrigen steht die Schlacht noch unentschieden.
Auf dem östlichen Kriegsschauplatz ordnet sich die Armee v. Hindenburg nach abgeschlossener Verfolgung.
In Oberschlesien verbreitete Gerüchte über drohende Gefahr sind nicht begründet. 1)


Nach dem Siege Hindenburgs

Berlin, 15. September. (W. B. Amtlich.)
Auch für den Regierungsbezirk Königsberg ist nunmehr eine Kommission zur Feststellung des völkerrechtswidrigen Auftretens der Russen eingesetzt worden, wie sie bereits für die Regierungsbezirke Allenstein und Gumbinnen besteht. Die Leitung der Kommission und die Berufung von Mitgliedern ist dem Regierungspräsidenten von Königsberg übertragen. An diese Kommission werden baldigst alle Mitteilungen über Grausamkeiten und Verwüstungen, die im Regierungsbezirk Königsberg vorgekommen sind, zu richten sein.

Berlin, 15. September. (W. B.)
Nach einer Meldung des "Berl. Lokalanz." gibt eine russische amtliche Meldung den Rückzug der Russen in Ostpreußen zu. Sie besagt: Am 10. September wurde eine überwältigende Bewegung der deutschen Truppen gegen den linken Flügel der Armee des Generals Rennenkampf bekannt. Diese Bewegung veranlaßte die Russen, sich zurückzuziehen. Im ersten Augenblick unternahmen die Russen zur Beseitigung der deutschen Offensive aktive Operationen, aber dann stellte sich heraus, daß sie sich einem übermächtigen Gegner gegenüber standen; an jeder Front dauert der Kampf an. 2)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Die Serben aus Südungarn vertrieben

Wien, 15. September.
Die über die Save eingebrochenen serbischen Kräfte wurden überall zurückgeschlagen. Syrmien und Banat sind daher vom Feinde vollständig frei.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)

Wien, 15. September. (W. B.)
Die "Reichspost" meldet aus Sofia:
Berichten aus Nisch zufolge ist die innere Lage in Serbien verzweifelt. Die Serben geben ihre bisherigen Verluste auf 25 000 Mann an. Schrecklich ist der Hunger, welcher im Lande herrscht. Die serbische Regierung hat sich mit in Bulgarien ansässigen griechischen Lebensmittelhändlern wegen Lieferungen in Verbindung gesetzt. Trotz des Eingreifens der russischen Regierung hat Bulgarien die Ausfuhr der Ladungen nicht zugelassen, da sie das auf der Neutralität beruhende Ausfuhrverbot berührten. Alle größeren Orte sind mit Verwundeten überfüllt. Krankheiten richten Verheerungen in der Armee und der Bevölkerung an.


Die Kämpfe in den Kolonien

Blantyre (Njassa-Land), 15. September. (W. B.)
Meldung des Reuterschen Bureaus: Der Regierungsdampfer "Gwendolen" beschoß am 8. September Langenburg und landete dort eine Abteilung. Der Ort wurde überrascht; es wurde kein Widerstand geleistet.

Berlin, 15. September. (W. B.)
Nach einer unbestätigten "Reuter"-Meldung aus Livingstonia vom 14. September ist eine Abteilung der deutsch-ostafrikanischen Schutztruppe am 5. September in Nord-Rhodesia eingefallen und hat die Niederlassung Abercorn angegriffen. Der Angriff wurde zurückgeschlagen. Am 6. September wurde wieder geschossen, ohne daß ein regelrechter Angriff erfolgte. Am 9. September eröffneten die Deutschen ein Feuer mit leichten Feldgeschützen, die durch Maschinengeschütze zum Schweigen gebracht wurden. Die Deutschen verließen ihre Stellung. Sie befanden sich in der Nacht 15 Meilen östlich von Abercorn. Leutnant Mac Carthy machte mit 90 Mann und einem Maschinengeschütz einen nächtlichen Eilmarsch und verfolgte den Feind bis an die Grenze.
Eine weitere "Reuter" - Meldung aus Nairobi vom 12. September berichtet über Kämpfe an der Grenze von Deutsch-Ostafrika und Nyassaland. Eine deutsche Abteilung überschritt danach die Grenze bei Mohoru, besetzte Karungu und rückt gegen Kisiki vor. Eine andere deutsche Abteilung, die nach Teavo zu Fuß vorgerückt war, hatte mit Truppen aus Bura und Mtoto-Andei ein Gefecht. Einzelheiten sind noch nicht bekannt. In Nairobi eingetroffene verwundete englische Soldaten berichten, daß die Engländer im heftigsten Feuer deutscher Maschinengewehre gestanden und einen Bajonettangriff gemacht hätten, um die Maschinengewehre zu nehmen. Der Angriff sei jedoch mißglückt. 2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im September 1914
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Sep 2006 6:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914 : First trenches are dug on the Western Front

In the wake of the Battle of the Marne—during which Allied troops halted the steady German push through Belgium and France that had proceeded over the first month of World War I—a conflict both sides had expected to be short and decisive turns longer and bloodier, as Allied and German forces begin digging the first trenches on the Western Front on September 15, 1914.

The trench system on the Western Front in World War I—fixed from the winter of 1914 to the spring of 1918—eventually stretched from the North Sea coast of Belgium southward through France, with a bulge outwards to contain the much-contested Ypres salient. Running in front of such French towns as Soissons, Reims, Verdun, St. Mihiel and Nancy, the system finally reached its southernmost point in Alsace, at the Swiss border. In total the trenches built during World War I, laid end-to-end, would stretch some 25,000 miles—12,000 of those miles occupied by the Allies, and the rest by the Central Powers.

As historian Paul Fussell describes it, there were usually three lines of trenches: a front-line trench located 50 yards to a mile from its enemy counterpart, guarded by tangled lines of barbed wire; a support trench line several hundred yards back; and a reserve line several hundred yards behind that. A well-built trench did not run straight for any distance, as that would invite the danger of enfilade, or sweeping fire, along a long stretch of the line; instead it zigzagged every few yards. There were three different types of trenches: firing trenches, lined on the side facing the enemy by steps where defending soldiers would stand to fire machine guns and throw grenades at the advancing offense; communication trenches; and "saps," shallower positions that extended into no-man’s-land and afforded spots for observation posts, grenade-throwing and machine gun-firing.

While war in the trenches during World War I is described in horrific, apocalyptic terms—the mud, the stench of rotting bodies, the enormous rats—the reality was that the trench system protected the soldiers to a large extent from the worst effects of modern firepower, used for the first time during that conflict. The greatest danger came during the periods when the war became more mobile, when the soldiers on either side left the trenches to go on the offensive. German losses per month peaked when they went on the attack: in 1914 in Belgium and France, 1915 on the Eastern Front, and 1918 again in the west; for the French, casualties peaked in September 1914, when they risked everything to halt the German advance at the Marne. Trench warfare redefined battle in the modern age, making artillery into the key weapon. Thus the fundamental challenge on both sides of the line became how to produce enough munitions, keep the troops supplied with these munitions and expend enough of them during an offensive to sufficiently damage the enemy lines before beginning an infantry advance.

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2006 12:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Flers-Courcelette: Eerste maal tanks gebruikt in actie...
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Sep 2006 5:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zie ook:
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=6496
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 16:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Race to the Sea, 15 September-14 October 1914

The Race to the Sea developed out of the first battle of the Aisne (13-28 September 1914). This saw the Germans retreat from the line of the Marne to the line of the Aisne, which would become their front line until 1918. The battle of the Aisne began with a series of attempts to break through the German lines. When these attacks failed, Joffre and Falkenhayn both began to plan to turn each other's northern flank.

Joffre made the first move, using Maunoury’s Sixth Army in an advance up the Oise, at the western end of the Aisne battlefield. Joffre ordered Maunoury to advance on the right bank of the river, giving him more space to move around the German flank (Kluck’s First Army). Instead, the French Sixth Army moved up the left bank, nearer the Germans, and did not cross over to the north until 17 September. By that point Kluck had already moved his own right wing across the river, and the French advance stalled.

Having attempted to turn each others flanks with troops already on the Aisne, both Joffre and Falkenhayn now brought in new armies from Lorraine. The French Second Army (Castelnau) formed up south of Amiens, the German Sixth (Crown Prince Rupprecht) around St. Quentin. The Germans also used their Seventh Army (Heeringhen), which had earlier been used to plug a gap on the Aisne.

Castelnau began to advance on 22 September, with support from the Sixth Army from 23 September (first battle of Picardy, 22-26 September). On 24 September a full scale battle developed along the entire line from the Oise to the Somme. The Germans concentrated their attack at Roye, half way between the two rivers, hoping to cut off the French armies advancing to the north. Their attack failed, but did force Castelnau to abandon his offensive plans.

The fighting now began to move north of the Somme. On 25 September the Germans attacked Albert, just north of the river (battle of Albert, 25-29 September), but were held off by Castelnau’s Second Army. At the same time both sides continued to move north.

