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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Notes on the Front - Tightening the Grip - 4 March 1916 - Author: James Connolly

In our editorial last week we pointed out that the pressure of economic forces were being brought to bear upon this country in order to compel the young manhood of Ireland to enlist in the British Army.

We also pointed out that this was also an astute move in the interests of the great capitalists. This latter point is so important, and so little understood in this country, that we feel moved to again revert to it in our Notes this week.

The first point scarcely needs any stressing. The Military Service Act now being applied to England has not been enforced in Ireland because, as has been confessed in the House of Commons by Mr Bonar Law, it could not be put in operation without the use of a 'considerable amount of force'. The armed manhood of Ireland whom Messrs Redmond and Devlin failed to betray into the ranks of England's army forbade the attempt being made to force them in.

They had good 'reasons' for not being conscripted, and most of their 'reasons' were well provided with serviceable ammunition. More reasons of various calibres are coming in every day, and hence the Government concluded that it would be better to let Ireland alone – until after the war.

After the war England may compensate herself for her defeat at the hands of Germany by wreaking her armed vengeance upon Ireland, but for the present other means must be sought for finding Irish recruits. What are those other means?

Oratory has been tried, and failed. All over Dublin recruiting meetings are being broken up by the spontaneous action of the jeering crowds. Up and down the country the Khaki recruiting bands are marching in vain. The supply of corner boys and wastrels in our Irish towns and villages has fallen so low that the police magistrates have had practically nothing to do since the war fever swept up these undesirables in response to the oratory of Redmond and Devlin. In town and country the manhood of Ireland are thinking things about the Empire, and the things they think do not lead to soldiering for that institution.

The weeding out of young men of military age by the process of discharging them has been zealously recommended by the Empire builders, and adopted by many Irish employers. But many others whilst loudly proclaiming their zeal for recruiting have kept eligible young men in their own employment, and indeed insisted upon youth and physical fitness as a condition of employment in their service.

Newspapers have been bought, and journalists have freely prostituted themselves, in the service of recruiting, but few people in Ireland nowadays believe newspapers. We have been so long accustomed to their lying about what happened in Labour Wars at home that it has become impossible for us to credit what they say about other wars abroad.

So the British Government having used up all its light cavalry and infantry in vain now moves up its really heavy artillery to bring these Irish to reason. The heavy artillery in this case consists of the scientific employment of economic force.

Thus there will be served at one and the same time the interests of the British Government as such, and the interests of the great capitalists who own the British Government.

The material needed for the prosecution of every Irish industry which enters into competition with British industries will be interfered with either by totally prohibiting its importation, or by limiting it to such an extent that its cost will become almost prohibitive to those who do not possess large reserves of capital to call upon.

To make this still more effective in its power to cripple struggling industries, and bankrupt small employers, the Government issues secret orders to the banks to refuse all overdrafts to their business customers. At one blow this puts automatically out of business thousands of small employers who from week to week must trade upon the credit represented by those overdrafts.

There are thousands of small employers whose businesses are perfectly sound, but who have large sums owing to them not immediately realisable in cash, but nevertheless perfectly well secured. It is the perfectly legitimate custom of such employers to draw from their banks overdrafts upon their deposits in order to enable them to keep their businesses going, paying back to the bank the sums thus borrowed according as they themselves are paid by their debtors.

Large firms with unlimited capital to call upon do not need to pursue this practice, but in a country of small capitalists like Ireland nine-tenths of the business firms are kept going in this manner. Observe well the deadly sequence of these moves of the Government. First, the restrictions upon imports create immediate financial troubles and precipitate an industrial crisis in which money is sought at a high premium. Next, the banks are forbidden to give their customers even the usual facilities to obtain this money, and thus when money is most needed it cannot be had.

Result. Will probably be widespread bankruptcy, the closing down of many places of employment in Ireland, and the consequent hunting of Irish workers into the British Army, or to England to be conscripted in the near future.

Only those capitalists in Ireland with large reserves to call upon will be able to carry themselves over the crisis. For the temporary strain upon them they will be rewarded by being enabled to absorb all the business of the smaller firms who will have succumbed.

The business of the smaller firms will thus be practically confiscated by their mammoth rivals, and the small capitalist will be allowed to go into the workhouse if he is old, or to the army if he is young. If he goes into the army he will have the honour of fighting for the plutocratic gang that planned and accomplished his ruin.

Many Irish firms have already turned their entire business establishments over to war work. These firms have been enabled to exist for years because of the patriotic self-denial of Irish Irelanders who pushed their goods in season and out of season, at home and abroad.

