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22 Januari
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2006 0:12    Onderwerp: 22 Januari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 22. Januar

1914

1915
Französische Angriffe bei Verdun und Pont-à-Mousson zurückgeschlagen
Geschützkampf in Galizien

1916
Artilleriekämpfe bei Smorgon und Dünaburg
Die angeblichen Leistungen der englischen Flotte an der belgischen Küste
Beginnende Entwaffnung der Montenegriner
Fliegerbomben auf Tenedos
Die Verteidiger von Kamerun

1917
Englischer Angriff bei Lens abgefangen
Erfolgreicher Vorstoß in Wolhynien
Friedensbotschaft Wilsons an den amerikanischen Senat

1918
Lebhafte Artilleriekämpfe bei Ypern
Die "Breslau" gesunken

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2006 0:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 22

1905 Bloody Sunday Massacre in Russia

Well on its way to losing a war against Japan in the Far East, czarist Russia is wracked with internal discontent that finally explodes into violence in St. Petersburg in what will become known as the Bloody Sunday Massacre.

Under the weak-willed Romanov Czar Nicholas II, who ascended to the throne in 1894, Russia had become more corrupt and oppressive than ever before. Plagued by the fear that his line would not continue—his only son, Alexis, suffered from hemophilia—Nicholas fell under the influence of such unsavory characters as Grigory Rasputin, the so-called “mad monk.” Russia’s imperialist interests in Manchuria at the turn of the century brought on the Russo-Japanese War, which began in February 1904. Meanwhile, revolutionary leaders, most notably the exiled Vladimir Lenin, were gathering forces of socialist rebellion aimed at toppling the czar.

To drum up support for the unpopular war against Japan, the Russian government allowed a conference of the zemstvos, or the regional governments instituted by Nicholas’s grandfather Alexander II, in St. Petersburg in November 1904. The demands for reform made at this congress went unmet and more radical socialist and workers’ groups decided to take a different tack.

On January 22, 1905, a group of workers led by the radical priest Georgy Apollonovich Gapon marched to the czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to make their demands. Imperial forces opened fire on the demonstrators, killing and wounding hundreds. Strikes and riots broke out throughout the country in outraged response to the massacre, to which Nicholas responded by promising the formation of a series of representative assemblies, or Dumas, to work toward reform.

Internal tension in Russia continued to build over the next decade, however, as the regime proved unwilling to truly change its repressive ways and radical socialist groups, including Lenin’s Bolsheviks, became stronger, drawing ever closer to their revolutionary goals. The situation would finally come to a head more than 10 years later as Russia’s resources were stretched to the breaking point by the demands of World War I.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 16:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jungs wereld van techniek en oorlog anno 1914

Op 22 januari 1914, niet lang na zijn breuk met Sigmund Freud en voor het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog, had Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) een droom waarop de voorstelling (...), die hij in 1920 maakte, teruggrijpt. Het vlammende en tegelijk ordenende sacrale verheft zich boven de wereld van techniek en oorlog.

Het is een van de ruim 300 afbeeldingen, deels in kleur, die het kloek uitgevoerde 'C. G. Jung - Een geillustreerde biografie' van Gerhard Wehr tot een soms meeslepend kijkboek maken voor iedereen die belangstelt in leven en werk van de Zwitserse psychiater en dieptepsycholoog (vert. Dik Linthout; uitg. Lemniscaat, Rotterdam, 159 blz. - F 65). Ook Wehrs tekst is informatief, maar veel minder gedetailleerd dan de Nederlandse vertaling van zijn 'Carl Gustav Jung - Leven en werk', die vier jaar geleden bij Tirion in Baarn uitkwam.

Curieus verschil: in de fotobiografie zegt Jung, naar aanleiding van dubieuze opmerkingen over 'joodse en niet-joodse psychologie' uit de jaren dertig, dat hij 'een misstap begaan' heeft; de vorige vertaler hield het op 'ik ben uitgegleden'. (JdeB)

http://www.trouw.nl/krantenarchief/1993/06/05/2675582/Jungs_wereld_van_techniek_en_oorlog_anno_1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 16:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 januari 1897: oprichting van de belangenvereniging voor marine-matrozen ‘Eendracht Maakt Macht’

Deze vereniging wordt een maand later herdoopt in `Algemeenen Bond voor Nederlandsche Marine-Matrozen'. Matroos der eerste klasse A.G.A. Verstegen, de grote initiator achter de oprichting van de vereniging, wordt de eerste voorzitter.

In 1908 verandert de belangenorganisatie weer van naam en samenstelling. Onder de nieuwe naam, ‘Bond voor Minder Marine Personeel’, kunnen behalve matrozen nu ook mariniers en stokers lid worden. De bond zet zich onder meer in voor een ruimere passagiersregeling, wekelijkse uitbetalingen der verdiende soldij, afschaffing van de baksgewijze inspecties op de zondag en pensionering in geval van afkeuring door tijdens de dienst ontstane lichaamsgebreken.

http://www.nimh.nl/nl/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814_1914/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 17:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Theodore Roosevelt to Sir Edward Grey

To me the crux of the situation has been Belgium. If England or France had acted toward Belgium as Germany has acted I should have opposed them, exactly as I now oppose Germany. I have emphatically approved your action as a model for what should be done by those who believe that treaties should be observed in good faith and that there is such a thing as international morality. I take this position as an American; who is no more an Englishman than he is a German, who endeavors loyally to serve the interest of his own country, but who also endeavors to do what he can for justice and decency as regards mankind at large and who therefore feels obliged to judge all other nations by their conduct on any given occasion.

I do not think you need to have me show a precedent for writing you; but, if you do, I shall ask you to turn to young Trevelyan's "Life of John Bright," pages 314 to 316. Bright was writing to Sumner at the time, when the bulk of the leading English politicians, from Palmerston and Derby to Gladstone and the editor of "The Times," were more or less openly hostile to the cause of the American Union and the freeing of the slaves. Bright's letters were written to Sumner in order that they could be read aloud by Lincoln to his Cabinet, which was actually done. He was afraid the United States would drift into war with England. His letters run in part as follows;

"You know that I write to you with as much earnest wish for your national welfare as if I were a native and resident of your country. I need not tell you, who are much better acquainted with modern history than I am, that nations drift into wars. I fervently hope that you may act firmly and courteously (towards England). Any moderate course you may take will meet with great support here. I have no doubt you will be able to produce strong cases from English practice in support of your actions, but I doubt if any number of these will change opinion here. You must put the matter in such a shape as to save your honor and to put our Government in the wrong if they refuse your propositions.