The focus of the fighting now reached Arras (first battle of Artois, 27 September-10 October). There two corps from Castelnau’s army, under the command of Maud’huy, were advancing north east along the Scarpe, towards Vimy. Their southern flank was guarded by a thin line of territorials. On 28 September Prince Rupprecht was ordered to attack Arras. He planned to pin Maud’huy in place, and then outflank him to the north. His plan came close to success.

By the end of 4 October German troops were north and south of Arras and Maud’huy was beginning to plan for a retreat. Joffre responded by reorganising the northern armies. Maud’huy’s command was split from the Second Army, and became a new Tenth Army. Both Maud’huy and Castelnau were firmly ordered not to retreat. Finally, Foch was appointed to overall command of the northern armies, including both the Second and Tenth. Foch was able to reinvigorate the French and Allied commanders in the north,

The focus of attention now swung even further north, to Flanders. The BEF began to arrive at Abbeville by train on 8-9 October, and at St. Omer on 10 October. Further north IV corps had been shipped to Ostend and Zeebrugge, to either help defend Antwerp or to help the Belgian army retreat. It was hoped that the British would be able to advance north east of Lille and outflank the German Sixth Army, fighting around Arras. Instead the advancing British ran into another new German army, the Fourth, under the Duke of Württemberg. The result was a series of encounter battles, beginning at Le Bassée on 10 October and continuing north to Messines (12 October) and Armentieres (13 October). Meanwhile the Belgian army had left Antwerp and was heading west towards the Yser, while the British IV Corps was heading towards Ypres from the east.

On 14 October the Race to the Sea effectively ended when the British Cavalry Corps, advancing from the west, met the 3rd Cavalry Division, moving south west around Ypres. There was now a continuous allied from the North Sea to the Swiss border. On 18 October fighting began on the Yser (18 October-30 November). The British continued to believe that there was a gap in the German line, this time around Ypres, and began to plan for another advance. Instead, on 19 October the British and French troops around Ypres came under German attack. The first battle of Ypres was underway.

The Race to the Sea now became the Battle of Flanders. The Germans made repeated attempts to break through the new Allied line, without success. The line of the Western Front would remain almost entirely static for the next two years, only changing in early 1917 when the Germans voluntarily withdrew from the Somme battlefield to the Hindenburg Line. The period of mobile warfare was over, and the period of trench warfare had begun.

The Race to the Sea is perhaps not the best name for this series of events. It implied that the troops involved all came from the Aisne, and were dashing north to extend the line. This was not true on either side. Some of the troops involved had been transferred Lorraine, while others were coming in from Antwerp (Belgian and German) or from the channel coast (British and French). New troops were thrown into the fight as quickly as they became available. The name also implies that one or the other side wanted to reach the coast. When the race began neither side wanted it to end on the coast. Both sides were aimed to get around their opponents exposed northern flank, the Germans with the hope of winning the decisive final battle, or at least of capturing all of the channel ports, the French in the hope of getting behind the German armies that had advanced to the Marne. The Race to the Sea ended in a failure for both side.

Rickard, J (15 September 2007), Race to the Sea, 15 September- 14 October 1914 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_race_to_sea.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 16:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 September 1914: Anglo-Boer War commander, General de la Rey is shot dead

General Jacobus Hercules de la Rey, a commander in the Anglo-Boer War and hero to the Afrikaans South Africans, was shot dead by the police after his chauffeur, on his instruction, defied a police order to stop at a roadblock erected in Langlaagte, Johannesburg on 15 September 1914. This was the third roadblock they had skipped. The roadblocks were erected to arrest William Foster of the Foster Gang, who had fatally wounded a policeman during that day.

In May 1902, the peace document ending the Anglo-Boer War was signed at Pretoria. Afterwards, de la Rey went personally to his commandos to inform them that the war was over. The burghers reluctantly disbanded and returned to their ruined farms galled by the loss of their cherished independence. Until the formation of the Union in 1910 de la Rey largely disappeared from the public eye, but at the advent of Union de la Rey was one of the delegates to the National Convention. After Union, he was a nominated Government senator and in 1912, when the Defense Council was established, he and his old friend, Christiaan De Wet, were appointed to it. During the 1914 industrial unrest on the Rand, he was given command of the Government forces, which swiftly suppressed the strikes, but tension continued to grow as WW1 loomed and conflicting loyalties were once more put to the test.

De la Rey broke with Botha over supporting the British at the outbreak of World War I and openly expressed his desire for the restoration of the Boer republic. At the time of his death de la Rey, accompanied by General Beyers, was en route to a military camp in Potchefstroom, Transvaal, presumably to raise the Vierkleur (Four Colour) flag there and launch a revolt against the Union's decision to side with Britain in the war against Germany.

References:
1.Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau.
2.Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds)(1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 3, p. 630.
3.(2004) Highlights in history on this date: September 15, news24 online newspaper, available at: news24.com [accessed 10 September 2009]
4.General de la Rey, a biography [online], available at sahistory.org.za [accessed 10 September 2009]


http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/thisday/1914-09-15.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DE "FOOT GUARDS" REGIMENTEN AAN HET FRONT 1914-1918
Jos Lagae

(...) De militaire operaties rond de slag om de Aisne (12 tot 15 september 1914, met uitlopende gevechten tot 01 oktober 1914) vergen veel van de betrokken Foot Guards Regimenten. Wij vinden hen terug bij "Het oversteken van de Rivier Aisne" en bij de verovering van de heuvels rond de Aisne (Aisne Heights)(15 tot 20 september 1914). Hierbij zijn alleen de 1st en 2nd Division die deel uitmaken van het I. Corps, First Army betrokken.

Vervolgens worden deze elite-troepen naar West-Vlaanderen overgebracht, teneinde deel te nemen aan de 1ste Slag om Ieper. (19 oktober tot 22 november 1914) (...)

http://www.wfa-belgie.be/artikels/guards.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 17:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Okuma Shigenobu

In een ultimatum, opgesteld door Okuma Shigenobu (de eerste minister) op 15 augustus 1914, eiste Japan van Duitsland dat ze onmiddellijk uit Japanse en Chinese wateren terugtrekken. Alle oorlogsschepen en soldaten moesten dus vertrekken, en indien dit niet kon, moesten zij ontwapenen. Ook werd geëist dat ze alle kolonies die ze nu in handen hadden, teruggaven aan de landen waartoe ze behoorden. Dit moest gebeuren vòòr 15 september 1914.

http://www.militair.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=55&t=4071&p=28180
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 17:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Bedumer 1914-1918

'De Bedumer' was het orgaan van de Anti Revolutionaire Kiesvereniging te Bedum, Zuidwolde en Onderdendam tezamen vormend de gemeente Bedum

In krant 38 van 15 september 1914 wordt de Troonrede afgedrukt. Koningin Wilhelmina spreekt hierin namens de regering haar medeleven uit met de slachtoffers van de oorlog. Letterlijk zegt zij: …..diep begaan met het lot van alle volken, die in de krijg zijn meegesleept, draagt Nederland de buitengewone lasten die het wordt opgelegd, gewillig, en ontvangt met open armen alle ongelukkigen die binnen zijne grenzen een toevlucht zoeken…..

http://www.bedumer.nl/site/Historie/De-Bedumer-1914-1918-vluchtelingenopvang-in-Bedum.html

Russische vluchtelingen in Nederland (1914-1918)

In de Troonrede van 15 september 1914 had minister van Binnenlandse Zaken Cort van der Linden bovendien geschreven dat álle vluchtelingen zouden worden opgevangen. Naast in totaal 30.000 Belgen, Fransen, Engelsen en Duitsers zijn enkele duizenden Russische gevangengenomen burgers, krijgsgevangenen en deserteurs naar Nederland gevlucht.

Het Russische gezantschap in Den Haag en het consulaat in Rotterdam waren verantwoordelijk voor de opvang en zorg voor de Russen. De vluchteling kreeg 1,50 gulden per nacht voor een hotel en gemiddeld 40 cent zakgeld per week; ook mocht hij werk zoeken. Weduwe Frederika Altona deed met haar pension aan de Rotterdamse Hudsonstraat 57 goede zaken. Ze breidde zelfs uit met het buurhuis. In juli 1917 verbleven daar bijna vijfhonderd Russen.

http://www.historischnieuwsblad.nl/00/hn/nl/156_172/artikel/print/26014/Russische_vluchtelingen_in_Nederland_1914-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 17:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nationaal Comité voor Hulp en Voeding

15 september 1914 - Onder impuls van Ernest Solvay, Emile Franqui, Leon Delacroix en Henri Jaspar wordt een Nationaal Comité voor Hulp en Voeding opgericht.

http://www.heemkringopwijk.be/wo-1/c01.pdf

De bonenmedaille!
Zie http://users.skynet.be/hendrik/nl/B1-N-NatComm.html
Zie ook http://www.militair.net/Militaria/Onderscheidingen/BE%20Hulp%20en%20Voeding%201919/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 17:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SHOT AT DAWN - Worcestershire Regiment(29th/36th of Foot)

Corporal Frederick Ives (12295) 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment

Corporal Ives had only been in France just over a month when on the 15th September 1914 he went absent without permission during the fighting on the Marne. He was already on remand for an earlier offence. Ives managed to avoid capture for 9 months. He was eventually arrested on the 24th June 1915 by an officer of the Army Veterinary Corps. At the time he was wearing civilian clothes.