Now these firms so established and supported have given up all their customers in favour of war work. They have sent adrift all the customers secured for them by long years of propaganda by others. Where will they look for these customers when the war is over? Factories in England and America will have snapped up all or a majority of their customers, and they will have to begin all over again the weary work of looking for orders, and whilst they are so looking their machinery will rust and their workpeople starve.

All over the country it is the same. We believe the Blarney Tweed Company is solely engaged in war work. Who is supplying its customers? Probably some of its English competitors. Pierce's Iron Foundry in Wexford has turned from the manufacture of agricultural implements to that of munitions for the English Army, thus reversing the scriptural idea of turning swords into ploughshares. In Kilkenny, in Dundalk, in Sligo, in Newry, everywhere in Ireland the capitalist fools have thrown overboard their old customers, abandoned a trade built upon the permanent needs of the community, in favour of a trade consisting of the passing needs of a mad war. The very moment peace is declared all their orders will stop. And the returning soldiers will buy their necessities for civil life from the shops who have been compelled to get their orders filled by English or American factories whose owners were too shrewd to throw away customers to please the British Government.

All the firms that will be thus ruined are small firms; all the firms that will benefit by their ruin are mammoth firms; the British Government is owned by the great mammoth capitalist firms.

Do you see the point?

Again we press the point home. This war is not only a war for the destruction of a great commercial rival abroad, it is also being manipulated by the great capitalists for the destruction of commercial rivals at home.

The capitalist class of Great Britain, the meanest, most unscrupulous governing class in all history, is out for plunder. The plunder of German trade by force, the plunder of Irish trade by economic scheming, the plunder of the small capitalist class by financial pressure, the plunder of the Irish Nation by a combination of all three.

The grip of the enemy upon Ireland is tightening. Perhaps the sword alone can loosen it. Wait and see!

https://celt.ucc.ie/published/E900002-063/index.html
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“I hope you live a life you are proud of. If you find that you are not, l hope you have the strength to start all over again.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 March 1916 | Centenary of WW1 in Orange

4 March 1916 - Thomas John Dixon enlists. Thomas is commemorated on the Centenary of WWI in Orange Honour Roll; he would be killed in action in France on 17 March 1917.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/4-march-1916/
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 Letters | Letter from May Fay to James Finn, 4 March 1916

http://letters1916.maynoothuniversity.ie/diyhistory/items/show/656
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4th March 1916 - Excessive heat means no football for 9th Bn Worcestershires

News of the 9th Battalion: Acting Brigade Sergeant-Major Lane, of the 9th Worcestershires, writing to his father, Mr. Lane, Station Master, Fernhill Heath, says that he is in the best of health, considering the terrific heat, which is 110 degrees in the shade. The health of the troops is splendid. Football of course, is out of the question.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1916/03/excessive-heat-means-no-football-for-9th-bn-worcestershires/

4th March 1915

- Wanted for Service in France: Saddlers and Harness Makers. Pay 5s a day and separation allowance for wives. Age 19 to 45 years. Glasses may be worn. Full particulars from recruiting sergeants at: Worcester, Norton Barracks

- Worcestershire Recruits’ Departure: About 42 recruits for various regiments, enlisted at the Guildhall Recruiting Office, 42 High Street, paraded in front of the Guildhall this morning, and marched to Shrub Hill. At the Guildhall, Capt. Green, the Recruiting Officer, addressed the men. The band of the Worcestershire Yeomanry (under Bandmaster Greaves) played outside the Guildhall, and accompanied the men to the station. A large crowd assembled, and gave them a hearty send-off.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1915/03/boy-run-over-by-car/
_________________

“I hope you live a life you are proud of. If you find that you are not, l hope you have the strength to start all over again.
- F. Scott Fitzgerald


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Mrt 2018 12:01, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 11:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dover History

4 March 1915 - The defensive measures met with little success, the first U-boat to be sunk in the Straits being the U. 8, which was sunk on March 4th after a very vigorous chase in which half a score of British ships took part. Her crew were landed at Dover and taken to the Castle, prior to their removal elsewhere.

http://www.dovermuseum.co.uk/Exhibitions/WW1Timeline/1915/March.aspx
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 12:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BEHAN LETTER - 4 MARCH 1915

This is the only letter we have that Felton Pickering Behan sent from the trenches. Although there is no year on the letter, we know it was 1915 as that is the only year during the war when March 4th was a Thursday. The cards he mentions in the first line were pre-printed post cards distributed by the Army which had lines that could be checked off such as “I am quite well” or “I have been admitted into the hospital sick/wounded” or I have received your letter/telegram/parcel”. Soldiers could only sign their names and add nothing else to the cards. This was an easy way for soldiers to let those at home get some simple information in between letters.