"At all hazards you must not let this matter grow to a war with England, even if you are right and we are wrong. War will be fatal to your idea of restoring the Union. I am not now considering its effects here; but I am looking alone to your great country, and I implore you, not on any feeling that nothing can be conceded and that England is arrogant and seeking a quarrel, not to play the game of every enemy of your country. Nations in great crises and difficulties have often done that which in their prosperous and powerful hour they would not have often done; and they have done it without humiliation and disgrace. You may disappoint your enemies by the moderation and reasonableness of your conduct; and every honest and good man in England will applaud your wisdom. If you are resolved to succeed against the South, have no war with England. Make every concession that can be made. Do not hesitate to tell the world that you will even consider what two years ago no power would have asked of you rather than give another nation a pretence for assisting your enemies. It is your interest to baffle your enemies even by any concession which is not disgraceful."

America then acted along the lines John Bright advised. I do not know whether his advice carried any weight. I have not the slightest idea whether you may not resent my giving advice; but I assure you that it is given with as much friendliness and disinterestedness as fifty odd years ago John Bright gave his to Sumner and Lincoln, and with as sincere a purpose to serve what I believe to be the cause of justice and morality; and with reversal of names the advice I am giving is the same as John Bright gave; and my reasons are the same.

There have been fluctuations in American opinion about the war. The actions of the German Zeppelins have revived the feeling in favor of the Allies. But I believe that for a couple of months preceding this action there had been a distinct lessening of the feeling for the Allies and a growth of pro-German feeling. I do not think that this was the case among the people who are best informed; but I do think that it was the case among the mass of not very well informed people, who have little to go upon except what they read in the newspapers or see at cinematograph shows. There were several causes for this change. There has been a very striking contrast between the lavish attentions showered on American war correspondents by the German military authorities and the blank refusal to have anything whatever to do with them by the British and French Governments.... The only real war news written by Americans who are known to and trusted by the American public comes from the German side; as a result of this, the sympathizers with the cause of the Allies can hear nothing whatever about the trials and achievements of the British and French armies.... It may be that your people do not believe that American public opinion is of sufficient value to be taken into account; but, if you think that it should be taken into account, then it is worth your while considering whether much of your censorship work and much of your refusal to allow correspondents at the front has been damaging to your cause from the standpoint of the effect on public opinion without any corresponding military gains. I realize perfectly that it would be criminal to permit correspondents to act as they acted as late as our own Spanish War; but, as a layman, I feel sure that there has been a good deal of work of the kind of which I have spoken in the way of censorship and refusing the correspondents permission to go to the front which has not been of the slightest military service to you and which has had a very real effect in preventing any rallying of public opinion to you....

Now, as to the question of contraband. You know that I am as little in sympathy with President Wilson and Secretary Bryan as regards their attitude in international matters as John Bright was in sympathy with Lords Palmerston and Derby and Mr. Gladstone in their attitude toward the American Republic when it was at war fifty years ago. But they speak for the country; and I have no influence whatever in shaping public action, and, as I h ave reason to believe, very little influence indeed in shaping public opinion. My advice, therefore, must be taken or rejected by you purely with reference to what you think it is worth.

President Wilson is certainly not desirous of war with anybody. But he is very obstinate, and he takes the professorial view of international matters. I need not point out to you that it is often pacificists who halting and stumbling and not knowing whither they are going finally drift helplessly into a war, which they have rendered inevitable, without the slightest idea that they were doing so. A century ago this was what happened to the United States under Presidents Jefferson and Madison--although at that time the attitude of both England and France rendered war with one of them, and ought to have rendered war with both of them, inevitable on our part....

I regard the proposed purchase by the Administration of German ship[ping] as entirely improper. I am supporting the Republicans in their opposition to the measure. I regard some of the actions of the Administration in, for instance, refusing to make public the manifests in advance and the like as improper. I think Great Britain is now showing great courtesy and forbearance. I believe that she has done things to our ships that ought not to have been done, but I am not aware that she is now doing them. I am not discussing this question from the standpoint of right. I am discussing it from the standpoint of expediency. . . . Our trade, under existing circumstances, is of vastly more service to you and France than to Germany. I think I underestimate the case when 1 say it is ten times as valuable to the Allies as to Germany. There are circumstances under which it might become not merely valuable but vital. I am not a naval man, I do not know what the possibilities of the submarine are. But they have accomplished some notable feats, and if they should now begin to destroy ships carrying foodstuffs to Great Britain, the effect might be not merely serious but appalling. Under such condition, it would be of the utmost consequence to England to have accepted the most extreme view the United States could advance as to her right to ship cargoes unmolested. Even although this possibility, which I do not regard as more than a very remote possibility, is in reality wholly impossible, it yet remains true that the trade in contraband is overwhelmingly to the advantage of England, France, and Russia, because of your command of the seas. You assume that this command gives you the right to make the advantage still more overwhelming. I ask you merely to take careful thought, so that you shall not excite our Government, even wrongfully, to act in such a way that it would diminish or altogether abolish the great advantage you now have. . . . Exactly how far you can go in any given case, I cannot say. But where it is so very important for you that there should be no American hostility, I hope you will not only avoid doubtful action but will not insist on your rights, even when these rights are clear, unless you are convinced that the gain to you will more than offset causing an irritation in this country which might have effects that I will not even contemplate, because they would cause me real horror....

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Letter_from_Theodore_Roosevelt_to_Sir_Edward_Grey
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gervais Weekly Star

January 22, 1915 - Gervais, Oregon

City Ordinance No. 102 reads: that it shall be unlawful for any boy or young man to hang around the Railroad Depot, or jump on the steps, or hang on the steps or sides of any car while standing on the track or running through the city of Gervais.

http://gesswhoto.com/star1915-jan22.html

P.S. "...boy or young man..."
Oude mannen mogen álles in Gervais... Evil
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters of the Tsaritsa to the Tsar

No. 35.
Tsarskoe Selo, Jan. 22-nd 1915

My beloved One,

I have just heard that a Feldjeger leaves, so hasten to send a few lines. Baby spent the day alright & has no fever, now he begins to complain a little of his leg & dreads the night. - From the station I went to him till 11 & then to hospital, to 1, sat with Ania who is alright - she begs me to tell you what she forgot giving over to you yesterday fr. our Friend, that you must be sure not once to mention the name of the commander in Chief: in your manifest it must solely come from you to the people. - Then I went in to see the wound of our standard-bearer - awful, bones quite smashed, he suffered hideously during the bandaging: but did not say, a word, only got pale & perspiration ran down his face & body. - In each ward I photographed the officers. After luncheon say goodbye & then I rested & got a wee nap, after wh. I went up to Alexei, read to him, played together & then had tea near his bed.

I remain at home this evening, enough for one day. - Sweet treasure, I am writing in bed, after 6 - the room looks big & empty, as the tree has been taken away. - Sad without you, my Angel & seeing you leave was nasty. -

Tell Fedorov I have told Viltchkovsky - to find out whether 0. Martinov would like to lie in the big palace as he wont be able to move for very long - & here we can get him out fine days to the garden in his bed even - I want to let the sick lie out, I think it will do them much good.

Now the man waits, so I must end. - I miss you & love you, my own Nicky dear. Sleep well. God bless & keep you. 1000 kisses fr, the Children & fr. old

Wify.