Ives court martial took place on the 7th July 1915, and in his defence he stated that he had suffered memory loss due to shell fire. Although he was found guilty of desertion and sentenced to death, the members of the court martial recommended mercy on the grounds that he might be telling the truth. However, his sentence of death was confirmed by the Field Marshal and he was shot by firing squad with 4 other deserters from the 3rd Battalion on the ramparts of Ypres on the 26th July 1915. He was 30 years of age.

He was originally buried at the Ramparts Cemetery but was later transferred to the Perth Cemetery (China Wall), Belgium which is 3 Km east of Ypres town centre (Grave number I.G.41). For some strange reason the Commonwealths War Graves Commission shows the date of death incorrectly as the 22nd July 1915. This error may have been made as he was tried and sentenced week before the other men of the 3rd Battalion who were executed the same day.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 17:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The race to the Sea

The German armed forces faced a crisis situation in light of the failure of the Schlieffen Plan to deliver a six week victory in and over France by September 1914. Despite the German success in Belgium, against the Russian Army at the Battle of Tannenberg, the Austro-Hungarian check at Galicia and the German defeats at the First Battle of the Aisne and the First Battle of the Marne induced the German General Staff to insist a swift resolution in the West. But they were not optimistic.

Erich von Falkenhayn, the new Chief of the German General Staff, was confident that a decisive victory was still possible. On 15 September 1914, he began drawing up operational plans for the withdrawal of the German Sixth Army from the stalemate in the Alsace and Lorraine to the north of the German First Army. Its flank was wide open between the Compiegne and Antwerp in Belgium. Some (who was never explained), wanted to use the German Sixth Army at Verdun, but Falkenhayn opted to commit it to a new, smaller version of a Schlieffen Plan envelopment of the Allied left.

http://www.answers.com/topic/first-battle-of-ypres-1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 17:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vandaag is de geboortedag van Agatha Christie.

Deze Engelse schrijfster is voornamelijk bekend van haar detectiveromans.

Agatha Christie wordt in 1890 geboren in de Zuid-Engelse badplaats Torquay in Engeland. Zij is de jongste van drie kinderen. Ze is een erg verlegen en teruggetrokken kind en heeft moeite met emoties te uiten. Agatha zoekt haar heil in muziek en later in het schrijven.

In 1914 begint ze aan haar eerste detective. Het duurt een jaar voordat het boek af is, daarna duurt het nog vijf jaar voordat De zaak Styles uiteindelijk gepubliceerd wordt. Hercule Poirot ziet het levenslicht in dit boek, deze excentrieke, kleine en stijfbesnorde detective zal nog in drieëndertig van haar boeken de hoofdrol spelen.

http://www.omroepmax.nl/?waxtrapp=yqodcDsHnHUVGAmBmLR

De beste Poirot...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hmx6dQJf_rk&feature=related
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Major General Sir John Monash KCB, VD.

In July, Monash, along with the other brigade commanders of the AIF, was promoted to Brigadier General, an appointment backdated to his assumption of command of the 4th Infantry Brigade on 15 September 1914.

In the August offensive, the 4th Brigade was given the difficult task of slipping around the Turkish flank and capturing Hill 971 from behind. Monash was greatly hampered by his superior, Brigadier General H. V. Cox, an Indian Army officer of controversial ability. Amongst other things, he prevented Monash from leading his brigade from the front. Movement in the dark in such rugged country proved more difficult than planned, the whole operation ran behind schedule, the troops became scattered, and Monash halted his brigade to regroup short of the objective. An attack on Hill 971 the next day was a completely fiasco in the face of strong Turkish reinforcements, and wounded men were abandoned to the Turks. Ultimately, the whole operation miscarried and left a black mark on Monash's reputation as a commander.

_____________________________

Field Marshal Montgomery, the famous British army commander in the Second World War (a junior officer in the First World War), later wrote:

I would name Sir John Monash as the best general on the western front in Europe.

_____________________________

The main thing is always to have a plan; if it is not the best plan, it is at least better than no plan at all.
- Monash
_____________________________

Monash wanted to move away from what he considered to be outdated British tactics, believing that

"the true role of infantry was not to expend itself upon heroic physical effort, not to wither away under merciless machine-gun fire, not to impale itself on hostile bayonets, but on the contrary, to advance under the maximum possible protection of the maximum possible array of mechanical resources, in the form of guns, machine-guns, tanks, mortars and aeroplanes; to advance with as little impediment as possible; to be relieved as far as possible of the obligation to fight their way forward".

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-heroes/monash.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 18:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Afschuwelijk lijden van christen Armeniërs
De Gelderlander, 15 september 1916
Bron: Regionaal Archief Gemeente Nijmegen


Men herinnert zich wat enkele maanden geleden onze Romeinsche correspondent berichtte over de tusschenkomst van den H. Stoel, door middel van Mgr. Dolci, ten bate van der door Turkije onderdrukte Armeniërs en het gedeeltelijk welslagen dier pauselijke tusschenkomst.

Thans bericht het bestuur te New-York van de buitenlandsche zending der Presbyterianen in een rapport over den toestand, waarin de uit Armenië naar noordelijk Arabië en Syrië gedeporteerde Armeniërs verkeeren. Het volgende wordt daarin vermeld uit een ingekomen schrijven van een zendeling:

"Te Meskene heb ik gezien, dat vrouwen en kinderen zich in grafkuilen wierpen en de doodgravers smeekten, hen te begraven. De regeering verschaft geen brood. Te Hamar waren van de 7000 daar naar toe gebrachte Armeniërs er 3000 zoo goed als naakt; zij hielden zich bezig met het verzamelen van sprinkhanen, die zij rauw of gekookt nuttigden, al naarmate zij vuur konden krijgen of niet. Sommigen vingen honden op straat en aten die rauw. Te Rakka waren 15.000 Armeniërs, die daar in tenten waren in een kamp ter weerzijden van den Eufraat. Dien lieden was niet toegestaan de stad binnen te komen. Overal zag men vreeselijke tooneelen van naaktheid, honger en dood; de auroriteiten deden niets om te helpen. Sommigen van deze ongelukkigen wierpen zich uit wanhoop in de rivier. Dikwijls zagen zij heele rijen griezelige gestalten plotseling uit graven oprijzen en om brood en water smeeken. Zij hadden hun eigen graven gedolven en wachtten den dood af."

"Deze Armeniërs tellen op het oogenblik, dat ik dit schrijf, niet minder dan 30.000 zielen. Het is bewezen, dat gevallen van menscheneten zijn voorgekomen en dat om de stervenden is gevochten, om hun vleesch te krijgen."

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/GL-15-9-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 18:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Flers-Courcelette, 15-22 September 1916

The battle of Flers-Courcelette, 15-22 September 1916, was the third main phase of the battle of the Somme. It is best known as the first tank battle in history, as it featured forty nine Mk I tanks (although not all of the tanks made it into battle).

The battle was the first full scale offensive since the first day of the Somme. It was to involve the Fourth Army (Rawlinson) and part of the Reserve Army (later Gough’s Fifth Army). The plan was for XV corps to break through the German lines north east of Flers, allowing the cavalry to get into the German rear area. Most of the troops involved were given three or four objectives, all of which needed to be captured on the first day of the battle if a breakthrough were to be achieved. After two and a half months of struggle, Haig believed that he was finally close to breaking through the final line of prepared German defences.

The attack was preceded by a massive artillery bombardment. On 1 July the attack had been supported by one field gun for every 21 yards of front, and one heavy gun for every 57 yards. At Flers-Courcelette those figures increased to one field gun for every 10 yards and one heavy gun for every 29 yards. One problem with the artillery barrage was that the tanks were so slow that they needed to advance ahead of the infantry. This meant that corridors had to be left in the creeping barrage, to allow the tanks to advance. In some places this meant that key German strong points, which naturally had been made the tank’s main objectives, were untouched by the creeping barrage.

15 September

On the right of the line XIV Corps did not have a successful day. The 56th Division was to form the right flank of the attack, buts its attack soon bogged down. To their left the 6th Division needed to overcome a strong German position known as the Quadrilateral, north of Leuze Wood, before it could attack its first objective for the day. Despite some bitter fighting, little progress was made. Next in line was the Guards Division. They eventually reached their first objective, but in some chaos. Once there they believed themselves to be at their third objective for the day, and halted.

