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22 Februari

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2006 7:41    Onderwerp: 22 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 22. Februar

1914


1915
Völlige Vernichtung der russischen 10. Armee
Der große Sieg in Masuren
40000 russische Gefangene aus den Karpathenkämpfen
Ein "Zeppelin" über Calais
Der russische Bericht über die gewaltige Niederlage in Masuren

1916
Heftiger Artilleriekampf an der ganzen Westfront
Starker Geschützkampf nördlich Verdun
Ein deutsches Luftschiff verloren
K. u. k. Flieger über dem Gardasee und der Lombardei
Der amtliche türkische Bericht über den Fall von Erzerum
Sasonows Dumarede über die Kriegslage
Beschießung kleinasiatischer Küstenplätze

1917
Englische und russische Unternehmungen gescheitert
Erfolgreicher Vorstoß bei Zloczow
Die erfolglosen Vorstöße der Engländer
Der Zusammenstoß deutscher und italienischer Truppen in Mazedonien
Die Versenkung des Truppentransportdampfers "Minas"
Erfolgreiche Vorstöße in der Bukowina
Elf englische Kriegsschiffe auf der Jagd nach einem deutschen Hilfskreuzer

1918
Die Verbindung mit den Ukrainern aufgenommen
Hapsal genommen - Vormarsch auf Dubno
Kaiser Karl im deutschen Großen Hauptquartier
Der deutsche Vormarsch im Osten

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2006 7:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 22

1917 Mussolini wounded by mortar bomb

On February 22, 1917, Sergeant Benito Mussolini is wounded by the accidental explosion of a mortar bomb on the Isonzo section of the Italian Front in World War I.

Born in Predappio, Italy, in 1883, the son of a blacksmith and a teacher, Mussolini was well-read, largely self-educated and had worked as a schoolteacher and a socialist journalist. He was arrested and jailed for leading demonstrations in the Forli province against the Italian war in Libya in 1911-12. The editor of Avanti!, the Socialist Party newsletter in Milan, Mussolini was one of the most effective socialist journalists in Europe. In 1912, at the age of 29, he took the reins of the Italian Socialist Party at the Congress of Reggio Emilia, preaching a strict Marxist socialism that prompted Vladimir Lenin to write in a Russian publication that “The party of the Italian socialist proletariat has taken the right path.”

Mussolini early on denounced the Great War, which broke out in 1914, as an “imperialist” conflict; he later reversed his position and began to advocate Italian entrance into the war on the side of the Allies. He left the Socialist Party in 1915 over its neutrality, believing that Italian participation in the Great War would boost its claims on recovered territory in Austria-Hungary after the war. Enlisting in the army, Mussolini was sent to the front at Isonzo, on the eastern end of the Italian Front near the Isonzo River, after Italy’s long-awaited entrance into the war in May 1915.

The mortar bomb that exploded during a training exercise on February 22, 1917, killed four of Mussolini’s fellow soldiers. He escaped alive, but spent six months in the hospital, where 44 fragments of shell were removed from his body. Discharged from the army after his release from the hospital, Mussolini headed back to Milan, where he started his own newspaper, Il Popolo d’Italia (The People of Italy), in which he published articles attacking those in Italy who voiced anti-war sentiments.

In the immediate post-war period, Mussolini and a group of fellow young war veterans founded the Fasci di Combattimento, a right-wing, strongly nationalistic, anti-Socialist movement named for the fasces, the ancient Roman symbol for discipline. Fascism grew rapidly in the 1920s, winning support from rich landowners, the army and the monarchy; the growing strength of Mussolini and his now notorious black-shirt militia led King Vittorio Emmanuel III to invite the charismatic leader to form a coalition government in 1922. By 1926, Benito Mussolini, now known as Il Duce, had consolidated power for himself, transforming Italy into a single-party, totalitarian state that would later, alongside Japan and Adolf Hitler’s Germany, return to the battlefield against the Allies in the Second World War.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Feb 2010 16:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mutiny in Singapore, 15-20th February, 1915

Monday 22nd February saw the opening Courts Martial. These resulted in a large number of the mutineers being shot in public. The largest of these executions saw a firing party of 110 shooting 22 mutineers. The mutineers who surrendered early were sent to fight in Africa against Von Lettow Vorbeck. A leading Indian merchant was implicated in the plot and was proved to have sent messages to the Turkish Consul in Rangoon offering him help by encouraging the Indian garrison in Singapore to mutiny. He was shot for his actions.

http://warandgame.wordpress.com/2009/07/23/mutiny-in-singapore-15-20th-february-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Feb 2010 16:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Accident at Quintinshill on 22nd May 1915

"May 22nd.- Double collision between passenger trains at Quintinshill, by which 224 passengers and three servants were killed, and 242 passengers and four servants injured.
This collision was found to be due to neglect of rules on the part of two signalmen at the Quintinshill signalbox...
This disastrous collision was thus due to want of discipline on the part of the signalmen, first by changing duty at an unauthorised hour, which caused Tinsley to be preoccupied in writing up the Train Register Book, and so diverted his attention from his proper work; secondly by Meakin handing over the duty in a very lax manner; and, thirdly, by both signalmen neglecting to carry out various rules specially framed for preventing accidents due to forgetfulness on the part of signalmen."

http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/eventsummary.php?eventID=85
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Feb 2010 16:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

House-Grey Memorandum, 22 February 1916

President Wilson's diplomatic emissary to Europe, "Colonel" Edward House, met and agreed with the British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey, the outline details of a veiled threat to Germany.

The so-called 'House-Grey Memorandum', noted in memo form by Grey, involved the U.S. 'inviting' German participation in a U.S. inspired peace convention; the failure of Germany to attend would lead to U.S. military involvement.

A marked departure from the official U.S. policy of neutrality, House's agreement with Grey was not cleared in advance by Wilson, who was almost certain to object to House's actions.

In the event House was spared inevitable humiliation by Wilson. The British Government led by Prime Minister Asquith vetoed the suggestion.