Baby kisses you very much. He did not complain in the daytime.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letterstsaritsa/january15.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 17:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

22 januari 1916
“Op bevel van den heer Consul van België: aanzoekt al de gereformeerde (afgekeurde) militairen, voorzien of niet van afkeuringsbewijzen, te verschijnen op het Belgisch Consulaat te Breda den woensdagvoormiddag 26 januari. De belanghebbenden zijn verzocht in hun eigen belang aan dezen oproep gehoor te geven en de bevelen te volgen die zouden gegeven worden. Alle reiskosten worden vergoed (lijst met zestien namen).”
(Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; schepencollege Baarle-Hertog, 1916)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:07-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1916&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2010 17:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Address of the President of the United States to the Senate

Gentlemen of the Senate:

On the 18th of December last I addressed an identic note to the governments of the nations now at war requesting them to state, more definitely than they had yet been stated by either group of belligerents, the terms upon which they would deem it possible to make peace. I spoke on behalf of humanity and of the rights of all neutral nations like our own, many of whose most vital interests the war puts in constant jeopardy. The Central powers united in a reply which stated merely that they were ready to meet their antagonists in conference to discuss terms of peace. The Entente powers have replied much more definitely and have stated, in general terms, indeed, but with sufficient definiteness to imply details, the arrangements, guarantees, and acts of reparation which they deem to be the indispensable conditions of a satisfactory settlement. We are that much nearer a definite discussion of the peace which shall end the present war. We are that much nearer the discussion of the international concert which must thereafter hold the world at peace. In every discussion of the peace that must end this war it is taken for granted that that peace must be followed by some definite concert of power which will make it virtually impossible that any such catastrophe should ever overwhelm us again. Every lover of mankind, every sane and thoughtful man, must take that for granted.

I have sought this opportunity to address you because I thought that I owed it to you, as the council associated with me in the final determination of our international obligations, to disclose to you without reserve the thought and purpose that have been taking form in my mind in regard to the duty of our Government in the days to come when it will be necessary to lay afresh and upon a new plan the foundations of peace among the nations.

It is inconceivable that the people of the United States should play no part in that great enterprise. To take part in such a service will be the opportunity for which they have sought to prepare themselves by the very principles and purposes of their polity and the approved practices of their Government ever since the days when they set up a new nation in the high and honourable hope that it might in all that it was and did show mankind the way to liberty. They can not in honour withhold the service to which they are now about to be challenged. They do not wish to withhold it. But they owe it to themselves and the other nations of the world to state the conditions under which hey will feel free to render it....

The present war must first be ended; but we owe it to candour and to a just regard for the opinion of mankind to say that, so far as our participation in guarantees of future peace is concerned, it makes a great deal of difference in what way and upon what terms it is ended. The treaties and agreements which bring it to an end must embody terms which will create a peace that is worth guaranteeing and preserving, a peace that will win the approval of mankind, not merely a peace that will serve the several interests and immediate aims of the nations engaged. We shall have no voice in determining what those terms shall be, but we shall, I feel sure, have a voice in determining whether they shall be made lasting or not by the guarantees of a universal covenant; and our judgment upon what is fundamental and essential as a condition precedent to permanency should be spoken now, not afterwards when it may be too late.

No covenant of cooperative peace that does not include the peoples of the New World can suffice to keep the future safe against war; and yet there is only one sort of peace that the peoples of America could join in guaranteeing. The elements of that peace must be elements that engage the confidence and satisfy the principles of the American governments, elements consistent with their political faith and with the practical convictions which the peoples of America have once for all embraced and undertaken to defend.

I do not mean to say that any American government would throw any obstacle in the way of any terms of peace the governments now at war might agree upon, or seek to upset them when made, whatever they might be. I only take it for granted that mere terms of peace between the belligerents will not satisfy even the belligerents themselves. Mere agreements may not make peace secure. It will be absolutely necessary that a force be created as a guarantor of the permanency of the settlement so much greater than the force of any nation now engaged or any alliance hitherto formed or projected that no nation, no probable combination of nations, could face or withstand it. If the peace presently to be made is to endure, it must be a peace made secure by the organized major force of mankind.

The terms of the immediate peace agreed upon will determine whether it is a peace for which such a guarantee can be secured. The question upon which the whole future peace and policy of the world depends is this: Is the present war a struggle for a just and secure peace, or only for a new balance of power? If it be only a struggle for a new balance of power, who will guarantee, who can guarantee, the stable equilibrium of the new arrangement? Only a tranquil Europe can be a stable Europe. There must be, not a balance of power, but a community of power; not organized rivalries, but an organized common peace.

Fortunately we have received very explicit assurances on this point the statesmen of both of the groups of nations now arrayed against one another have said, in terms that could not be misinterpreted, that it was no part of the purpose they had in mind to crush their antagonists. But the implications of these assurances may not be equally clear to all --may not be the same on both sides of the water. I think it will be serviceable if I attempt to set forth what we understand them to be.

They imply, first of all, that it must be a peace without victory. It is not pleasant to say this. I beg that I may be permitted to put my own interpretation upon it and that it may be understood that no other interpretation was in my thought. I am seeking only to face realities and to face them without soft concealments. Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor's terms imposed upon the vanquished. It would be accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as upon quicksand. Only a peace between equals can last, only a peace the very principle of which is equality and a common participation in a common benefit. The right state of mind, the right feeling between nations, is as necessary for a lasting peace as is the just settlement of vexed questions of territory or of racial and national allegiance.

The equality of nations upon which peace must be founded if it is to last must be an equality of rights; the guarantees exchanged must neither recognize nor imply a difference between big nations and small, between those that are powerful and those that are weak. Right must be based upon the common strength, not upon the individual strength, of the nations upon whose concert peace will depend. Equality of territory or of resources there of course cannot be; nor any other sort of equality not gained in the ordinary peaceful and legitimate development of the peoples themselves. But no one asks or expects anything more than an equality of rights. Mankind is looking now for freedom of life, not for equipoises of power.

And there is a deeper thing involved than even equality of right among organized nations. No peace can last, or ought to last, which does not recognize and accept the principle that governments derive all their just powers from the consent of the governed, and that no right anywhere exists to hand peoples about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were property. I take it for granted, for instance, if I may venture upon a single example, that statesmen everywhere are agreed that there should be a united, independent, and autonomous Poland, and that henceforth inviolable security of life, of worship, and of industrial and social development should be guaranteed to all peoples who have lived hitherto under the power of governments devoted to a faith and purpose hostile to their own.

I speak of this, not because of any desire to exalt an abstract political principle which has always been held very dear by those who have sought to build up liberty in America, but for the same reason that I have spoken of the other conditions of peace which seem to me clearly indispensable -- because I wish frankly to uncover realities. Any peace which does not recognize and accept this principle will inevitably be upset. It will not rest upon the affections or the convictions of mankind. The ferment of spirit of whole populations will fight subtly and constantly against it, and all the world will sympathize. The world can be at peace only if its life is stable, and there can be no stability where the will is in rebellion, where there is not tranquility of spirit and a sense of justice, of freedom, and of right.