In the Trenches
Thursday March 4th [1915]

Dear Mom:

I hope you got the cards I sent you alright so you may now that I am all to the good yet. We have been moving around so much lately that I never got settled down enough to write any letters. It seems funny but I haven’t felt so much “at home” and at my ease as I do right here with the bullets flying round and now and again the deep boom of a mortar not more than a few hundred years away, dropping occasional shells on the German trenches. I came in last night to relieve another signaller on the telephone and found a nice little dugout, corrugated iron roof and bags of mud with the natural wall making up the sides, straw with coats and blankets for a bed. there are three of us at present making it a little crowded, but only two will be here when we get onto our jobs. It isn’t so very dangerous at our work and fully expect to see you again in a few months.

The Germans shelled a town about a mile behind us this morning and we watched the shells bursting round the old church town. Three days ago we marched into a town that was being shelled but came thro. it OK. they don’t do an awful lot of danter as the big guns are not in evidence tho. The towns are full of men, we, we are holding our own line backed by Canadian artillery. We are doing our little part. The British O.C.s [Officers Commanding] were very pleased with our work on our trench so here we are. Must say au revoir, love to all and I hope you are all well.
Budger[?]


https://qormuseum.org/soldiers-of-the-queens-own/behan-felton-pickering/behan-letter-04-03-1915/
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 12:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra - March 1915

Telegram. Stavka. 4 March, 1915.

I have finished my notepaper. Could you not send me my paper - in the blue box on the shelf opposite the first window? I have very stupidly forgotten it. All is well. The weather is nasty, a snowstorm. I kiss you tenderly.

Nicky.

Telegram. Stavka. 4 March, 1915.

Warm thanks for letter and two telegrams. I am in despair at your being worn out. I am very grieved about your poor wounded officer; I quite understand you...

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/march15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 12:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 March 1915 - Letter from Gertrude Bell to Charles Doughty-Wylie

[4 March 1915] Boulogne March 4 [1915] My dear, my dear I must begin an immense letter to you & I’ll begin it by wondering whether you had the good thought of writing to me from Toulon. If you hadn’t it will be days & weeks before I hear from you. I came over on the 2nd, travelling on rosy clouds & blown by airs from Paradise. Now how should that be? You’re at the war, lands and seas divide us, yet I can’t come back to earth - I still walk somewhere at the top of the heavens & live in thoughts - oh bother the censor! I can’t tell you what I live in. In my carriage going to Folkestone there was a little Danish nurse. She had had all her luggage examined - they had read her letters even; but she didn’t mind, they were nice letters. And then she smiled. My Iuggage hadn’t been examined nor my letters read; I smiled too & blessed the Red X. Presently to curse them, however, for when I came to have my passport examined, which they had returned to me saying it was all in order, behold they had forgotten the French visa! Now can you imagine it? That’s their job & they forgot the French visa. I got through, of course, wholly by charm of manner. But they can’t expect all their employees to be so haloed in pink cloud that no one can resist them. And when I reached the ship the first person I saw was Mr Fitzmaurice, going to Egypt. There was sunshine & a white flecked sea — I told you about the airs from Paradise; they were there. And with all that Mr F. was trembling lest he should be sunk by a submarine. I took him under my wing & told him that I of all people was the one to travel with, that I was life & nothing could touch me — he was safe on my ship; nothing could come near me. And he, nervous little Irishman, took heart of grace & looked out with confidence onto the white flecked sea. When we parted at Boulogne he said to me “Do you know what the Italians call a jettatura? well, you’re the opposite.” I am the opposite of all things baleful – take his word for that if you take it for nothing else, & embark cheerfully on my ship of Iife. Will you? Write & tell me - I long to hear. But it will come to the same in the end, that I know. It’s the stuff rosy clouds are made of. Only I would not have them lose one flush of their heavenly colours. I found Tiger & all my men waiting for me at the hotel, but I couldn’t really see them — they were obscured by a phantom which had courted them & turned away disappointed. It was a sharp moment, difficult to master. But do you know that no civiIians were allowed to cross that week until Sunday? Think what it would have been, what torture. I couldn’t have come with you, nor yet followed for 3 days. I went straight into my office, but once there it came upon me suddenly that I had not slept for nights & nights & I spent the rest of the day in a hand to hand conflict - with sleep. Mr Lubbock dined with me - Tiger was out, flown off with a very dear friend down for the night from the front - & after dinner Mr Howell sat down & talked. I heard them half in a dream, their voices fading to a whisper from the other end of the room & then coming back very loud & close. At last I dragged myself to bed & slept & slept & slept — Only till 7 however when I woke broad awake into you - no, I can’t tell you how I woke, how I wake every morning, where I would be. And then a Iong day’s work , and a desperate effort to recapture all the threads that had dropped, still half asleep physically, and falling suddenly - that won’t cease - into thoughts that will not stand aside - In the middle I went out to see Louis Mallet – he’s been with Lord Onslow & the Dougie Malcolms distributing badges. He dined with me last night & we talked till past 10 – late for Boulogne – of all that had happened since I stayed with him, of the black week before the war when Nico nearly resigned & Crowe stopped him, & of Sir Louis’s hurried return to C’ple & the weeks he spent there - yes, we talked & talked. You know he did well; he held up the catastrophe & the delay made much difference - to Russia especially. And then I slept again like the dead - Sir Louis’s stories can’t keep me awake. We’ve had another long day, from 8 in the morning till 7.30 at night. But I’ve knitted the broken threads together & now it will be easier, Inshallah. Tiger & I have dined with the Mallet party & I have heard all the rest of the Turkish tale. He dines with me again tomorrow. I’ve been glad to have him, partly because he doesn’t want to speak of anything but the one thing that fills my mind - the one place where all my thoughts are. Why no - they’re still on the sea where a ship hastens that carries all my life. I mayn’t write, nor set down a thousand unasked questions, which are all one & from one source. Dick take care - take care to live. I’ll go to bed & think & dream. And you?