Memorandum of Sir Edward Grey
Confidential - 22 February 1916

Colonel House told me that President Wilson was ready, on hearing from France and England that the moment was opportune, to propose that a Conference should be summoned to put an end to the war.

Should the Allies accept this proposal, and should Germany refuse it, the United States would probably enter the war against Germany.

Colonel House expressed the opinion that, if such a Conference met, it would secure peace on terms not unfavourable to the Allies; and, if it failed to secure peace, the United States would leave the Conference as a belligerent on the side of the Allies, if Germany was unreasonable.

Colonel House expressed an opinion decidedly favourable to the restoration of Belgium, the transfer of Alsace and Lorraine to France, and the acquisition by Russia of an outlet to the sea, though he thought that the loss of territory incurred by Germany in one place would have to be compensated to her by concessions to her in other places outside Europe.

If the Allies delayed accepting the offer of President Wilson, and if, later on, the course of the war was so unfavourable to them that the intervention of the United States would not be effective, the United States would probably disinterest themselves in Europe and look to their own protection in their own way.

I said that I felt the statement, coming from the President of the United States, to be a matter of such importance that I must inform the Prime Minister and my colleagues; but that I could say nothing until it had received their consideration.

The British Government could, under no circumstances accept or make any proposal except in consultation and agreement with the Allies...

(initialled 'E.G.' by Sir Edward Grey)
Foreign Office

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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Feb 2010 16:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Verdun

By 22 February, German shock troops had advanced three miles (5 km) capturing the Bois des Caures, at the edge of the village of Flabas, after two French battalions led by Colonel Émile Driant had held them up for two days, and pushed the French defenders back to Samogneux, Beaumont, and Ornes. Later that day, on 22 February, Colonel Émile Driant was killed, rifle in hand, fighting alongside the 56th and 59th Bataillon de chasseurs à pied. Only 118 Chasseurs managed to escape. Poor communications meant that only then did the French high command realise the seriousness of the attack.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Verdun

Lt Col Émile Driant

Years before war broke out Emile Driant had retired from the Army in order to go into Politics becoming a Deputy for Nancy.

He used his position to chastise the Army for its inadequate preparations, and yet on the outbreak of hostilities immediately rejoined the colours despite being over 60.

He was given the command of two battalions of Chasseurs à pied - the 56th BCP and 59th BCP - and by the spring of 1915 found himself in the Bois des Caures to the north-east of Verdun. The wood's name means Hazelnut Wood in the local dialect.

In August 1915 Driant sent a report predicting the fact that any blow against Verdun would fall on his men, and that preparations for the defence of Verdun were still woeful. Without more men and equipment Driant declared, he would not be able to hold the wood against a determined attack by the Germans.

This report was submitted via his old political channels. Following a visit by a working party and their report in December 1915 confirming Driant's opinion, Joffre blew his top.

The French C-in-C dismissed any suggestions that Verdun was vulnerable. Quite the opposite: I consider nothing justifies the fear...

22 February 1916
Morning found Driant surrounded on three sides and despite heroic actions by his machine gunners, his soldiers were being pushed back metre by metre, by the seemingly never ceasing tides of Germans.

By 16:30 hours only handfuls of the Chasseurs were still effective, and still the Germans came on in their thousands.

Eventually the Germans managed to get in behind the wood and Driant's fate was sealed. Together with his two Battalion commanders: Renouard and Vincent he destroyed his papers and issued orders for those still alive to try and break through the encircling Germans towards Beaumont (Now one of the destroyed villages).

As Driant stopped to give aid to a wounded soldier he was hit and fell to the ground. His last words reported as being: Oh! Là, Mon Dieu!

Only 500 of Driant's original 1 200, and most of them wounded managed to get back to the French lines.

The stand by Driant and his two Battalions had held up the German attack for 24 vital hours and made them far more wary of the defending French who were supposed to have been obliterated by the weight of shell fire.

Rather like a modern day Cassandra, Driant had warned the French and been ignored. Happily for France his own preparedness had gone some way to saving his country.

Lees het allemaal op: http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_verdun_driant.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Feb 2010 17:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 22, 1917

German Navy torpedoes 7 Dutch ships

http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1917/february_22_1917_78375.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Feb 2010 17:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sean T O'Ceallaigh to Georges Clemenceau (Paris)

Grand Hotel, Paris, 22 February 1919

Sir,

As the accredited envoy of the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic, I have the honour to bring to your notice the claim of my Government, in the name of the Irish Nation for the international recognition of the independence of Ireland, and for the admission of Ireland as a constituent member of the League of Nations.

The Irish people seized the opportunity of the General Election of December 1918 to declare unmistakably its national will; only in 26 (out of the 105) constituencies of the country was England able to find enough `loyalists' to return members favourable to the Union between Ireland and Great Britain; for the remaining 79 seats the electors chose as members, men who believed in self-determination; of these, 73, who now represent an immense majority of the people went forward as Republican candidates and each of these Republican members has pledged himself to assert by every means in his power the right of Ireland to the complete independence which she demands, under a national Republican Government, free from all English interference.

On the 21st January, 1919, those of the Republican members whom England had not yet cast into her prisons, met in the Irish Capital in a National Assembly, to which, as the only Irish Parliament de jure, they had summoned all Irish members of Parliament; on the same day the National Assembly unanimously voted the Declaration of Independence appended hereto and unanimously issued the Message to the Free Nations likewise appended.

The National Assembly has also caused a detailed statement of the case of Ireland to be drawn up; that statement will demonstrate that the right of Ireland to be considered a nation admits of no denial and, moreover that that right is inferior in no respect to that of the new states constituted in Europe and recognised since the war; three members Eamon de VALERA, Mr. Arthur GRIFFITH and Count PLUNKETT, have been delegated by the National Assembly to present the Statement to the Peace Congress and to the League of Nations Commission in the name of the Irish people.

Accordingly, I have the honour, Sir, to beg you to be good enough to fix a date to receive the delegates above-named, who are anxious for the earliest possible opportunity to establish formally and definitely before the Peace Conference and the League of Nations Commission now assembled in Paris, Ireland's indisputable right to international recognition for her Independence and the propriety of her claim to enter the League of Nations as one of its constituent members.