So far as practicable, moreover, every great people now struggling towards a full development of its resources and of its powers should be assured a direct outlet to the great highways of the sea. Where this can not be done by the cession of territory, it can no doubt be done by the neutralization of direct rights of way under the general guarantee which will assure the peace itself. With a right comity of arrangement no nation need be shut away from free access to the open paths of the world's commerce.

And the paths of the sea must alike in law and in fact be free. The freedom of the seas is the sine qua non of peace, equality, and cooperation. No doubt a somewhat radical reconsideration of many of the rules of international practice hitherto thought to be established may be necessary in order to make the seas indeed free and common in practically all circumstances for the use of mankind, but the motive for such changes is convincing and compelling. There can be no trust or intimacy between the peoples of the world without them. The free, constant, unthreatened intercourse of nations is an essential part of the process of peace and of development. It need not be difficult either to define or to secure the freedom of the seas if the governments of the world sincerely desire to come to an agreement concerning it.

It is a problem closely connected with the limitation of naval armaments and the cooperation of the navies of the world in keeping the seas at once free and safe, and the question of limiting naval armaments opens the wider and perhaps more difficult question of the limitation of armies and of all programmes of military preparation. Difficult and delicate as these questions are, they must be faced with the utmost candour and decided in a spirit of real accommodation if peace is to come with healing in its wings, and come to stay. Peace cannot be had without concession and sacrifice. There can be no sense of safety and equality among the nations if great preponderance armaments are henceforth to continue here and there to be built up and maintained. The statesmen of the world must plan for peace and nations must adjust and accommodate their policy to it as they have planned for war and made ready for pitiless contest and rivalry. The question of armaments, whether on land or sea, is the most immediately and intensely practical question connected with the future fortunes of nations and of mankind.

I have spoken upon these great matters without reserve and with the utmost explicitness because it has seemed to me to be necessary if the world's yearning desire for peace was anywhere to find free voice and utterance. Perhaps I am the only person in high authority amongst all the peoples of the world who is at liberty to speak and hold nothing back. I am speaking as an individual, and yet I am speaking also, of course, as the responsible head of a great government, and I feel confident that I have said what the people of the United States would wish me to say. May I not add that I hope and believe that I am in effect speaking for liberals and friends of humanity in every nation and of every programme of liberty? I would fain believe that I am speaking for the silent mass of mankind everywhere who have as yet had no place or opportunity to speak their real hearts out concerning the death and ruin they see to have come already upon the persons and the homes they hold most dear.

And in holding out the expectation that the people and Government of the United States will join the other civilized nations of the world in guaranteeing the permanence of peace upon such terms as I have named I speak with the greater boldness and confidence because it is clear to every man who can think that there is in this promise no breach in either our traditions or our policy as a nation, but a fulfilment, rather, of all that we have professed or striven for.

I am proposing, as it were, that the nations should with one accord adopt the doctrine of President Monroe as the doctrine of the world: that no nation should seek to extend its polity over any other nation or people, but that every people should be left free to determine its own polity, its own way of development, unhindered, unthreatened, unafraid, the little along with the great and powerful.

I am proposing that all nations henceforth avoid entangling alliances which would draw them into competitions of power, catch them in a net of intrigue and selfish rivalry, and disturb their own affairs with influences intruded from without. There is no entangling alliance in a concert of power. When all unite to act in the same sense and with the same purpose, all act in the common interest and are free to live their own lives under a common protection.

I am proposing government by the consent of the governed; that freedom of the seas which in international conference after conference representatives of the United States have urged with the eloquence of those who are the convinced disciples of liberty; and that moderation of armaments which makes of armies and navies a power for order merely, not an instrument of aggression or selfish violence.

These are American principles, American policies. We could stand for no others. And they are also the principles and policies of forward-looking men and women everywhere, of every modern nation, of every enlightened community. They are the principles of mankind and must prevail.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Address_of_the_President_of_the_United_States_to_the_Senate
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Casualty Lists of the Royal Navy and Dominion Navies, World War 1
Researched & compiled by Don Kindell

1st - 31st JANUARY 1917 - in date, ship/unit & name order

Monday, 22 January 1917

Balmoral, hired paddle minesweeper
STONE, Frederick, Cook, MMR, (none given), drowned

Bonaventure, submarine depot ship, ex-light cruiser
FORREST, Michael, Leading Stoker, 228321 (Po), illness

Linwood, steamship
CAPEL, James H, Ordinary Seaman, J 56182, untraced
STEWART, Norman, Act/Leading Seaman, RNVR, Wales Z 974, untraced

WESTERN FRONT

RND, Drake Battalion, France
WARNER, Charles V, Able Seaman, RNVR, London Z 34, DOW

RND, Hawke Battalion, France
GLEN, John, Able Seaman, RNVR, Clyde Z 1007, DOW

RND, Nelson Battalion, France
COWIE, John W, Able Seaman, RNVR, Clyde Z 1202, killed
HAMER, Thomas, Able Seaman, RNVR, R 64, killed
PHILPOTT, Frederick, Able Seaman, RNVR, London Z 4283, killed
SYMONS, Arthur, Able Seaman, RNVR, Tyneside Z 6400, killed
VATON, Etienne A, Able Seaman, RNVR, London Z 5074, killed
WALDEN, Harold J, Able Seaman, RNVR, Bristol Z 887, killed

Tamar, Naval Base, Hong Kong
AH-KAI, (no other name listed), Able Seaman (Chinese), (no service number listed), illness

http://www.naval-history.net/xDKCas1917-01Jan.htm
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Struggle for Independence (1917–20).

In the western Ukrainian lands that formed part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ukrainian National Rada (UNRada) was formed in Lviv on 18–19 October 1918 and proclaimed a Ukrainian state on the territory of Galicia, northern Bukovyna, and Transcarpathia. It assumed power in Galicia on 1 November 1918 and in the Ukrainian part of Bukovyna on 6 November. On 9 November the UNRada announced the establishment of the Western Ukrainian National Republic (ZUNR) and formed a government, the State Secretariat of the Western Ukrainian National Republic, headed by Kost Levytsky. On 22 January 1919 the union of the ZUNR with the UNR was solemnly proclaimed in Kyiv; following this event, the ZUNR officially became the Western Province of the Ukrainian National Republic. On 9 June 1919 the UNRada appointed Yevhen Petrushevych plenipotentiary dictator of the ZUNR.

http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/pages/S/T/StruggleforIndependence1917hD720.htm
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Miller, Emma (1839 - 1917)

Born: 26 June 1839 (Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England)
Died: 22 January 1917 (Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia)
Occupation: Women's rights activist, Union organiser and Suffragist
Alternative Names: Calderwood, Emma (former married name, 30 August 1874 - 21 October 1886); Holmes, Emma (maiden name, 26 June 1839 - 15 September 1857); Silcock, Emma (former married name, 15 September 1857 - 30 August 1874)