To the right XV corps was much more successful, but failed to achieve the hoped for breakthrough. Their attack was supported by fourteen tanks (four more were allocated to the corps but were unable to take part in the attack). The 14th Division had to begin the day early, to clear the Germans out of a pocket east of Delville Wood, where they still held on to a forward position. This attack was carried out by two companies from the 6th battalion of the King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, supported by one tank. The infantry attack went in at 5.30 a.m. and despite the loss of every single one of their officers pinched out the salient and then took part in the main offensive.

All three divisions of the XV corps (14th, 41st and New Zealand Divisions) reached most of their third objectives. In the centre of the corps 41st Division had the job of capturing Flers, and was given the most tanks. The village of Flers was captured early in the day, with one of the tanks playing a big part in the advance, driving up the main street of the village with the infantry following on behind. However, once beyond the village the advance stopped. The fourth objective, and with it the breakthrough was just beyond reach.

Next in line III corps met with mixed success on 15 September. On its left the 15th Division captured the village of Martinpuich, but on the right the 50th and 15th Divisions cleared High Wood but were unable to make any more progress.

Finally, on the extreme left of the British attack was the Canadian Corps of the Reserve Army (Gough). They reached their final objective by 8.25 a.m., and were able to take advantage of this early success by capturing the village of Courcelette.

16 September

The attack was renewed on 16 September without any real success. The Guards Division suffered heavily while making an unsupported attack, and had to be relieved that night. In the centre XV corps attacks at 9.25 a.m. The 14th Division was let down by the artillery, and after an ineffective bombardment was unable to make any progress. The 21st Division attack (led by the 64th Brigade under Brigadier General H.R. Headlam) began bogged down passing around Flers. It then fell too far begin the artillery barrage, and its only tank was destroyed by an artillery shell. The Brigade signal headquarters in Flers was also destroyed by shellfire. The New Zealand Division repulsed an early German counterattack, and then made some limited progress before being ordered to halt when news came through of the failure to their right. III corps also made little progress.

17-23 September

On 17 September General Rawlinson issued orders for a general resumption of the offensive on the next day. The planned attack was then postponed until 21 September, and then cancelled. When the fighting resumed on the Fourth Army’s front, it would be towards Morval, in the east.

Over the last seven days of the battle the British engaged in a series of small scale operations designed to consolidate the line, especially in the area around High Wood, where the limited advance on 15 September had left a bulge in the new line. Heavy rain began on 18 September, which made further offensive operations even more difficult.

The battle of Flers-Courcelette was much more successful than the general attack on 1 July had been, but it had failed to achieve its main aim, of punching a hole in the German lines. Although the British had come close to the rear of the original German lines, the Germans still had enough reserves to restore the situation after the early successes.

The use of the tanks at Flers-Courcelette will always be controversial. Although they failed to achieve the great breakthrough, many contemporary accounts record how welcome they had been, and how helpful the surviving tanks were to the advance. The most serious charge laid against Haig is that he revealed his new secret weapon prematurely, reducing the chance of winning a major breakthrough using them. However it is possible to argue that the poor performance of the tanks on the Somme, and over the next few months, lulled the German High Command into a false belief that they were ineffective weapons, delaying their own tank programme. It is also argued that the use of the tanks at Flers-Courcelette taught their designers important lessons, making later tanks more effective.

If the use of the tanks on the Somme did lose them the element of surprise, one would not guess that from the events during the battle of Cambrai, 20 November- 7 December 1917, over a year later. Here the first massed tank attack successfully broke through the German lines. Although this success was not followed up and a German counterattack regained much of the ground lost, the Germans had not put in place successful anti-tank measures in the intervening year. Above all, the arguments against using the tanks on the Somme implied that the attempt to break the German lines was going to fail. Haig still believed that it could success, and so if the tanks were going to be used at all, it had to be on the Somme.

Rickard, J (21 September 2007), Battle of Flers-Courcelette, 15-22 September 1916 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_flers_courcelette.html
Zie ook http://www.somme-1916.com/flers.htm

Canadian Military History- A Forgotten Victory: Courcelette, 15 September 1916
David Campbell

https://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1453&context=cmh
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 18:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 September 1915 → Commons Sitting

UNITED STATES (GERMAN AND AUSTRIAN EMBASSIES).


HC Deb 15 September 1915 vol 74 cc41-2 41

Mr. BUTCHER I beg to ask the Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs a question of which I have given him private notice: Whether it is true that certain papers emanating from the German and Austrian Embassies of the United States, and carried by one Archibald, have come into the possession of His Majesty's Government, and, if so, whether he will lay them on the Table?

The UNDER-SECRETARY of STATE for FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Lord Robert Cecil) The answer is in the affirmative. One of the most important papers has already been made public, and there is no 42 reason in the public interest why they should not all be made public. They will, therefore, be laid on the Table of the House.

Mr. T. M. HEALY Will at the same time a copy of the depositions of Stahl, who afterwards admitted that he had committed perjury by swearing that there was ammunition and arms on board the "Lusitania," be laid on the Table?

Lord ROBERT CECIL I do not think that we are in possession of these depositions. The hon. and learned Gentleman will perhaps be kind enough to give me notice.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/sep/15/united-states-german-and-austrian
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New Youth (La Jeunesse) - An Influential Chinese Revolutionary Magazine

La Jeunesse, or New Youth was an influential Chinese revolutionary magazine in the 1920s that played an important role during the May Fourth Movement.

The magazine was started by Chen Duxiu in Shanghai on 15 September 1915 in Shanghai. Its headquarters were moved to Beijing in January 1917. Editors included Chen Duxiu, Qian Xuantong, Gao Yihan, Hu Shih, Li Dazhao, Shen Yinmo, and Lu Xun. It initiated the New Culture Movement, promoting science, democracy, and Vernacular Chinese literature.

Being influenced by the 1917 Russian October Revolution, La Jeunesse also began to promote Marxism and its philosophy. From September 1920, La Jeunesse became a propaganda tool of the Communist Party of China. It was shut down in 1926. In the early days, La Jeunesse had influenced thousands of Chinese youngsters including many leaders of the Chinese Communist Party.

http://history.cultural-china.com/en/34History7208.html
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28th Battalion History - In Canada and England 1914-1915

September 15, 1915 - Advance party departed for France.

http://www.nwbattalion.com/history1.html
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CABARET-ROUGE BRITISH CEMETERY
Souchez, Pas de Calais, France


Shot at Dawn: The following are commemorated on special memorials within the cemetery: Lance Corporal P. Sands, 1st Bn. Royal Irish Rifles, executed for desertion 15/09/1915, (...)

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/ww1frenchcemeteries/cabaretrouge.htm
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The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein – Volume 8 – The Berlin Years: Correspondence, 1914–1918.

(...) There is some correspondence with the great Swiss-French writer Romain Rolland (who incidentally was so drawn to India), on matters of war, politics, conscience and the role of the intellectual in trying times. These remind us of the backdrop against which the scientific advances were being made. On 15 September 1915, Einstein wrote to Rolland: ‘One of the most disheartening phenomena of this terrible time is that in many cases intellectuals have completely lost their composure’. And in a 23 August 1917 letter Rolland says: ‘... Evil spreads like a splotch of oil... . I am awaiting salvation (if it is meant to come) from other – social – forces; and if it does not come, ... by God! it will not have been the first time that a powerful civilization has crumbled. Life will know very well how to blossom again from the ruins ... . The soul is never conquered – except when it consents to it. It is ahead of its times’. In a public appeal to Hilbert and many others on these issues, Einstein proclaims: ‘This serious situation places those, who through fortunate intellectual achievements have gained an elevated position among scholars throughout the entire civilized world, before a mission they must not evade: They must make a public declaration that could serve as support and consolation for those who in their solitude have not yet lost their belief in moral progress’.(...)

http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/may25/articles34.htm
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Mark I, de eerste tank ingezet

15 september 1916 - In september 1916 werden voor het eerst tanks ingezet tijdens de oorlog. Tijdens de Slag aan de Somme deden 49 tanks van het Britse type Mark I mee.
De Eerste Wereldoorlog was in een soort van patstelling beland, waardoor de diverse betrokken landen op zoek waren gegaan naar een nieuw wapen. Door de hoge kosten was het nog niet eerder zo ver gekomen dat men een gewapend en machinaal voertuig kon inzetten.

Engeland kwam als eerste met een nieuw wapen. Van de 49 tanks haalden maar 32 de frontlinie en daarvan werd een groot deel al snel door de Duitsers uitgeschakeld.