I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
[Sean T O'Ceallaigh]

Delegate of the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic and deputy for the College Green division Dublin.

http://www.difp.ie/viewdoc.asp?DocID=4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Feb 2010 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frederick Stanley Maude...

... entered the military in 1884, fought in the South African wars (1899 - 1902), and became commander of the 13th Division at the Dardanelles in 1915 after the outbreak of World War I. He was ordered to take his troops to Mesopotamia (the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) to relieve the Anglo-Indian forces in the Mesopotamia Campaign besieged at Kut al-Amara. On 22 February 1917 he drove the Ottoman army from the town and then planned the advance that culminated in the fall of Baghdad on 11 March 1917. Shortly after this, the so-called Maude Declaration (actually written by Sir Mark Sykes) announced to the people of Baghdad that Britain intended to grant them self-determination. Maude died of cholera in 1917.

http://www.answers.com/topic/frederick-stanley-maude
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 14:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Thillaiaadi Valliammai

Thillaiaadi Valliammai (22 February 1898 - 22 February 1914) was a South African Tamil woman who worked with Mahatma Gandhi in his early years when he developed his nonviolent methods in South Africa fighting its apartheid regime. (...)

While crossing into Natal she, with many others, courted arrest. She spent 3 months in jail and suffered what was to be a fatal fever. When she was released, she was nothing more than skin and bones held together by her sheer determination and grit. She heard somebody ask "Why don’t you people register and become South Africans instead? Indians! India doesn’t even have a flag! What are you really fighting for?" "If having a flag is what would give form to India, then here it is," she said, tearing off her saffron-white-green sari, "MY FLAG! MY MOTHERLAND!" Gandhi designed the flag with the same three colours as her sari. Gandhi later said that it was her sacrifice that increased his resolve to fight for Indian independence.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thillaiaadi_Valliammai
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Monday 22nd February 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

'Spent the day at tent practice and Mena flat.’


A group of soldiers constructing a building that was to be part of a stadium at Mena camp, 10 miles from Cairo. Like many others erected around the camps in Egypt, the building consists of panels woven from reeds or similar plant material, supported by a wooden framework. The AIF came to Mena for training before embarking for the Gallipoli peninsula.

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/02/22/monday-22nd-february-1915-diary-of-hv-reynolds/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 February 1915 - 3502 Sdt 2e Cl James Mitchell, 3e RMLE.

From Washington, USA, James was born on 3 July 1883. A participant in the revolution in Mexico and several uprisings in Latin and South America, his lust for adventure brought him over to France soon after the outbreak of war where, not long after setting foot ashore in late August/ early September 1914, he enlisted into the French Foreign Legion (1e Regiment Etranger) at Dunkirk. Following his training at Rouen, Toulouse and Camp de Mailly, James found himself at the front with the 3e Regiment de Marche in time for the harsh winter of 1914/15. Located on the Somme front at the beginning of 1915, James was killed in action at Frise during a trench raiding venture on 22 February 1915. With his death he became the first of the American volunteers in the Legion to die in the Great War (and the first ‘true blood' American to die in the war (the actual first American citizen to die in combat during the war, Charles Parrot, who was killed on the Aisne front whilst serving with 42 RI on 12 November 1914, was of half French parentage). James has no known grave, his remains most likely lying in the ossuaire or under an ‘inconnu' grave at Dompierre.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/component/content/1709.html?task=view
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Colins, Leon, Poster, 22 February 1915



http://digitalrussell.mcmaster.ca/colins-leon-poster-22-february-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 February 1915 → Commons Sitting

GERMAN ATROCITIES (BELGIUM).


HC Deb 22 February 1915 vol 70 c20 20

Mr. KELLAWAY asked the Prime Minister (1) whether the Government has any information as to the number of women and children killed or wounded in Belgium by the German Army; and (2) whether the Government has any information as to the number of the civil population killed or wounded in Belgium by the German Army?

Mr. PRIMROSE His Majesty's Government cannot give the total number of non-combatants who have suffered at the hands of the German Army in Belgium. My hon. Friend may be able to form an estimate from the reports of the Belgian Commission, which have been published, and will shortly be issued in collected form.

Mr. KELLAWAY In view of the desirability of bringing home to the world the character of German warfare, would the Government be prepared themselves to make a summary of the details so that they might be used for this purpose, and also in this country for recruiting purposes?

Mr. PRIMROSE I will consider that suggestion.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/22/german-atrocities-belgium
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ilustração Portugueza, No. 470, February 22 1915 - cover



http://www.flickr.com/photos/gatochy/2256299601/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De provincie Groningen en de hulp aan Belgische vluchtelingen in het begin van de Eerste Wereldoorlog periode 1914 -1915

Verslag Naai- en Breiklassen te Groningen

Met hulp van de Rockefeller Foundation, die twee handnaaimachines en drie trapnaaimachines leverde, werd op 22 februari 1915 begonnen met de naai- en breiklassen waar 35 werksters werk vonden. Zij werkten halve dagen voor f 0,50 per week; sommigen werkten hele dagen voor f 1.- per week. Men werkte van 9.00-12.00 uur en van 2.00-5.00 uur. ‘s Morgens werd door de dames van het Comité koffie geschonken en ’s middags thee. De productie werd aan de werksters zelf uitgedeeld; een klein deel ging naar het kledingmagazijn in Groningen en de rest, meest mannengoed, werd naar Amsterdam en Rotterdam verzonden. Ook produceerden enige werksters borduurwerk.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/vluchtelingen/verslag-groningen.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

E. Ashmead-Bartlett [on the Gallipoli landings], Daily Mail (22nd February, 1915)

The great venture has at last been launched, and the entire fleet of warships and transports is now steaming slowly towards the shores of Gallipoli. As the huge liners steamed through the fleet, their decks yellow with khaki, the crews of the warships cheered them on to victory, while the bands played them out with an unending variety of popular airs. The soldiers in the transports answered the last salutation from the Navy with deafening cheers, and no more inspiring spectacle has ever been seen than this, of the last crusade setting forth for better or worse.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWgallipoli.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 February 1916 → Commons Sitting

EMPLOYMENT OF WOUNDED AND INVALIDED SOLDIERS
.