Summary
Emma Miller was foundation president of the Woman’s Equal Franchise Association between 1894 and 1905. The vote for women in Queensland State elections was finally won in 1905; women had had the right to vote in Federal elections since Federation, and voted for the first time in the 1903 Federal election. On 2 February 1912, known as Black Friday, at the height of a general strike, Miller led a contingent of women to Parliament House, avoiding police with fixed bayonets. The women were charged by baton swinging police on their return from Parliament House. Miller reputedly stuck her hatpin into a horse ridden by the Police Commissioner, Patrick Cahill. Cahill fell from his horse and claimed to have been permanently injured. Direct political action was not Miller’s only cause. She was anti-militarist and opposed conscription in World War I. She believed that ‘those who make the quarrel should be the only ones to fight’. As vice-president of the Women’s Peace Army, Miller attended the Peace Alliance Conference in Melbourne in 1916. She also fought hard for free speech and civil liberties. During the First World War, Miller preached equal pay to those fearing that women would take the jobs of men away at the war.

http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE0654b.htm
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Commons Sitting of 22 January 1918

COLONIAL TROOPS (GALLIPOLI).

HC Deb 22 January 1918 vol 101 cc800-1 800

22. Colonel L. WILSON asked whether any decision has yet been arrived at with reference to the issue of a medal or decoration to Imperial or Colonial troops in connection with the operations in Gallipoli?

Mr. MACPHERSON This matter is receiving sympathetic consideration by the Imperial and Dominion Governments, but no conclusion has been reached.

Colonel WILSON Is it not a fact that a month ago I was informed that this matter was receiving sympathetic consideration, and could he say when a decision is likely to be arrived at?

Mr. MACPHERSON That is perfectly true, but it is an extremely difficult question, involving a good deal of interviews and correspondence with the various Governments concerned. It also raises a very delicate point. I promise my hon. and gallant Friend that I will communicate with him when I get the information.

Mr. TENNANT Is there any precedent for the issue of a decoration or medal for a campaign of this kind, which cannot be said to have resulted in victory?

Mr. MACPHERSON I am not sure about that.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jan/22/colonial-troops-gallipoli
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The Letters of Katherine Mansfield: Volume I

Friday — January 22, 1918

Friday
January 22, 1918
I will just tell you, so that you may know how I am taking care of myself. I stay in bed every day until lunch. Then I dress by a fire. If it is fine I go for a small walk in the afternoon, then I come back to my fire. After dinner, at about 8.30 I go to bed. The food here has got much better since the submarines have taken to lunching and dining here. It is now very good and they have begun giving me portions so big that I think they suspect me of at least twins sous le coeur. I set sail across tureens of nourishing soup, stagger over soft mountains of pommes purées and melt in marmelades. So you see how well I am looking after myself….

The wind still blows a hurricane here. In the night the rain joined in, but now the sun beats in the air like a kite. It is like living on a ship. The hotel is all bolted and barred up, the big doors closed and a strange twilight in the hall. People go about in shawls and coats. If a window is opened the seas of the air rush in and fill it. The great palm trees have snapped like corks, and many a glittering plume trails in the dust. They say it never has been known before. I have begun to like it….

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Mur01Lett-t1-body-d1-d92.html
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Provisional Government of Albania

The Provisional Government of Albania is the first Government created by Assembly of Vlora in 4 December 1912. It was a paternal government, led by Ismail Qemali, until his resignation in 22 January 1914 and by Fejzi Bej Alizoti, until the coronation of William, Prince of Albania.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provisional_Government_of_Albania
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The Tulalip Tribes dedicate a new longhouse at the Tulalip Reservation on Treaty Day, January 22, 1914.



On January 22, 1914, Indians from the region gather at the Tulalip Reservation to celebrate Treaty Day and the completion of a new longhouse. Festivities include songs, dances, games and storytelling, with a dinner at noon. John A. Juleen (1874-1935) of Everett is present to photograph the event.

Lees en kijk verder op http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=8523
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 18:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Guadalajara Train Disaster, Guadalajara, Mexico, 22 January 1915

600+ Deaths - In the midst of the Mexican Revolution, a train carrying the families of the troops of Venustiano Carranza left Colima for Guadalajara. The train lost its brakes on a steep descent, jumped the tracks and plunged into a canyon. Some 300 survived.

http://www.epicdisasters.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 18:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Second Battle of Ypres, 1915 - Map: January 1915



http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/mapjan15.htm
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Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | January 1915

Friday 22nd January 1915 - Twentieth Birthday and on cookhouse fatigue. Blizzard during night. Ground covered with fine snow. Weather mild. Paraded at cookhouse 7am. Mended fire and told orderlies to bring 2 and 1 [ ]. Direct to cookhouse. Brekker:- sausage and bacon. After brekker, cleaned pans, washed tables, swilled floor, cleaned [knives?], fetched 3 potatoes from No. 1, told orderlies to parade with 3 [carts?]. Rotten fatigue. Jolly hard work. Place smells of meat and pudding. Gave me 2 fine chops for dinner. After dinner, emptied and cleaned copper, fetched 6 buckets of coal. 3.15-4.30 off. Beat Benson at chess. 4.30 offered and made condensed milk in a bucket, fetched orderlies, helped to make tea, finished 5.10. Apples for tea, bought sardines. Birthday cake cut, very good [ ]. Beat Forster 3-1 at chess.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary01.htm
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James Connolly: "In the Gap of Danger"
Workers’ Republic, 22 January 1916.

In this week’s issue of The Workers’ Republic we publish figures showing the enormous profits now being made by shipowners and merchants engaged in the import trade, side by side with the demand of the Government that the working class should practise more economy, and avoid all requests for higher wages.

In many other walks of life the same story could be equalled. We find it in the municipal and poor law administration where the freest endorsement is given to the extravagant demands of the higher officials, whilst the most rigid parsimony is exercised against the lowly-paid workers. We find it in every company in the business world, where the rule is to vote outrageous incomes to figureheads amongst the directors, and princely salaries to the chairmen, even whilst protesting publicly inability to pay decent wages to the workers who produce it all.

On the Imperial scale the same story is reproduced. Untold millions are voted away to the work of destruction, and the work of construction and education is grudged the most paltry allowance.

The magnificent meeting in the Dublin Mansion House on Monday to protest against the withdrawal of the grant to Irish education had and has the support of all Ireland. But of what avail? The robbery will continue – the robbery of which the holy men of old spoke when they denounced as the great sin against God “the robbery of the poor because they are poor”.

Politically we are helpless. Thanks to the militant Labour Movement we are not so helpless industrially, but even on that battlefield the odds against us have increased because of the defection of so many of those whose duty it was to lead, but who when the battle opened either deserted the battlefield entirely or went over wholly to the enemy.