De Mark I werd spoedig erna opgevolgd door nieuwere en betere tanks, zoals Mark II. Daarna kwamen ook de Duitsers en de Fransen snel met tanks zoals Scheider en A7V.

http://www.nieuwsdossier.nl/dossier/1916-09-15/Mark+I,+de+eerste+tank+ingezet

First Ever Use of Tanks in Battle

The Battle of the Somme had already been underway for two months, Haig’s ‘big push’ having degenerated into another battle of attrition, minor gains, and stalemate. Haig was, however, presented with what could have been the key to a major change in the balance of the war – the tank. He squandered that chance.
The tank had been kept secret from the enemy – the very name tank came from a description intended to put German intelligence off the scent. Developed by the navy, with Churchill as head of the Admiralty one of its great advocates, the first machines were manned by sailors.
Haig deployed the first Mark 1 tanks available to him – just 49 of them – in the attempted breakthrough at Flers-Courcelette, rather than waiting to use greater numbers of the machines in a massive attack. Those 49 machines may not have been fully ready either, several failing to make it into battle. The first ever tank to advance against the enemy was that commanded by Captain H.W. Mortimore in Delville Wood, the same sector where the first tank crew member won a decoration – Private A. Smith winning the Military Medal for his bravery in action there.
Some 2km of German territory was taken in the initial attack of the tanks supported by infantry, German troops reeling at the sight of the monstrous machines, but poor planning and liaison and a failure to follow through after breaking the enemy lines wasted the game-breaking opportunity.

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=717

Het slimme wapen van 1916

De tank in de slag om de Somme

De Amerikanen hebben de Taliban in Afghanistan bestookt met slimme wapens, zoals de beruchte ‘daisycutter’. Ook de Duitsers werden in 1916 onaangenaam verrast door een nieuw slim wapen.

Op 15 september 1916 vond bij de rivier de Somme in Noord-Frankrijk de eerste tankaanval in de geschiedenis plaats. De Engelse tanks reden dwars door de Duitse stellingen heen. Dat was bijzonder in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914-1918), waar de frontlinie jarenlang nauwelijks van plaats veranderde.

Toch waren de tanks in militaire zin niet bijzonder efficiënt. Van de 49 beschikbare tanks begonnen er 36 aan de slag. Een aantal daarvan ging kapot, werd uitgeschakeld of raakte de weg kwijt.

Psychologisch bleek het effect van het nieuwe wapen daarentegen bijzonder groot te zijn. De gedemoraliseerde Britse troepen kregen nieuwe moed door de tanks. Drie dorpen, waaronder het dorp Flers, en een strategisch belangrijk punt werden veroverd.

De meeste Britse troepen waren onbekend met hun eigen wonderwapen. Na eerste verbijsterd te zijn door de monsterlijke machines moesten ze lachen. Er zat iets komisch in de logge langzame apparaten die door de vijandelijke stellingen heenreden alsof het niets was en de Duitsers schrik aanjaagden.

Ook aan het thuisfront bleek de tank een succes te zijn. ‘A tank is driving down the main street of Flers with the British army cheering behind’, kopte een krant. Na jaren van slechte berichten leek het Britse superwapen een beslissende rol in de Eerste Wereldoorlog te kunnen gaan spelen.

Het Britse thuisfront had echter geen idee hoe de tank eruit zag, omdat de censuur dat zo lang mogelijk geheim wilde houden. Tekenaars, journalisten en theatermakers kwamen met de meest vreemde beschrijvingen van de wondermachine die de oorlog even zou gaan beslissen.

Een tegenreactie kwam van de Britse dichter Siegfried Sassoon, met zijn gedicht ‘’Blighters’’ (ellendelingen). Hij zette het fantasierijke optimisme van het thuisfront tegenover de realiteit van de oorlog:

THE House is crammed: tier beyond tier they grin
And cackle at the Show, while prancing ranks
Of harlots shrill the chorus, drunk with din;
‘We’re sure the Kaiser loves our dear old Tanks!’

I’d like to see a Tank come down the stalls,
Lurching to rag-time tunes, or ‘Home, sweet Home’,
And there’d be no more jokes in Music-halls
To mock the riddled corpses round Bapaume.


Joris Smeets

Bronnen:
Martin Gilbert ‘First World War’ (HarperCollins, 1995)
Lyn Macdonald ‘Somme’ (Penguin, 1993)
Patrick Wright ‘Tank. The Progress of a Monstrous War Machine’ (Faber and faber, 2000)


http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/5071371/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 18:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Captain H. W Mortimore, commander of the first tank to go into battle on 15 september 1916

I managed to get astride one of the German trenches... and opened fire with the Hotchkiss machine-guns. There were some Germans in the dug-outs and I shall never forget the look on their faces when they emerged.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/tanks-eerste-wereldoorlog/tanks-flers-somme-1916/index.html
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New Zealand trench, Flers, September 1916

Description Infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Auckland Regiment, New Zealand Division in the Switch Line near Flers, taken some time in September 1916, after the Battle of Flers-Courcelette.
Date 15 September 1916(1916-09-15)

Foto... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:New_Zealand_trench_Flers_September_1916.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 18:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bernard Noel Cryer

Bernard Cryer led an attack on 15 September 1917 to capture and hold an enemy pillbox.This they did killing 10 Germans and capturing 36.This pleased the Army and Corps Commanders so much that they called this “a first piece of work.”

However on 16 September the Germans launched a counter-attack during which Cryer was killed though the position was held. The position was renamed Cryer Farm.His name can be seen on Panels 52 to 54 of The Menin Gate Memorial.

http://imtheboy.wordpress.com/2010/08/13/the-reverend-wj-boyle-mcroyal-army-chaplains-departmentkia-16-august-1917-sapper-a-roy2nd-tunnelling-companycanadian-expeditionary-forcekia-15-september-1916-and-lieutenant-bn-cryer7th-battal/

A German first aid post was discovered near Clapham Junction (near the Menin Road east of Hooge). The underground complex is known as Cryer Farm, named after a British lieutenant who fell during the capture of Geluveld in 1917. He is believed to be Second Lieutenant Bernard Noel Cryer of the 7th Battalion, London Regiment. He was killed in action on 15th September 1917 and is commemorated on the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing (panels 52-54). This unique bunker is located on private property and can only be visited upon request via the Memorial Museum Passchendaele 1917.

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/ypres-salient/museum-passchendaele-1917.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 14 Sep 2010 18:49, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 18:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 15 September 1917.

Valkenswaard. 14 Sept. Op de gisteren te Eindhoven gehouden keuring van den landstorm 1900 en 1901 waren 30 personen aanwezig. Hiervan werden 14 personen ongeschikt bevonden; 3 personen waren niet verschenen.

- Zondag a.s. 16 September begint onze jaarlijksche kermis welke voor dit jaar 3 dagen zal duren. Bij die gelegenheid zal de harmonie Valkenswaards Muziekkorps Zondagvoormiddag een matinée geven op de kiosk, terwijl de harmonie Uitspanning na Arbeid des namiddags een uitvoering zal geven op de kiosk. De kasteleins wedijveren als het ware om de fijnste dansmuziek. De slagers hebben gezorgd voor een puik stuk vleesch, daar er c.a. 20 beesten, waaronder prachtige exemplaren, zijn geslacht en een elftal varkens. Luilekkerland …!!
Laten wij hopen dat deze dagen in gepaste vreugde en plezier mogen voorbijgaan; eenieder werke daartoe zooveel mogelijk mede.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 18:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Father and son, 1916

Studio portrait of 1626 Private (Pte) Walter Henry Chibnall, 10th Light Trench Mortar Battery, pictured with his son William Beresford (Billy) Chibnall. A miner of Beaufort Vic, Pte Chibnall enlisted on 15 March 1916 and embarked on HMAT Ascanius with the 1st Reinforcements on 27 May 1916. He was transferred to the 10th Light Trench Mortar Battery on 7 August 1916 where he was promoted to Corporal (Cpl) on 15 September 1917. He was killed in action at Passchendaele, Belgium, on 12 October 1917, aged 32, when he and a comrade were hit by a shell while taking shelter in a crater. He is commemorated on The Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial, Belgium. Serving with the number VX39948, Pte Billy Chibnall enlisted during the Second World War, serving with the 2/21st Battalion. He was taken prisoner of war and died, aged 30, on 20 February 1942 at Ambon.

Schit-te-ren-de foto... http://www.flickr.com/photos/australian-war-memorial/3702946591/
Zie ook deze http://www.flickr.com/photos/australian-war-memorial/3702947051/in/photostream/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 18:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On 15th September 1917 Sir Douglas Haig wrote a letter to General Smuts, a member of the British War Cabinet.

After more than three years of war, our armies are still very far short of their requirements, and my experience of repeated failures to fulfill promises as regards provision makes me somewhat sceptical as to the large surplus of machines and personnel on which we count. Nor is it clear that the large provision necessary to replace wastage has been sufficiently taken into account.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/EGcowdray.htm
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Golden Bravery Medal Winners of the Aviation-Services

Another creation of Kaiser Karl was the introduction of a Bravery Medal for Officers on the 15th of September 1917. These medals, awarded in Silver or in Gold with a "K" from corresponding material fixed to the ribbon, did not attract any monthly pension. The greater number of the Golden Bravery Medals for Officers were awarded after the war from the Militär-Maria Theresien-Ordenskapitel - under special circumstances, from a legalistic point of view.