HC Deb 22 February 1916 vol 80 cc566-7 566

Mr. CHARLES DUNCAN asked the Postmaster-General whether, at the Northern Division Post Office, London, 567 there are about sixty wounded and invalided soldiers employed examining parcels going to Germany for British prisoners there, and that they are only paid 1s. a day, with 1s. 9d. a day subsistence money; and whether he will take steps to give these men more adequate remuneration, in view of the fact that they are allowed nothing for lodging expenses?

Mr. FORSTER I find, on inquiry, that these men are either provided with billets paid for by the public in the ordinary way, or are living at their own homes and are in receipt of consolidated allowances intended to cover lodging. It appears, however, that in some cases these allowances have been issued at incorrect rates, and this is now being adjusted.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/feb/22/employment-of-wounded-and-invalided
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Émile Driant



Émile Augustin Cyprien Driant (11 September 1855 - 22 February 1916) was a French nationalist writer, politician, and army officer. He was the first high ranking casualty of the Battle of Verdun during World War I.

(...) Soon after the beginning of World War I during 1914 Driant was recalled to the Army as a captain. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel and given command of two infantry battalions, the 56th and 59th chasseurs reservists battalions. He still kept his seat in Parliament and was, among other things, involved in the drafting of the legislation to create the Croix de Guerre.

During December 1915 he criticised Joseph Joffre for removing artillery guns and infantry from fortresses around Toul and Verdun in order to strengthen other areas of the now-deadlocked Western Front. Despite the support of the Minister for War Joseph Gallieni, no troops or guns were returned. What were supposed to be formidable defences were reduced to a small number of guns and soldiers to man them. Driant claimed that the area was threatened; Joffre denied this.

Driant was proved right on 21 February 1916, when the German Army initiated a massive attack on French forces in the Verdun sector. As the French defences crumbled all around them, Driant's two battalions - 1,200 men in total - began a desperate defence of the Bois des Caures in Flabas. By his command, the battalions managed to resist the German onslaught until the afternoon of the next day, helping to gain the time that the French High Command needed to rush troops to the threatened sector. When his battalions were outflanked and the position was untenable, Driant ordered the survivors to withdraw. During the withdrawal, he was killed. He was regarded as a hero among the French at the time, and he and his men are still commemorated at a ceremony on 21 February every year.

He was buried initially by the Germans, who also wrote to his widow (via Switzerland) to assure her that he had been accorded full military honours. He was re-interred by the French where he fell in the Bois des Caures, where a memorial now stands to him and his men.


Memorial to Émile Driant and his battalion in the Bois des Caures, Flabas, France.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89mile_Driant
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Woodrow Wilson - Confusion and crises, 1916

(...) The failure of Wilson and Lansing to coordinate their foreign policies during the early months of 1916 led to confusions and crises that nearly caused Wilson to lose control of foreign policy to Congress. Wilson sent Colonel House to Europe in early January 1916 to work out a plan for Anglo-American cooperation for peace. House went through the formalities of talking with French and German leaders, but he spent most of his time in London. His peace plan stipulated that Wilson should convoke a peace conference in the near future. If the Germans refused to attend, the United States would probably enter the war on the side of the Allies. If a peace conference met and Germany refused to accept a "reasonable" settlement, the United States would probably enter the war on the Allied side. Sir Edward Grey, the British foreign secretary, on 22 February 1916 initialed a memorandum that embodied the plan, but he stipulated that the British, in agreement with the French, should decide when the House-Grey Memorandum was to be implemented. (...)

http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/Woodrow-Wilson-Confusion-and-crises-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verdun: Order of battle map, 22 February 1916, showing two central German Corps



http://www.werkost.com/maps.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 February 1917 → Commons Sitting

WORD "EMPIRE."


HC Deb 22 February 1917 vol 90 cc1454-5 1454

Mr. LYNCH asked the Prime Minister (l) whether, in view of the approaching Conference with representatives of the Dominions, he will discourage in all official documents the use of the terms Empire and Imperial as being improper in point of fact and contrary to the spirit of free institutions in self-governing States; and (2) whether he will take advantage of the presence in London of the representatives of the Dominions to set up a small committee, including delegates from the Dominions, in order to consider the objections to the use of the word Empire in official documents on account of its associations in history, and its present implication, according to German usage, of military domination, and to suggest in place of Empire a term which shall apply to the community of nations of which this country and the Dominions form part, and which shall be consistent with the freedom of development of each of the parts according to its destiny?

The CHANCELLOR of the EXCHEQUER (Mr. Bonar Law) The answer to these questions is in the negative.

Mr. LYNCH If the use of the word Empire, which is incorrect in fact, be not out of order, shall I be in order in using the word Republic, which is also incorrect in fact, at present; but which has a brighter future than the word Empire?

Mr. BONAR LAW I do not know what term the hon. Member would use, but I am sure that his philological studies must have taught him that a word does not necessarily depend on the roots from which it originates, and the word Empire does not necessarily mean a military despotism.

Sir W. BYLES Is His gracious Majesty the King an Emperor at all, except as to India?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/feb/22/word-empire
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2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles - CEF WAR DIARIES 1914 -1919

2nd Canadian Mounted Rifle Battalion, 3rd Canadian Division

Thu., Feb 22, 1917 - RAIMBERT

8.30 - 9 AM Company Parade.

9.00 – 12N Platoon Drill – Platoon Formations – Extended Order Drill – Lewis Gun Drill.
Special Instruction in Scouting etc., under Battalion Scout Officer.

2.00 - 4 PM Instruction in Trench Clearing – Grenades - Trench Defense and Care of Lewis Gun.

5.00 - 7 PM Special Lecture to N.C.O's on May Reading un der Battalion Scout Officer.

http://www.webarts.org.uk/2CMR/wdFeb1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

J. T. Walton Newbold: "Capitalism and Imperialism"
Source: The Call, February 22, 1917, No. 46, p. 2

THE world is at this moment convulsed with a struggle wherein, to all who are not blinded by passion and unreason, the motives put forward officially by all the belligerents are utterly at variance with the true causes which determine their continuance of the slaughter. Fear reigns supreme in the councils of all, a veritable terror which has succeeded the distrust and foreboding which occasioned their devious diplomacy and their consequent plunge into the maelstrom of war.