The Irish Transport Workers’ Union still stands in the gap of danger. Its flag still flies, its front to the enemy is still unshaken, its serried ranks have retreated not one inch, and behind it rapidly are gathering fresh hosts of zealous fighters. We know that we have since this war began passed through the greatest crisis in our history, that forces have been loosed against us the most deadly if the most silent we have yet encountered.

We know that the storms we have survived are as naught to those gathering to break upon our head, but we know that we must press forward, that we have in our keeping the hopes of all the children yet unborn, and that those hopes must be safeguarded and shepherded to fulfilment. Many will fall by the wayside, many will desert us “ere the guns begin to shoot”, many upon whom we relied will join the enemy, our world will be torn in confusion; but despite all the flag of Labour will yet be borne aloft triumphant in a free nation in which the wrongs of the poor shall be peacefully righted.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1916/01/gap.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 18:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening Post, Volume CXI, Issue 18, 22 January 1916





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19160122.2.50.29
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 18:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 26th Division in 1914-1918

Other Divisional Troops
26th Divisional Train ASC - 202, 203, 204 and 205 Companies ASC joined in November and December 1914 but remained when the Division moved to Salonika, becoming the 32nd Divisional Train. 112, 113, 114 and 115 Coys ASC then transferred from 11th (Northern) Division. On 22 January 1916, the Train was on board the "Norseman" when it was torpedoed in the Gulk of Salonika but all personnel were saved, although 600 mules lost their lives.

http://www.1914-1918.net/26div.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 18:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Diary Entry - 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd and 23rd January, 1916
All these days have been much the same, with drill, either physical (Swedish) or infantry, at eight thirty, then a trip into the country by motor lorry. When we go out in the lorries, we usually get out about two miles and have some great infantry attack on a fosse, which needs a lot of imagination, for the Infantry men, and a hell of a lot for me, as I know nothing about it. We usually lunch at an estaminet and lay wire entanglements or build parapets in the afternoon, returning home about three thirty. Another lecture at five thirty ends the day. I went to several divisional shows, after the music hall type, and they were really quite good and the band they have there is very good. The division run two of these shows, one at the theatre, and one on the Choque road. The former place is a very fine building. But I believe it had a shell through it a couple of months back, probably a lucky one. The school finished up practically on Sunday, with a harebrained defence of a village to the north-west of Béthune, where the S I H are billeted.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/01/diary-entry-13th-14th-15th-16th-17th.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nicholas II, diary entry (22nd January, 1917)

A painful day. There have been serious disorders in St. Petersburg because workmen wanted to come up to the Winter Palace. Troops had to open fire in several places in the city; there were many killed and wounded. God, how painful and sad.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSsunday.htm
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Maritieme kalender - Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

22 januari 1917 - Het ss.'Borneo' van de Stoomvaart Maatschappij 'Nederland' (SMN) weet 9 opvarenden van het Noorse ss. 'Anna' te redden. De 'Anna', op weg van Almaria naar Glasgow, werd op de Noordzee door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'UC 10' getorpedeerd.

22 januari 1917 - De motortanker 'Juno' (1912) van de Nederlands-Indische Tankstoomboot Maatschappij (NITM) loopt op de Noordzee op een mijn, waarbij twee matrozen als gevolg van de explosie gewond raken. Het schip weet echter de Duins te bereiken, waar het vervolgens op 25 januari licht wordt beschadigd als gevolg van een aanvaring. Na een voorlopige reparatie in Londen keert het schip op 31 januari weer terug op de Nieuwe Waterweg.

22 januari 1917 - Het vrachtschip ss.'Zeta' (1913) van de Vrachtvaart Maatschappij 'Bothnia', op weg van New York naar Amsterdam met een lading tarwe, wordt op de Atlantische Oceaan nabij Bishop Rock door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'U 53' getorpedeerd. Alle opvarenden kunnen hierbij worden gered.

22 januari 1919 - Het passagiersschip ss.'Rijndam' van de Holland-Amerika Lijn (HAL), op 20 maart 1918 door de Amerikaanse autoriteiten in beslag genomen en vervolgens ingezet als troepentransportschip, wordt weer aan de HAL teruggegeven. De 'Rijndam' bracht tot het einde van de Eerste Wereldoorlog in totaal 17.911 man Amerikaanse troepen van en naar Europa en daarna tot 22 januari 1919 nog eens 39.329 man weer terug naar de Verenigde Staten.

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=1&d=22
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jasta 11

(...) The unit was first based at Douai-Brayelles and then Roucourt for operations over the 6 Armee on the Arras front, the Jasta were equipped with various models of the excellent Albatros sesquiplane fighter. Between 22 January 1917 and the end of March the Jasta claimed some 36 victories. The beginning of the Battle of Arras in early April meant a higher number of targets, with Jasta 11 logging 89 claims for aircraft destroyed in April (from a total of 298 made by all German fighter units for the month.) This decimation of the Royal Flying Corps became termed 'Bloody April'.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Jasta-11/143466979001463
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

American Volunteers in the French Foreign Legion, 1914-1917

The following excerpt is from Herbert Molloy Mason's Lafayette Escadrille, pp 167-170, describing Genet's first arrival at the Lafayette Escadrille, on 22 January 1917, with a look back to Genet's role in the disastrous assault on the Bois Sabot by the First Regiment of the Foreign Legion in September 1915:

"A replacement came up to Cachy (Mason is mistaken here: it wasn't Cachy but St Just) on a day when the clouds were almost hugging the frozen earth and a day so cold even Soubiran stayed in bed to keep warm, leaving the forbidden game to shiver unmolested in the snow. No flying was possible, yet the pilots gathered around the stove in the hut distinctly heard the unmistakable sound of a rotary engine blipping its way down toward the ground. The Escadrille pilots, having once peered outside that morning, knew there would not be-- could not be-- any man fool enough to fly in the forbidding muck that enveloped the valley of the Somme. This knowledge was final and indisputable-- yet, some madman or drunk was up there trying to let down. Then they heard the intermittent popping as the plane was taxied down the field; the engine was cut and there remained only the sound of the wind whistling through the cracks in the walls.

Moments later the door of the hut burst open and what appeared to be an animated teddy bear walked down the length of the hut, unwinding layers of silk and wool as he approached the stove. When the unveiling was complete, the pilots could only gape at the bared face before them. A snub nose red with cold was planted between rosy cheeks that showed no trace of beard. Closely cropped blond hair topped a head that measured no more than 5 feet 6 inches from the floor. On closer inspection, a downy moustache appeared. If he was sixteen years old, it would be a miracle.

His name was Edmond Charles Clinton Genet, he had just turned twenty and his home was in Ossining, NY--"You know, where Sing-Sing is located." Genet was all eyes and all questions and all eagerness. There was the flair of an eighteenth-century gallant about him, somehow agreeably mixed with an unabashed Boy Scout's attitude toward the war: to Genet, the Germans were not simply "the enemy," they were arch villains, "scoundrels of the worst sort imaginable." and worthy of the sternest punishment that decent men could mete out. In his haste to close with the hated Boche, Genet had left the depot (Cachy) without orders to fly directly to Cachy (St Just); when he learned that most of the time was spent in bed trying to keep warm, or idling the hours away at cards, he was visibly let down.