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/gtmfly.htm
Zie ook http://www.gwpda.org/medals/austmedl/austria.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 14 Sep 2010 19:04, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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GERMAN WWI PSYOP

By 15 September 1917 the "Vaterlandischen Unterricht unter den Truppen" ("National Instruction for the Troops") was formed. The Army High Command would see that patriotic instruction took place among the troops. The officers would assure that the troops did not read enemy leaflets and strengthen the will to win among their men. The weakness in this plan was that officers were planning battles and had little time or interest in patriotic instruction. On 20 March 1918, just eight months before the Armistice, Ludendorff wrote to the Imperial Chancellor and suggested that the loose propaganda organization be centralized and made stronger. He wanted an organization similar to Lord Northcliffe's British "Propaganda for Enemy Countries" unit. The government denied his request for such an agency. The Germans simply never got the hang of it.

http://www.psywarrior.com/GermanWWIPSYOP.html
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Published in the Reporter 15th September 1917.

SUNDAY SCHOOL SECRETARY.

Hurst Man Who Was a Good Soldier In Every Way.

Private 352672 HARRY LUNN, of Curzon Road, Hurst, is reported to have been killed by a shell in France. Lieut. GILBERT GREENWOOD, of the 1/9th Battalion writes - "By the time you receive this letter you will no doubt have had official word of the death of your husband in action yesterday, September 2nd. It is impossible for me to express in this letter the feeling of regret and sympathy which I have experienced. He was in my platoon, and by his death I feel that I have lost one of my best men. He was a good soldier in every way. In your great loss may you find all possible consolation in the fact that he gave his life whilst fighting for his King and country". In civil life Private LUNN, who was 29 years of age, was a clerk for Messrs. Marshall, contractors, Cockbrook. He was also secretary of Hillgate U.M. Church, where his services were highly appreciated. Private LUNN joined the army in August 1916, and after being sent to Egypt was on the torpedoed "Arcadian," being subsequently drafted to France. He has two brothers who are both on active service.

(Harry Lunn is recorded on the Tyne Cot Memorial to the missing).

http://ashtonpals.webs.com/1917page3.htm
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112th Field Artillery (FIRST NEW JERSEY ARTILLERY)

Organized 3 April 1917 in the New Jersey National Guard from new and existing units as the 1st Battalion, Field Artillery, with Headquarters at Camden

Expanded, reorganized, and redesignated 17 July 1917 as the 1st Field Artillery Drafted into Federal service 5 August 1917

Reorganized and redesignated 15 September 1917 as the 110th Field Artillery and assigned to the 29th Division

Redesignated 27 September 1917 as the 112th Field Artillery and remained assigned to the 29th Division

Demobilized 31 May 1919 at Camp Dix, New Jersey

http://www.state.nj.us/military/museum/112.html
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Top 10 Famous Spies

1. Mata Hari Born: 1876; Died: 1917

Spied For: Germany (and Possibly France)

Mata Hari was the stage-name for Dutch-born Margaretha Geertruida (Grietje) Zelle who was an exotic dancer and high class prostitute in Paris. In 1905, after divorcing her husband, she began her career as an exotic dancer, taking the name Mata Hari (meaning “sun” or “Eye of the Dawn”). She posed herself as a princess from Java. Posing as an exotic person was possible in those days because the lack of telecommunications. During this period of her life she was often photographed in scant clothing or nude.

She mixed with the upper class and became a courtesan to many important high-ranking military men and politicians. This put her in a very good position to gather information. During World War 1, the Netherlands remained a neutral nation, enabling Mata Hari, a Dutch national, to cross national borders freely. At one point she was interviewed by British Intelligence and she admittedly to being a spy for the French. The French later denied this. It is still unknown whether this was true.

In January, 1917, the German Military Attache in Madrid sent an encoded radio signal to Berlin, stating that they were receiving excellent information from a German spy codenamed H-21. French intelligence intercepted the messages and were able to identify H-21 as Mata Hari. On February 13, 1917, Mata Hari was arrested in her Paris hotel room. She was subsequently tried for espionage and found guilty. She was executed by Firing Squad on the 15th of September, 1917 at the age of 41.

Ga voor de andere negen naar http://listverse.com/2007/08/24/top-10-famous-spies/
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Pep Lightner's letter to his Mother in 1917

The following is an interesting letter from Seward Lightner to his mother in 1917 during WW1. The original letter would not scan clear enough to remain readable for the internet; transcribed letter is shown below. Obvious corrections are inserted in (parenthesis) and were omitted in the original letter.

Fort Russell Wyo., Sept. 15, 1917

Dear Mother,

I haven't had any thing to write about. It's about the same thing every day. Haven't got the artillery equipment here yet so the drilling is dismounted artillery drill in the A.M. and horse exercise in the P.M. We were issued winter clothes and anything else you need. Two pair leather gloves and two pair woolen gloves. Going to get overcoats to-day I think. I am fixed up fine for clothes lucky to have so many. I've got two uniforms of woolen O.D. and a extra pair pants. One uniform of khaki and three extra pair pants, three pairs of shoes, six suits of summer underclothes and six of winter, about two dozen pairs of socks, four shirts, three pair leggings and two hats also a rain coat.

I was called in the orderly room last week and the Capt. told me to be at the non-commission officer school. He asked me how much school I had and a lot other questions. Been going ever since. Maby (maybe) you don't know what non-comm officers are. They are Corporals and Sergeants. I can't get any furlough unless I have some excuse as important business or sickness. If you can find some business for me, write but don't anybody get sick. I've got stamps you don't need to send stamps cause that (is) the first thing I stocked upon last pay day. This month just the minute I get my money I'm going to take a beeline for the post office and send 25 home. I could just as well send home 15 last month but waited to long. If a guy didn't have any money he('s) just as well satisfied but if he has it I'll be dammed if it can be kept.

There is a big Y.M.C.A. just finished. Got ever(y) thing in it imaginable even moving pictures and it don't cost a cent. Have the best of grub. Something every outfit in the front don't have. Butter every meal. Of course the guy that runs the eats has a lot to do with it. We feed on better than government rations and that is 47¢ a day for each. The mess sergeant believes in everybody eating all they want but if there is any butter left on the plates hell to pay with the guy if he catches him. If he can't find him nobody gets any butter for a week. Everybody likes him he's full of fun.

I ain't very anxious to move out of this place now. I haven't been to Cheyenne for a devil of a while. Has Marie got back yet? Tell Biddie not to tell anything about what I say. I will write to her when I get my pictures I'm getting developed at the drug store up town. I will have some good ones if they turn out all right. Well this is all the junk I can think of.

Seward

http://www.hartfordmichigan.com/hartfordhistory/military/military%20personnel/Letters%20to%20Home/Lightner,%20Seward%20letter%20home%201917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arthur Roy Brown - World War I Fighter Ace

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve of the following award to the undermentioned officer, in recognition of his gallantry and devotion in the field:

AWARDED THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS

For the excellent work he has done on active service.

On the 3rd September, 1917, he attacked a two-seater Aviatik, in company with his flight. The enemy machine was seen to dive down vertically, the enemy observer falling over on the side of the fuselage shot.

On the 5th September, 1917, in company with formation, he attacked an Albatross scout and two-seater, driving them away from our lines. One machine was observed to go down apparently out of control.

On the 15th September, 1917, whilst on patrol, he dived on two Aviatiks and three Albatross scouts, followed by his flight. He dived several times and picked out one enemy scout, firing about 200 rounds, when the enemy machine went down out of control, spinning on its back.

On the 20th September, 1917, whilst leading his flight, he dived on five Albatross scouts. Flight Lieutenant Brown picked out one enemy machine and opened fire. One of his guns jammed, but he carried on with the other. The enemy machine went down out of control and over on its back and remained in that position for about twenty seconds, whilst Flight Lieutenant Brown continued firing until his other gun jammed. The enemy machine then disappeared in the clouds, still on its back.

http://www.constable.ca/caah/brown.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Vardar, 15-29 September 1918

The battle of the Vardar, 15-29 September 1918, was the decisive battle on the Balkan Front of the First World War. The Allies had maintained an army at Salonika since 1915, at great cost and with very little success. The Allied troops at Salonika had failed to rescue Serbia in 1915 or Romania in 1916. A series of Allied offensives had been defeated by the Bulgarians, with the aid of German and Turkish troops.

In July 1918 General Franchet d’Esperey had been appointed to command the Allied troops at Salonika. In theory he had eight French, seven British, six Greek, six Serbian and four Italian Divisions, a total of thirty one divisions. At full strength this would have given him around 450,000 men, but at best half of them were fit for duty in September 1918.

They faced seventeen Bulgarian and two Turkish divisions, which at full strength would have been equal to the available Allied forces. Bulgarian morale was now poor. The majority of German combat troops had been removed from the front, leaving von Mackensen and a few artillery batteries to bolster Bulgarian resistance.