In the final analysis, the aims of all the belligerents are directed to one end and that is the assurance of their economic stability and independence. They are fighting frantically to maintain their historic eminence or to establish themselves in a firmer position, where they can face the future with equanimity. Each and all, the governing classes have heard the roar of those rapids towards which they are swirling with gathering momentum.

Peace, Retrenchment, and Reform

In the days when Liberalism was the dominant political philosophy of the capitalist class and retained its original purity, because of the lingering existence of those economic conditions out of which it springs, Capitalism was a force making for international peace. Then, the manufacturers and traders of this and other countries were struggling not against each other for control of markets, but against the established interests of landowners and colonial merchants, who used political power to maintain their privileges. The industrial capitalists were still busy cultivating their home markets and trying to meet demand. Their immediate needs were cheap land and cheap raw material. To obtain these they aimed at conquering political power and attaining social equality with the Tory nobles and landowners. War and Empire meant taxation without either representation or profit.

A little more than forty years ago in this country, when the capitalists had gained political power, and taken their place in the Government they had began to feel the need for unloading more of their unsold manufactures on foreign markets. At the same time, manufacturers and traders in other countries were reclaiming their own markets and commencing to produce more than they could sell at home.

The appearance of other capitalists in search of raw material and with commodities to sell introduced a most unwelcome element of competition into international trade. Costs of production tended to rise and selling prices to fall. Profits declined or, what amounted to the same thing, trade became depressed.

The Failure of Laisser-faire

The conflict of interests revealed itself first in Egypt, whose inhabitants could not pay for the capital lent them by both British and French money-lenders. Each group of money-lenders appealed to what Liebknecht would call, its “central executive,” the government of the country to which it belonged. At first, together, and, then, in competition, the Governments came to the aid of the financiers, the contractors, and the vested interests concerned. An affair of the three golden balls became an affair of diplomats and of competing armaments. Ousted from Egypt, the French money-lenders turned to Morocco and Tunis, to Indo-China and Russia. For the next fifteen years, British capitalists exported their surplus production to Africa, to make profits out of irrigation works, railways, water works, cotton and rubber plantations, gold mines, oil wells, harbour schemes, town lands, etc. To prepare the promised land for their coming they sent ahead their Wolseleys and Kitcheners to paint the map red, and to police the Dark Continent. In Mexico, Canada, and South America, the “Kultur of Cowdray” and the genius of railway financiers, meat extract sgueezers, ranchers, cow-punchers, and the like were applied to extract as much profit as these countries would yield.

The Clash of Empires

But Africa, Canada, and South America had not an unlimited capacity for absorbing capital in search of a profit. Others besides the patriot civilisation bringers of Old England had manufactures to sell and capital to lend. American capitalists and German capitalists were hawking commodities which their low-paid workers could not afford to purchase for home consumption. If too many cooks spoil the broth, far more do too many hawkers spoil the market.

Meanwhile China was beset by a swarm of good, kind bankers, railway contractors, and mining concessionaires eager to bring the blessings of civilisation to her people. British, French, Germans, Belgians, everyone with railway material and steel to sell, tried to unload the enormous potential output of their works upon the Celestial Empire. That was the meaning of the threatened partition of China. Russia’s railway and munition requirements from 1885 to 1905, together with those of Austria, a part of those of Turkey and of Italy and the Balkan States, served to absorb the surplus iron and steel manufactures of Germany.

The Failure of Imperialism

At the beginning of this century the normal requirements of their home markets and the natural, demand of the non-capitalist foreign markets were ceasing to absorb the production of heavy goods which the great capitalist countries could turn out. Moreover, the supplies of certain raw materials were threatening to run very low or the cost of their production to rise very high. Britain, France, Germany, and even the U.S.A. were not able to supply the iron ore and other minerals for their own metal works. Known reserves in Spain, Italy, Cuba, and Sweden were, it was learned, not inexhaustible. Circumstances combined to cause a panic among the capitalists and their Governments. Thenceforward commenced the insensate scramble for concessions on the one hand, and for exclusive or monopoly markets on the other, of the ten years of Secret Diplomacy. The Tariff Reform agitation had its beginnings in the alarm of British steel-makers at “the flood” of German steel which inundated this country in 1901 and 1902. It coincided with the formation of the United States Steel Corporation and the preliminaries of the German Steel Combine. It was initiated by Chamberlain, Bonar Law, and Howard Vincent, by the steel interests of Birmingham, Glasgow, and Sheffield. It was immediately succeeded by the “Dreadnought” boom, another device for selling steel. All the Navy Leaguers have been fostered by the steel firms; all the navy laws and navy scares in Britain, Germany, France, Italy, and the U.S.A. have, for a generation, coincided with depressions in the steel trade. The Moroccan intrigues, the Bagdad ambitions, the Cape to Cairo dreams, the Mexico imbroglios, the recent China-Japan negotiations, the Dalmatian empire lusts have all been the handiwork of the metal syndicates. There is proof overwhelming and abundant.

Capitalism in Chaos

The governing classes, i.e., the capitalist classes—with their capital pouring into the dominant “cheat the inevitable” manufacture of the machinery of production—are at their wits’ end. Capitalism staggered in the “eighties”; recovered by resort to Imperialism, and staggered again at the close of the century; recovered again, and staggering, half fell, half leaped into war.

Capitalism may, in some form or another, survive the war, but it will only be able to do so by calling to its assistance the whole organisation of the State and, probably, by harmonising the interests of several capitalist groups operating through the national Governments. In other lords privately owned and controlled capitalism is bankrupt. That is the significance of “business government,” Paris Conferences, industrial conscription, State capitalism, and all these new proposals for bolstering up a system that has death written across its face.