Bit by bit the background of this unlikely-looking warrior seeped out, but few details came from him. He was the great-great-grandson of Citizen Genet, who had been sent to American by the French Revolutionary Government in 1793. Citizen Genet liked America so well he decided to stay and raise a family. Thus this distinguished heritage partially accounted for the diminutive corporal's desired to fight for the land of his fathers. The others at Cachy tended to regard Genet as more of a mascot than a fighting addition to the muster roll, but when they learned he had taken part in the assault on the Bois Sabot, Genet seemed to grow several inches.

The final phase of the 1915 French offensive in the Champagne began in September, with a massed assault against the heavily fortified positions of the Navarin Farm and an innocent-looking patch of woods called the Bois Sabot, or Horseshoe Wood. Lying across a wide stretch of featureless ground, the Bois Sabot appeared only as a dark green clumping of scrubby trees and masses of secondary growth. Close up, however, the position was revealed for what it was: a natural defense bastion formed of thickly interlocking trees and branches in the form of a horseshoe, with the open end facing the level ground across which any attack would have to come. The Germans had laced the wood with thirty-two machine gun nests, countless mortars, quick-firing fieldpieces and Minnenwerfer, which threw canisters filled with scrap metal and one hundred pounds of explosive. thick belts of barbed wire crisscrossed the woods in depth-- most of it hidden in the heavy undergrowth, and the carefully sited machine guns were protected by bunkers made of reinforced concrete. To withstand the bombardment that always signaled the beginning of any French infantry assault, the German troops defending the Bois Sabot were provided with deep dugouts and trenches covered over with elephant iron and, in some places, concrete roofs. With justification, German Army engineers believed Horseshoe Wood impregnable against frontal attack.

The First Regiment of the Foreign Legion, among whose ranks numbered Soldat Edmond Genet, had been selected to carry the Bois Sabot following the bloody and futile attacks launched earlier by Algerian tirailleurs. While the wood was taking a pounding from the French guns, the Legionnaires in the jump-off trenches could look out across the naked ground in front of them and see "the ghastly wrecks of the Colonials who lay before the German line, the sickly pallor of their hands and faces in awful contrast with the pools of blood around them." Then, at three-thirty in the afternoon, the whistles blew and the First Regiment scrambled from cover and began the assault against one of the most perfectly prepared defensive positions on the Western Front. Incredibly, they went forward in parade ground formation.

Genet recalled that they "started the advance in solid columns of fours, each section a unit. It was wonderful, that slow advance-- not a waiver, not a break. Through the storm of shell the Legion moved forward. Officers in advance with the commandant at the head . . . inspired us all to calmness and courage. Shells were bursting everywhere. One lost his personal feelings. He simply became a unit, a machine."

Shrapnel raked through the close-packed columns of Legionnaires, who broke into a trot and dashed across the barren plain to get at the Horseshoe. To the howl of bursting shells and the terrifying explosions of the mines was added the crackle of the machine guns as they began systematically sweeping the thinning ranks. The murderous fire was "so thick that falling men were turned over and over and rolled along the ground like dead leaves before a late autumn wind." Genet and an Italian volunteer ran into the gale of lead. The other man lost his nerve, then his reason, then his life. Genet somehow made it back to the remnants of hs section. The attack had failed utterly, and at hideous cost. Of two companies alone, totaling 500 men, only 31 survived. Genet's bravery went unrewarded; all his officers lay dead in the Bois Sabot and there was no one left to write him up.

Although this enfant terrible had much to learn concerning the wisdom of flying in winter weather that grounded even mallards, it was evident there was little he needed to be taught about carrying the war to the enemy."

http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/geneted.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The "Peace Dove" of the Entente (January 1917)



On January 22, 1917, American president Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) gave a speech before the Senate in which he proposed a “peace without victory” under American auspices. According to the proposal, all belligerent states would have to abandon annexationist ambitions. In his January 29 response, the German Chancellor expressed a general willingness to take up negotiations, but, under pressure from the German High Command, he nonetheless continued to make territorial demands.

This caricature was originally published in the January 1917 issue of the satirical journal Kladderadatsch. The “peace dove” of the Entente is portrayed as a vulture carrying a map of Europe showing the areas to be "severed from the German Reich."

http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=2141
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 - Retreat from St. Quentin

The first six days of the new year were spent by the 9th Irish Fusiliers in Boves undergoing training, but on 7 January they were on the move again. A 14km march that day, along a snow-covered route to Marcelcave, was followed on ensuing days by an 11km march to Rosières, north-west of Roye, and a 15km march to Carrépuis, east of Roye, where they arrived on 11 January. Two days later they marched a further 20km to Villeselve, south-west of St. Quentin, where the Division's 107th and 109th Brigades immediately moved forward to relieve the French 6th Division, while the 108th remained in reserve. During these movements, Divisional Headquarters was established in Nesle, but was promptly relocated to Ollézy on 14 January.

A final move of 13km northwards from Villeselve to Seraucourt-le-Grand (Grand Seraucourt) on 17 January positioned the 9th Irish Fusiliers just a short distance from the front. The length of the British front line had just been extended further south, and troops of the 107th and 109th Brigades were now occupying trenches recently held by French troops around the southern side of St. Quentin. The trenches in the Division's responsibility ran the length of some 6000 yards, between Sphinx Wood and the St. Quentin-Roisel railway line. Meanwhile, troops of the 108th Brigade were billeted in villages along the St. Quentin-Ham road, and Brigade Headquarters were set up just east of Ham in Dury. The 9th Irish Fusiliers' strength in the third week of January is recorded as being 39 officers, 866 other ranks, 39 horses and 16 mules.

The Germans realised the French and been relieved and soon sent several raiding parties into the Division's lines to find out by whom. They succeeded in taking several prisoners of the 107th and 109th Brigades during the night of 22 January and obtained the answer. However, besides these small incidents, life seemed very quiet in the sector, one of the most easterly reaches of the Allied Somme front. Besides their main occupation during the latter half of January of digging trenches and improving existing ones, there was also time left for more enjoyable pastimes. The 9th Irish Fusiliers' War Diary gives us a clue:

"2 p.m. Beat 16 R.Ir.R. at football, 5 goals to 1."

http://brew.clients.ch/StQuentin.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Information about Vasil Trofin, internee #1137, a Ukrainian born in the city of Chernivtsi, Bukovyna.