The Allied offensive began on 15 September. The first attack was by the French and the Serbs, with the Serbs in the middle of the line. The British joined in on the right of the line (battle of Doiran, 18-19 September 1918). The Bulgarians resisted for a few days, but then began to fall back. On 25 September the Allied advance reached the Vardar, the next day the British reached Strumitza.

That day the Bulgarians began armistice negotiations. On 28 September the Bulgarians agreed to surrender terms, which came into effect on 29 September. Under the terms of the armistice the Bulgarians demobilised their army, surrendered all territory gained during the war and placed her railways at the disposal of the Allies.

Bulgaria was the first of the Central Powers to surrender. One month later Turkey followed (30 October), followed by the collapsing Austro-Hungarian Empire (3 November) and finally German on 11 November. The failure of Germany’s summer offensive and the start of the Allied counterattacks had undermined the morale of Germany’s allies, while their collapse had contributed to the eventual German surrender.

Rickard, J (4 September 2007), Battle of the Vardar, 15-29 September 1918 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_vardar1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Dobro Pole

The Battle of Dobro Pole was a World War I battle, fought on 15 September 1918. The battle resulted in a decisive Entente victory, with a defeated Bulgaria left to sign an armistice, which removed it from World War I.

The battle was fought at Dobro Pole, in present day Republic of Macedonia, which was claimed by Bulgaria and had been under Bulgarian occupation since 1915.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dobro_Pole
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Intelligentsia / Lenin to Gorky
15 September 1919 (English translation of Russian original )

Sept. 15, 1919

Dear Aleksei Maksimovich [Gorky]!

I saw Tankov, and even before his visit and your letter, we had decided in the Central Committee [TSeka] to appoint Kamenev and Bukharin to review and confirm the arrests of the bourgeois intellectuals of the quasi-Constitutional Democrat [Kadet] stripe and to free everyone possible. For it is clear to us that here indeed mistakes were made.

It is also clear that, in general, the arrest of the Kadets and quasi-Kadets was the necessary and correct measure to take.

When I read your frank opinion on this subject, I recall a phrase you used during our conversations in London, Capri, and elsewhere that made a deep impression on me:

"We artists are irresponsible people."

Just so! What gives you cause to say these improbably angry words? This cause, that dozens or even hundreds of these Kadet and quasi-Kadet little gentlemen will spend several days in prison in order to prevent conspiracies similar to the surrendering of the Krasnaia Gorka Fort, conspiracies that threaten the lives of thousands of workers and peasants!

What a tragedy, you're thinking! What an injustice! Intellectuals in prison for several days or even weeks just to prevent the massacre of tens of thousands of workers and peasants!

"Artists are irresponsible people."

...Recently I read his [Korolenko's] War, Motherland, and Mankind, a pamphlet written in August 1917. Korolenko, you know, is the best of the "quasi-Kadets," almost a Menshevik. But what a vile, despicable, rotten defense of the imperialist war, dressed up with sugar-coated phrases! A pitiful petty bourgeois captivated by bourgeois prejudices! For such gentlemen, 10,000,000 men killed during an imperialist war is a matter deserving support (by deeds, while mouthing sugar-coated phrases "against" the war), but the death of hundreds of thousands in a just civil war against landlords and capitalists evokes only aahs, oohs, sighs, and hysteria.

No. It isn't a sin to jail such "men of talent" for short periods if that's what it takes to prevent plots (such as the one at Krasnaia Gorka) and the deaths of tens of thousands. We uncovered the conspiracies of the Kadets and quasi-Kadets. And we know that quasi-Kadet professors are giving assistance heart and soul to the conspirators. That is a fact.

The intellectual forces of the workers and peasants are growing and getting stronger in their fight to overthrow the bourgeoisie and their accomplices, the educated classes, the lackeys of capital, who consider themselves the brains of the nation. In fact they are not its brains but its shit.

We pay above-average salaries to those "intellectual forces" who want to bring learning to the people (rather than toadying to capital). That is a fact. We cherish them. That is a fact. Tens of thousands of officers are serving in the Red Army and are winning in spite of hundreds of traitors. That is a fact.

Regarding your frame of mind, I know how to "understand" it (once you asked whether I would understand you). Several times, on Capri and elsewhere, I told you, "You let yourself be surrounded by the worst elements of the bourgeois intelligentsia , and you give in to their whining. You hear and listen to the wail of hundreds of intellectuals about their "terrible" incarceration lasting several weeks, but you do not hear or listen to the voices of the masses, of millions -- workers and peasants -- who are threatened by Denikin, Kolchak, Lianozov, Rodzianko, the Krasnaia Gorka (and other Kadet) conspirators. I quite, quite understand that this is how you can end your letter with the statement that these "Reds are just as much enemies of the people as the Whites" (fighters for the overthrow of capitalists and landlords are just as much enemies of the people as are the capitalists and the landlords), or even end up believing in a tin divinity or in "our father the tsar." I quite understand.

Really and truly you will die* if you don't break away from this situation with the bourgeois intelligentsia. With all my heart I wish that you would break away as soon as possible.

Best regards

[signed] Yours, Lenin.

*But you're not writing! To waste yourself on the whining of decaying intellectuals and not to write -- is that not death for an artist, is that not a shame?

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Intelligentsia_/_Lenin_to_Gorky
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1918)

15 september 1918 - “Het geboer gaat nog zijn gewone gang. Alles is duur, zoals kleerstoffen. Gij schrijft: een kostuum kost bij ons 50 à 60 gulden. Dat is veel, maar bij ons zal dat toch zeker een broek kosten. Koopt nog maar een pak, want ik heb de uwe al wat versleten…” (Peter Huybrechts van het Lipseinde in Zondereigen aan Cornelis Huybrechts, geïnterneerde soldaat in Riel).

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=191:09-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1918&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The war diary of the 33rd London Regiment

14 - 15 September 1918: Ypres front
Work under RE in battle area

15 September 1918: Ypres front
A Company moved to Lille Gate and took over Ypres Defences from 10th HLI
B Company moved to Menin Gate and took over Ypres Defences from 10th HLI

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-33London.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Turkish and Azerbaijani troops entering Baku on 15 September 1918

Foto... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Azerbaijani_troops_enter_Baku_1918.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albert Constable

Lance Corporal 7701 Albert Constable died whilst a prisoner of war in Germany on Sunday 15th SEPTEMBER 1918. He was buried at Cologne Southern Cemetery, grave reference V.G.5. Cologne was entered by British Forces on 6th December 1918 and the Southern Cemetery was begun by the city in 1900 and covers a very large area. It was used during the war for the burial of more than 1,000 Allied prisoners as well as German soldiers. After the Armistice it was chosen as the site of one of four permanent sites to where British graves from 183 other cemeteries in Germany could be moved.

http://www.findonvillage.com/0613_the_fourth_year_1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Flight Timeline

September 12-15, 1918 - The Battle of St. Mihiel marks the largest deployment of aircraft in a single operation to date. Billy Mitchell commands 1,480 aircraft (including those in the service of French, British, U.S., and Italian air forces).

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/classic/world-war-i-flight-timeline4.htm
Voor Billy Mitchell, zie http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Mitchell
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dogs of World War I

One of the most famous dogs of all time is Rin Tin Tin. He was the puppy of German war dogs, found in Lorraine, France on 15 September 1918 by Captain Lee Duncan, in an abandoned German war dog station. After the war, Duncan developed Rin Tin Tin, or "Rinty" into the first animal actor to achieve wide public acclaim. He made his film debut in 1922 starring in the silent film "The Man from Hell's River."

Nu is het weer 15 september... http://www.olive-drab.com/od_wardogs_famous.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 19:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Corpl. Christopher Towner (15 September 1918)

Formerly in the employ of Lord Northbourne as a gardener, Cpl. Christopher Towner joined the Leicester Regiment in March, 1916, going on active service to France in the following July. He subsequently served with the Machine Gun Corps, and was killed on the 15th September, 1918.

He is commemorated at the Victoria Memorial Hospital, Deal.

http://freespace.virgin.net/andrew.parkinson4/wwi_army.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SPIRITUS PARACLITUS (On St. Jerome) - Pope Benedict XV

Encyclical of Pope Benedict XV promulgated on 15 September 1920

To all the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, and Ordinaries in Union with the Apostolic See.

Since the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, had bestowed the Scriptures on the human race for their instruction in Divine things, He also raised up in successive ages saintly and learned men whose task it should be to develop that treasure and so provide for the faithful plenteous "consolation from the Scriptures."

De man is nogal lang van stof. Lees verder op http://www.ewtn.com/library/ENCYC/B15SPIRI.HTM
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Sep 2010 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Enrico Caruso - Vaghissima sembianza

Text by Alberto Donaudy, music by his brother Stefano. Recorded with Caruso 15 September 1920.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u0BtRhBqi9o
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2010 9:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Troonrede van 15 september 1914

Mijne Heeren!