What the future has in store depends on the relative organisation, power, and intelligence of the capitalists and the workers. It depends largely, mainly, upon the Socialists to avert, or to transform the Servile State into Socialism.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/newbold/1917/02/22.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Operation Alberich

In October 1916 RFC pilots had noticed that there seemed to be a lot of digging going on in the area of the villages of Bullecourt and Quéant some 20 kilometres behind the front line. Then an escaped Russian prisoner gave the information that thousands of them were building bunkers for the Germans near St Quentin 50 kilometres to the south of Bullecourt.

Then on 22th February 1917 just a few days before the Calais Railways Summit the British had noticed that on the Somme the German front line trenches had been abandoned.

The Germans had begun Operation Alberich which was not simply a retirement to a shorter and more formidable defence line but also the razing of the territory they were leaving. Buildings were dynamited, trees cut down, orchards burnt, bridges blown. Nothing was left intact.

The Germans called their new defensive system the Siegfried-Stellung. The British called it the Hindenburg Line. It worked on the principle of defence in depth with outposts to raise the alarm and reserve divisions waiting in the rear to crush any attack.

General Ludendorff realised that his withdrawal would confuse the Allied plans for 1917 and the destruction of the ground would make new ones difficult. He had shortened his lines and was in a stronger position.

Part of Nivelle's great strategy had been for a French attack on the Oise whilst the British advanced on Bapaume. Both these plans had been rendered obsolete over night. Nevertheless he decided that the British would do what they could in the Arras area whilst he continued to plan for his death blow on the Chemin des Dames.

It is not certain if in his self certainty he took in the fact that Ludendorff, by shortening his lines, had gained 14 Divisions with which to repel any attack.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_arras_1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Robert Jesson

Robert Wilfred Fairey Jesson (17 June 1886 - 22 February 1917) was an English cricketer. Jesson was a right-handed batsman who was a leg break bowler.

Jesson was educated at Sherborne School, where he represented the school cricket team. Later he would be educated at Merton College, Oxford.

Jesson made his first-class debut for Hampshire against Warwickshire in the 1907 County Championship. On debut Jesson took his maiden and only first-class five wicket haul, with figures of 5/42. Tate represented Hampshire in eleven first-class matches in 1907.

In 1908 Jesson played a first-class match for Oxford University, both against the Marylebone Cricket Club. Additionally, in 1908 Jesson played two first-class matches for Hampshire against Warwickshire and Northamptonshire.

Two years later in 1910, Jesson played his final first-class match for Hampshire against Sussex. In his first-class career, Jesson scored 198 runs at a batting average of 8.25, with a high score of 38. With the ball Jesson took 21 wickets at a bowling average of 25.14. All of Jesson's wickets came for Hampshire.

In his four first-class matches, Jesson took 13 wickets at a bowling average of 11.30. With the ball Jesson took 21 wickets at a bowling average of 25.14.

Jesson served in the First World War with the Wiltshire Regiment, where he held the rank of Major. Jesson fought in the Mesopotamian campaign, where on February 22, 1917 Jesson was killed in action.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Jesson
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 15:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vessel: "Beekbergen"

Stoomvaart Maatschappij Indische Lloyd 1911-1913

built by J. Laing & Sons Ltd, Sunderland | ex- Langdale built for Laing Steamship Co., Sunderland, 1911 purchased from Furness, Withy & Co. renamed Beekbergen, 1913 transferred to Furness Scheepvaart & Agentuur Mij., 1915 sold to Koninklijke Hollandsche Lloyd renamed Gaasterland, 22nd February 1917 captured and sunk by German submarine U.21.

http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/lines/zhsm.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 16:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 22, 1918: Montana passes law against sedition

Swept along by hysterical fears of treacherous German spies and domestic labor violence, the Montana legislature passes a Sedition Law that severely restricts freedom of speech and assembly. Three months later, Congress adopted a federal Sedition Act modeled on the Montana law.

The roots of the Montana Sedition Law lay with the hyper-patriotic sentiments inspired by World War I and growing fears of labor unrest and violence in the state. A sizeable number of Montanans had resisted American entry in WWI, and the Montana congresswoman Jeanette Rankin (the first women elected to Congress) had voted against U.S. involvement in the Great War. Once the U.S. did become involved, though, many pro-war Montanans viewed any further criticism of the war effort as treasonous-especially if it came from the state's sizeable German-American population.

At the same time, the perceived need for wartime unity sharpened many Montanans' distrust of radical labor groups like the socialist International Workers of the World (IWW). The Montana mining town of Butte had been rocked by labor violence in recent years. In 1914, a group of men who may have been IWW members destroyed the offices of an opposing union with dynamite. An IWW leader named Frank Little had also recently given speeches in Butte condemning American involvement in the war, claiming it was being fought for big business interests.

Determined to silence both antiwar and radical union voices, the Montana legislature approved a Sedition Law that made it illegal to criticize the federal government or the armed forces during time of war. Even disparaging remarks about the American flag could be grounds for prosecution and imprisonment. Through the efforts of Montana's two senators, the act also became the model for the federal Sedition Law of May 1918. Like the Montana law, the federal act made it a crime to speak or write anything critical of the American war effort.

Later widely viewed as the most sweeping violation of civil liberties in modern American history, the federal Sedition Law led to the arrests of 1,500 American citizens. Crimes included denouncing the draft, criticizing the Red Cross, and complaining about wartime taxes. The Montana law led to the conviction and imprisonment of 47 people, some with prison terms of 20 years or more. Most were pardoned when the war ended and cooler heads prevailed, but the state and federal Sedition Laws proved highly effective in destroying the IWW and other radical labor groups that had long attacked the federal government as the tool of big business. Since many of these radicals were vocal opponents of much of the government wartime policy, they bore the brunt of the Sedition Law rebukes, and suffered sorely as a result.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/montana-passes-law-against-sedition
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 16:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stoker William George Norris

Stoker William George Norris was Mentioned in Despatches for ‘for services in action with enemy submarines’ on HMS Penshurst, a Q-Ship operating in the Atlantic.