Lees voor 5 maart en verder door op http://gertrudebell.ncl.ac.uk/letter_details.php?letter_id=1838 via http://gertrudebell.ncl.ac.uk/letter_details.php?from_to=Gertrude+Bell+to+Charles+Doughty-Wylie
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 12:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD - 4 March 1915 - Commons Sitting - WAR.

BELGIUM.

Mr. JOWETT asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether he is willing, inasmuch as Great Britain and her Allies and all neutral Powers are agreed is to the injury which Belgium has 946 already suffered by reason of a quarrel to which she is not a party, to invite suggestions from neutral Powers with a view of avoiding any further devastation of the territories of Belgium or any further destruction of the cities and towns of Belgium by the Great Powers who are contending against each other for mastery?

The SECRETARY of STATE for FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Sir Edward Grey) The only just solution of this question is the evacuation of Belgian territory by German troops with restoration of her independence and reparation for the wrong done to her. Unless neutral Powers are prepared to assist in securing that, I do not see what will be gained by approaching them.

Mr. JOWETT asked the Prime Minister what precautions are taken by the British forces engaged in operations in Belgium to prevent damage being done to the population and property of the Belgian nation in the course of air raids or land and sea bombardments of towns and villages by British forces?

The PRIME MINISTER (Mr. Asquith) Attacks are directed only against points of military significance, and every precaution is taken to avoid damage which is not necessary to the object in view.

Mr. SNOWDEN
May I ask if the Government have any information of a recent air raid by British airmen where bombs were thrown indiscriminately, and as a result of one of these gentlemen's escapades nineteen civilians were killed?

The PRIME MINISTER Our information is not to that effect.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/mar/04/belgium
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 12:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 March 1914; Wednesday | The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot

Got up at 8 o’clock. Mr Aitken away at London. Called round by the dock and got Father’s compensation money. Finished in decent time. Played a bit at night and then went down to Briggs’ and practised with him. Called for Willie and went to the Victoria Hall and saw Cherry Kearton’s Pictures of wild animals. They were very good and interesting. Joe reporting at a meeting in the afternoon and got 5/-­ for it. Went to bed late.

https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/2014/03/04/4-march-1914-wednesday/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Mrt 2018 12:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 4 March 1920 → Commons Sitting

EX-MONARCHS (NEUTRAL COUNTRIES).

Mr. DOYLE asked the Prime Minister whether he is aware that the hospitality of certain neutral countries has been and is being grossly abused by ex-monarchs, enemy alien statesmen, and generals using such territories as the centre for plots and conspiracies with the object of checkmating the peace aims of the Supreme Council; and what action he and the other Allied premiers propose to take to put an end to such a state of things?

The PRIME MINISTER
I am not prepared to state beforehand the steps which the Allied Governments might find it necessary to take in the event of any country permitting its hospitality to be abused in the manner indicated by my hon. Friend.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/mar/04/ex-monarchs-neutral-countries
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