Onder zeer buitengewone omstandigheden kom Ik heden weder in Uw midden.

Wij zijn allen vervuld door de gedachte dat een verschrikkelijke oorlog een groot deel der beschaafde wereld teistert. Ons land is dientengevolge in een toestand geraakt, welke nog steeds onafgebroken waakzaamheid eischt.

Ik mag echter dankbaar vaststellen, dat Onze vriendschappelijke betrekkingen met alle Mogendheden ongestoord zijn gebleven.

De volstrekte neutraliteit die Nederland in acht neemt en met al zijne krachten zal handhaven, is tot dusver op geen enkele wijze geschonden. Tot Mijne groote voldoening werd de mobilisatie van zee– en landmacht zonder eenige stoornis in minder dan den daarvoor vastgestelden tijd voltooid. Beide deelen Onzer weermacht vervullen, met den besten geest bezield, hunne vaak zware taak.

mobilisatie en grenscontrole

Diep begaan met het lot van alle volken, die in den krijg zijn medegesleept, draagt Nederland de buitengewone lasten die het worden opgelegd gewillig en ontvangt met open armen alle ongelukkigen die birmen zijne grenzen eene toevlucht zoeken.

Het economisch leven ondervindt in al zijne vertakkingen de drukkende gevolgen van den toestand, waarin Europa verkeert.

Het handelsverkeer met het buitenland is tot zeer beperkte afmetingen teruggebracht; de scheepvaart, voor zoover zij niet stilligt, gaat met ongekende moeilijkheden en gevaren gepaard; voor de zeevisscherij geldt dit in niet mindere mate; landbouw en nijverheid vinden, voor zoover zij voor export werken, haar afzetgebied voor een groot deel verstoord; in den gelden fondsenhandel bracht de toestand eene heftige crisis teweeg; de toevoer van granen en van grond– en hulpstoffen voor de nijverheid is zeer belemmerd.

Toch komt er eenige verlichting in den druk. Vasthouding en prijsopdrijving van levensmiddelen en huishoudelijke artikelen is voorkomen. De crisis in den geld– en fondsenhandel is in banen geleid, die de mogelijkheid van een geleidelijk verloop daarvan openen. Krachtige pogingen worden aangewend tot beperking van werkloosheid en tot voorkoniing en leniging van nood.

Verschillende producten van land– en tuinbouw en van de voedingsindustrie vinden weer afzet, zoowel naar Engeland als naar Duitschland en België.

De geregelde gang van zaken in de koloniën heeft veel te lijden van de stoornis in post-, telegraaf– en scheepvaartverkeer. Op handel, landbouw en nijverheid in Nederlandsch-Indië is een zware druk gelegd, doch, waar noodig met den steun der Regeering, is door de circulatiebank en verschillende credietinstellingen, tot dusver met bevredigende uitkomst, die druk verlicht en eene crisis voorkomen. De invoer staat stil; groote voorraden iutvoerproducten wachten op verscheping en heropening der Europeesche markten. Maatregelen zijn door de Regeering genomen ter voorkoming, dat gebrek aan levensmiddelen ontstaan. De economische toestand der inlandsche bevolking, wier houding niets te wenschen overlaat, is voor het oogenblik niet onbevredigend te noemen.

De toestand in Suriname behoeft, wanneer de aanvoer van levensmiddelen, ook van Regeeringswege ter hand genomen, bestendigd blijft, geen zorg te baren.

De toestand op Curaçao is onbevredigend; de handel ligt stil en er heerscht groote droogte. Op Aruba en Bonaire veroorzaakt de droogte veel armoede en ziekte onder de bevolking. De aanvoer van levensmiddelen ook naar de West-Indische eilanden is verzekerd.

In alle koloniën werden maatregelen getroffen tot handhaving onzer staatkundige onzijdigheid.

Met vertrouwen doe Ik een beroep op allen om ook in handel en verkeer met zorgvuldigheid alles te verrnijden, wat onze neutraliteit in gevaar zou kunnen brengen.

Waar ons volksbestaan eischt, dat de buitenlandsche handel, voor zoover de omstandigheden toelaten, doorgaat, behoort ieder handelaar zich bewust te ziin, dat zelfs de schijn behoort vermeden te worden als zou in en door den Nederlandschen handel partij worden getrokken voor één der oorlogvoerende Mogendheden boven andere.

Ik gevoel Mij gelukkig, dat Mijn volk, in trouwe plichtsbetrachting, met Mij vereenigd het vaderland tracht te dienen en Ik verwacht, dat de eendracht die zich alom in het land heeft geopenbaard, tot den einde zal worden volgehouden.

Met de bede dat God ons kracht moge schenken, verklaar Ik de gewone zitting der Staten-Generaal geopend.

http://www.troonredes.nl/2010/troonrede-van-15-september-1914/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Sep 2018 14:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 September 1918 - The Australian Government

The Austrian government appeals to American President Woodrow Wilson to call an informal conference to discuss peace terms.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/15-september-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Sep 2018 15:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Franziskus Graf Wolff Metternich berichtet seinem Vater von seinem Kriegsalltag und bittet um Zusendung von Wein.

den 15.IX.18.
Regts. Adj. Hus. 7
Mein lieber Papa!
Schon lange habe ich nichts mehr von Dir
gehört. Hoffentlich geht es Dir gut!
Von mir ist nicht viel Neues zu berichten.
Abgesehen von kleineren Quartierwechseln
sind wir immer noch in derselben Gegend.
Gesundheitlich geht es mir gut. Meine
Pferde sind jetzt endlich wohlbehalten von
der Esk. angekommen. Du schriebst

mir neulich, Du habest einem Mann,
der Dir Grüße von mir bestellt habe 2 Fla-
schen Wein mitgegeben. Ich danke Dir
sehr dafür. Wer dieser Mann sein kann,
weiß ich nicht. Ich habe niemandem den
Auftrag gegeben, Grüße zu bestellen, da ich
keinen gesehen habe, der in die dortige
Gegend fuhr. Der Wein ist demgemäß
auch noch nicht eingetroffen. Hoffentlich ist
er nicht verloren gegangen. Ferdinand

wird nun auch wohl wieder an die Front
abgereist sein. Sein langer Urlaub hat
ihm sehr gut getan. Musi wird wohl noch
mit ihren Kindern in Gracht sein.
Nun hat ja auch der große Angriff in
Lothringen angefangen. Hoffentlich hat er
ein Abflauen der Offensiven an den and-
ren Fronten zur Folge.
Neulich habe ich Hartmann gesehen, den
Tage als er aus seinem Urlaub zurück-
kehrte. Emanuel Landsberg sah ich
bei derselben Gelegenheit. Wolf ist jetzt
auch als Ordonnanzoff. zu dieser Division
gekommen. Beide besuchten uns vor
einigen Tagen.
Nun habe ich noch eine Bitte. Könntest Du
mir 10 bis 15 Flaschen Wein schicken? Man
bekommt nämlich fast garnichts mehr. Und
das, was man bekommt ist fast ungenießbar,
sauerer Moselwein, der einem furchtbar
schlecht bekommt. Da wir nur sehr wenig
trinken,- meistens trinken wir nur Thee
zum Essen, aber das ist auf die Dauer fürchterlich –
würden wir mit dem erwähnten Quantum
gut sehr lange auskommen. Sollten die Vor-
räte in Gracht dies nicht erlauben so könntest
Du mir vielleicht aus derselben Quelle, aus
der Du den Tischwein bezogen hast, etwas besorgen,
dann aber natürlich eine etwas größere
Menge, die wir irgendwo deponieren würden.
Es handelt sich natürlich nur um Tischwein.
Wann wird in diesem Jahre der Fami-
lientag stattfinden? Wenn dies bald der
Fall sein wird, werde ich wohl kommen
können.
Fine schrieb mir einmal recht erfreut
über ihre neue Tätigkeit in München.
Wenn sie es nur bei dem miserablen
Klima im Herbst und Winter mit ihrer Ge-
sundheit aushält.
Daß ich von Brodmühler einen sehr netten
Brief erhalten habe, schrieb ich Dir, glaube ich,
wohl schon. Ich freue mich sehr diesen guten Mann
bald wiederzusehen. Wann wird Paul
aus der Schwei aus Holland kommen? Hoffent-
lich wird das nicht mehr allzulange auf sich
warten lassen.
Nun lebe wohl, mein lieber Papa, und schreibe
mir bitte bald einmal wie es Dir geht, und
was Du im Herbst zu tun gedenkst.
Wo ist O. Paul? Sollte sich die Sache mit dem
Wein machen lassen, so schicke ihn bitte nach
Bonn (an meine Adresse) zum Husarenkasino
zu Wachtm. Jung, der die Weiterleitung veran-
lassen wird.
Viele Grüße an Musi, alle in Gracht u. den
Pastor
Dein dankbarer Sohn
Franziskus

https://archivewk1.hypotheses.org/60043
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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