The Mention in Despatches was recorded in the The London Gazette 22nd February 1918

Leuk PDF'je... www.london-gazette.co.uk/documents/stoker-norris-rs
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 16:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ernest Hemingway - Reporter

Ernest learnt a great deal at the Star but by now he was bored with mundane news stories and quite desperate to see some real action.

He wanted to become involved in the First World War.

Ernest had a defective left eye and it was thought his entry into the forces was not very likely because of this deficiency. However, Ernest learnt from another young reporter on the Star, Theodore Brumback, that he had enlisted in the American Field Service and had spent four months driving ambulances in France, despite having a bad eye himself, in fact a glass eye.

On Feb. 22, 1918 - The Star carried this headline: ``Red Cross Calls Men.'' Also needed, listed in fine print: ``Four ambulance drivers for Italy. Some stories state that Hemingway saw this article before it was actually printed in the newspaper and got accepted before over 200 other men applied for the position.

He and Theodore along with another friend, Wilson Hicks. They were accepted by the Red Cross as ambulance drivers.

After only six months employment as a journalist, Ernest left the Star newspaper. It was April 30th 1918.

A few weeks later, Ernest and Theodore (Wilson Hicks had backed out) received a telegram from the Red Cross headquarters in St Louis telling them to report for physical examination in New York no later than May 8th.

Lees verder op http://www.ernest.hemingway.com/reporter.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 16:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Royal Ceremonial Dress Collection

Princess Patricia’s coronet. Princess Patricia (Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth, later Lady Patricia Ramsay), Queen Victoria’s granddaughter, wore this coronet, supplied by royal jewellers Garrard, to her uncle King Edward VII’s coronation in 1902. It consist of a purple velvet cap and a hall marked silver gilt circlet with two crosses patees, two strawberry leaves and four fleurs de lys. Princess Patricia was named Colonel-in-Chief of Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry on 22 February 1918, she personally designed the badges and colours for the regiment, and took an active role until her death. She married a commoner rather than a husband of royal blood, marrying naval Commander (later Admiral) The Hon. Alexander Ramsay, and voluntarily relinquishing the style of Royal Highness and the title of Princess of Great Britain and Ireland on her wedding day.

http://www.hrp.org.uk/NewsAndMedia/kpresources/RoyalCeremonialDressCollectiongivennationalDesignatedstatus.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 16:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of Paul B Hendrickson

Diary, February 21-22, 1919

Feb 21 Fri. Minnie had 5 pups on Thornton's bed this morning at 6 oc. Had a great time. everyone got up & went to see the preformance. Shes quite proud & not at all sassy about them. 130 rehearsed here and had a 11 file Band going down town with our band to play Brigade horse show Sounded great. Rec. letter from Cecil Jan 31 with chewing gum. in all a dandy letter. Put Vicks salve on my back & chest. pain still bad. 3:30 Evacuated, t[ ] in my music & clothes & went to F.H. 129 and being full there was sent on to F.H. 131 where I was examined for influenza. my temp 102. In an old monistary here. long corriders - walls 6 ft thick - in our long arched ceiling room has a row of pillars 8 ft thick. Statuary all over & fine large paintings in magnificient frames. our beds has sheets & 12 in matresses & I pajamus. Have white rag over nose & mouth.

Feb 22-Sat Holliday - in bed all day. No fever. nurse said I was not a patient but a convaselant. pain much less. medicine & temp taken regular. eats are all liquid. Hot chocolate. bullion - milk - a jolly good rest. This is at Echternach - this is one of the oldest convents in europe. finished cutting upper right wisdom tooth - Ward 25

http://jimgill.net/gill/wwipages/diary/pd190221.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 16:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het Pan-Afrikaans Congres van 1919

(...) Over het algemeen kan gezegd worden dat het congres goede aandacht van de pers kreeg. Du Bois dankte deze aandacht voornamelijk aan zijn lobby met de ‘reguliere blanke pers’ tijdens zijn reis op het persschip Orizaba. De New York Evening Globe gaf de gebeurtenis in Parijs aanzienlijke aandacht. Twee dagen na het congres beschreef ook de New York Herald dat er niets “onredelijks” in Du Bois' programma te vinden was. Een correspondent in de Chicago Tribune schreef dat het memorandum dat Du Bois oorspronkelijk had ontworpen, erg utopisch was en gaf aan: “it has less than a Chinaman's chance of getting anywhere at the Peace Conference.” Toch schreef de krant ook dat de ideeën wel “interessant” waren. Positievere aandacht kreeg het congres van de Amerikaanse zwarte krant New York Age. De krant publiceerde op 22 februari 1919 een uitgebreid achtergrond artikel over het congres waarin het aangaf dat de gehele zwarte wereldbevolking van 157.000.000 werd vertegenwoordigd. De Franse pers was bezorgder en volgde Du Bois' plannen met argwaan. (...)

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Het_Pan-Afrikaans_Congres_van_1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Soldier Marching with Children by Norman Rockwell
February 22, 1919 Issue of The Saturday Evening Post



At the time of publication, World War I hostilities had ceased for three months. The German Kaiser had abdicated in November 1918 and peace certainly looked to be at hand.

It was only natural that Rockwell depicted soldiers returning home to their families, friend and hometowns. Rockwell usually painted current events.

Here we see a World War I soldier returning to his hometown. He wears three medals on his chest. He is a returning war hero.

Can anyone identify the medals he wears? Rockwell was a stickler for authentic details, so the medals are likely real World War One medals.

He walks like he is still marching in formation. In fact, he is marching in formation. His fellow soldiers are all children.

His fellow soldiers are a rag-tag bunch. Only one wears a helmet, and that is actually a soup-pot. That same child wears a very large medal and carries a sword. He also wears a very serious look on his face.

One other child wears a sword in his scabbard. That child also wears a hat made of newspaper.

The rest of the children are all weaponless and dressed in civilian clothes.

Most importantly, they are all glad to welcome their war hero home.

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-saturday-evening-post-cover-1919-02-22-wwi-soldier-marching-with-children.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2011 16:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U 21

... was a Type U 19 submarine launched in 1913 and that served in the First World War; sank, the first ship sunk by a torpedo fired from a submarine; U-21 sank on 22 February 1919 while en route to be surrendered

http://www.facebook.com/pages/U-21/110602415630200
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 11:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

FEB. 22, 1918: A REALLY BIG KID FROM ALTON, ILLINOIS

Robert Pershing Wadlow, at age 13 stands with his father, Harold. Harold is 5 feet, 11 inches tall. Robert stands 7 feet, 4 inches. (...) Robert Pershing Wadlow is born in Alton, Illinois. At the time of his death 22 years later, he stands 8 feet 11 inches, making him the tallest human being in recorded history.

Fotootje! Of foto'tje! https://www.wired.com/2008/02/dayintech-0222/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 11:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 years ago today: Clipped from St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 22 Feb 1918, Fri, Page 16

Artikeltje over The Russian Tragedy... https://stltoday.newspapers.com/clip/17303409/100_years_ago_today/ via http://www.stltoday.com/news/years-ago-on-feb/html_0ef3f668-891f-501f-b3d9-d8dc2af88fc1.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 11:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Finish of Horse Race, San Juan Hill, Cuba, 22 February 1918

From the Frank L. Carroll Collection (COLL/532) at the Marine Corps Archives and Special Collections - OFFICIAL USMC PHOTOGRAPH

Doorklikkertje... https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Finish_of_Horse_Race,_San_Juan_Hill,_Cuba,_22_February_1918_(17311976632).jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 11:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac Mounted Division Daily Reports, February 1918

During the Jordan Valley days of the Anzac Mounted Division in 1918, a daily report was issued to the Brigades under its command to keep the men informed as to the happenings around them. The information was vital to keep the men alive and well.

This archive was discovered in private hands and has been generously donated to the Australian public for open use. The pages are only free for private study purposes and cannot be reproduced for commercial purposes.

Hier het exemplaar voor 22 februari 1918: http://alh-research.tripod.com/anzac_mounted_division_daily_intelligence_reports/index.album/anzac-md-daily-intelligence-report-22-february-1918-p1?i=52
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 11:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The February 1917 revolution

The 22nd February 1917 - The 20,000 Workers of the Putilov metal works were locked out after a dispute with their employer.

https://www.sutori.com/story/the-february-1917-revolution
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 11:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Our little ones - the realtime diaries of F.P. Welch 1913-1919

22 February 1917 -
February 1917
Thursday 22
Fine day.
At office all day.
Not much doing.
Mr Jameson of Wellington
in re Taita property
of ours & advised me that
he would go out & look
over it on his return to the
city.

https://fpwelchdiaries.wordpress.com/2017/02/22/22-february-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 12:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jersey Heritage: 22 February 1916 - Jerseymen among last to leave Gallipoli

There has been considerable local interest recently in Britain’s withdrawal from the Gallipoli Peninsula following the unsuccessful Allied attempt to capture the Dardanelles. Reports now circulating claim that a Jerseyman was among the last soldiers to depart.

Private Charles Rogers of Taranaki Company, Wellington Battalion is serving in the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, or ANZACs. Originally from Jersey, he left and settled in New Zealand a few years before the war started. His family have received a letter containing details of his final experiences at Gallipoli.

In order to avoid alerting the Turks about the planned Allied re-embarkation, which took place under the cover of darkness, it seems that small groups of men remained behind in the British trenches. Rogers was in one of these rear guard units, staying until 2.10am and firing occasionally at the enemy to give the impression that nothing had changed. At last, with everyone away, Rogers and his unit went down to the beach and left the peninsula to the enemy.

Private Rogers is presently stationed in Egypt with his unit, which is expected to be transferred to France shortly.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/22-february-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 12:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Argus (Melbourne) - 22 feb 1916 - Page 7 - FOOTBALL AND THE WAR.

FOOTBALL AND THE WAR. THE LEAGUE'S
POSITION

Football will only be played by the Vic-
torian Football League this winter on ac-
count of a technical objection. At the meet-
ing on Friday, five of the nine clubs were
Fix this textin favour of abandoning the game, but as
the voting did not result in a three-fourths
majority the vote of the League was in-
operative. The four clubs which opposed
the abandonment were Fitzroy, Colling-
wood, Carlton, and Richmond. On the
other hand, Essendon, St. Kilda. Mel-
bourne, South Melbourne, and Geelong
wished the game to cease till the end of the
war. Thus the League found it impossible
to move, and Mr. Thompson's resolution
was the way out. St. Kilda and Essendon,
however, stood to their guns. (...)

Lees verder op https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/2096886
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 12:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 22 February 1916 → Commons Sitting → WAR.

EMPLOYMENT OF WOUNDED AND INVALIDED SOLDIERS.

Mr. CHARLES DUNCAN asked the Postmaster-General whether, at the Northern Division Post Office, London, there are about sixty wounded and invalided soldiers employed examining parcels going to Germany for British prisoners there, and that they are only paid 1s. a day, with 1s. 9d. a day subsistence money; and whether he will take steps to give these men more adequate remuneration, in view of the fact that they are allowed nothing for lodging expenses?

Mr. FORSTER I find, on inquiry, that these men are either provided with billets paid for by the public in the ordinary way, or are living at their own homes and are in receipt of consolidated allowances intended to cover lodging. It appears, however, that in some cases these allowances have been issued at incorrect rates, and this is now being adjusted.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/feb/22/employment-of-wounded-and-invalided
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Feb 2018 12:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THESSALONIKI AND THE BULGARIANS - Letter 22 February 1919 - From J. H. House to J. L. Barton

Regarding: American missionaries in Thessaloniki J. H. House, Mr. Clarke and Mr. Cooper were arrested by Greek General in command of the Allies in that time, being accused that they were engaged in a Bulgarian propaganda and of harboring spies. J. H. House declared that teaching of Bulgarian had been removed from the American Farm School’s program long ago. Bulgarian language was used in religious services because they had many Macedonian Bulgarian servants and workers who were Protestants.

Voor de brief, klik door naar https://www.solunbg.org/en/solun-i-balgarite/history/prosveta/chujdi-uchilishta/235-pismo-22feb1919.html
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