Trofin was arrested in St. John, New Brunswick and interned at the Amherst, Nova Scotia camp on 22 January 1918.

http://www.infoukes.com/history/internment/gallery/page-009.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter confirming award of Military Medal to Charles Gill



Charles Percival Gill was a corporal in the R.A.M.C. Before the Great War he was a member of the Camborne Company (Cornwall) of the Wessex Field Ambulance and was drafted straight into the R.A.M.C. at the start of the war.
He was awarded the Military Medal at the second Battle of Passchendale. I have a letter from the 24th Battalion Loyal North Lancs Regiment, to which his Wessex Field Ambulance was attached, stating that he was awarded the medal for work during the attack on 26th Oct. 1917. I have tried to find the full citation but have been told that many of the Great War records were lost in the bombing raids in the Second World War. I have been told that he was bringing back wounded from the front line under fire when a shell fell among their stretcher party. One of the wounded men was thrown into a deep shell hole filled with water, mud, bodies and debris. My grandfather went down into the shell hole and brought the wounded man out and back to the dressing post.
My grandfather Gill died forty years ago, but as I was interested in the First World War, I did ask him about it when I was younger. I gathered that he was critical of the conduct of the war and the terrible loss of life. He had dreams about it when he was ill and dying. He was a private and modest man. After the war he did not parade with the other ex-service men on Armistice Day. When asked why, he said that he remembered his friends who had died every day.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/6425?CISOBOX=1&REC=3
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edward Carson



(...) Carson was appointed Attorney-General on 25 May 1915 but resigned on 19 October in protest at the Government’s conduct of the war. After the Easter Rising he was assured by Lloyd George that the six north-eastern counties would be excluded from the Home Rule Act (1914). He accepted office as First Lord of the Admiralty in the War Cabinet on 7 December 1916, but he resigned on 22 January 1918 after the dismissal of his protegé, John Rushworth Jellicoe, as First Sea Lord in the Admiralty. (...)

http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/Edward_Carson
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Promotional photograph from The California Theater promoting the screening of the film "J'accuse," on Sunday, January 22, 1919



http://www.silenthollywood.com/jaccuse.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, Vol. 156, January 22, 1919.

We mentioned last week the startling rumour that a Civil Servant had been seen running, and a satisfactory explanation has now been issued. It appears that the gentleman in question was going off duty.

The Captain of a Wilson liner on being torpedoed ate his pocket-book to prevent his sailing instructions from falling into the hands of the Germans. The report that the ex-Kaiser has whiled away the time at Amerongen by chewing up three copies of the German White Book and one of Prince LICHNOWSKY'S Memoirs is probably a variant of this story.

According to the Malin, the Bavarian PREMIER told a newspaper man that the Bavarian revolution cost exactly eighteen shillings. This seems to lend colour to the rumour that Dr. EISNER picked this revolution up second-hand in Russia.

"Springfield and Napsbury Lunatic Asylums," says a news item, "are to be known in future as mental hospitals." Government institutions which have hitherto borne that title will in the future be known simply as "Departments."

A German sailor, who is described as "twenty-seven, 6 ft. 9½ in.," has escaped from Dorchester camp. A reward has been offered for information leading to the recapture of any part of him.


"DORA" DISCOMFITED.
"DORA." "WHAT, NO CENSORSHIP?" [Swoons.]

[The Foreign Office has announced that Press Correspondents' messages about the Peace Congress will not be censored.]

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11225/11225-h/11225-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Postcard of the Suez Canal, sent by 15891 Pte. Sid Edwards and postmarked 22nd January 1916.





Note the signature of the censor, Lt. Henry Mitchell.

http://www.pals.org.uk/egypt.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 23:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ignacy Jan Paderewski

When World War I broke out in 1914, Paderewski dedicated his heart and soul to his country's service. In 1915 he went to the United States, where he remained nearly four years, giving numerous concerts and championing the cause of Poland. He collected enormous sums of money and created a powerful pro-Polish movement in the United States. The value of his propagandist work was realized on Jan. 22, 1917, when President Woodrow Wilson alluded to a "united, independent, and autonomous Poland." Up to 1918 Paderewski guided the political and military destinies of four million Poles in the United States.

After the victory of the Allies in World War I, Paderewski visited London and proceeded to Poland by sea in the company of a British mission, disembarking at Danzig on Dec. 24, 1918. After reaching Warsaw, he declared himself independent of all political parties. And, after difficult negotiations succeeded on Jan. 17, 1919, in forming a coalition government, he became prime minister and minister of foreign affairs. Paderewski went to Paris on April 6, 1919, as Poland's first delegate to the Paris Peace Conference.

http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/historical_information/jan_paderewski.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 23:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 Jan 1917 - "Easy Street" (film) is Released



Easy Street is a 1917 short comedy film by Charlie Chaplin. In the film, the police are failing to maintain law and order and so it is Chaplin, as the Little Tramp character, who steps forward (rather reluctantly) to rid the street of bullies, help the poor, save women from madmen and generally keep the peace.

http://timelines.com/1917/1/22/easy-street-film-is-released

O, come on... You know you want to! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vjXaNh7xDqk
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private Abigail: A Norfolk Soldier of the Great War

(...) Two weeks after serving out his detention in Felixstowe, Private Abigail was in trouble again - confined to barracks for five days for having a dirty rifle on parade. On 22 January 1917, two days after this second period of detention, he went absent without leave for the second time, voluntarily handing himself in at Britannia Barracks near Thorpe Hamlet where he had spent his childhood five days later. Again, this desertion coincided with a family crisis - the release of his father from prison after having served six weeks' hard labour without remission. This time Private Abigail's punishment was much harsher. In addition to detention and loss of pay he had to endure fourteen days' Field Punishment Number One, a painful and humiliating punishment in which the prisoner, dressed only in a shirt and breeches, was tied or manacled to the wheel of a gun carriage or wagon for hours on end, outside at the mercy of the elements and terrifying NCOs. Private Abigail's punishment coincided with of one of the coldest winters in living memory. It is likely that his opinion of the Army by this time was not very high. (...)

http://www.heritagecity.org/research-centre/whos-who/private-abigail.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 23:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MILITARY MEDALS - AWARDED TO MEMBERS OF QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S IMPERIAL MILITARY NURSING SERVICE AND THE TERRITORIAL FORCE NURSING SERVICE DURING THE GREAT WAR



EVANS, Mabel Louise - Sister, Territorial Force Nursing Service

London Gazette 22 January 1917: For conspicuous bravery under fire on No.27 Ambulance Train. On the night of the 10th November 1916, the train was carrying a load of 450 sick and wounded and entered Amiens as an aeroplane attack began, which lasted an hour, and during which the Anti-Aircraft guns were in hot action. Five bombs fell in the immediate neighbourhood of the train causing damage, and some patients to be thrown out of their cots. The Commanding Officer reports that this Sister, carrying a hand lamp, went about her work coolly and collectedly and cheerfully and that by her magnificent conduct she not only allayed alarm among the helpless patients and those suffering from shell shock but caused both patients and personnel to play up to the standards which she set.

http://www.scarletfinders.co.uk/121.html
Account of that night on No.27 Ambulance Train here: http://www.scarletfinders.co.uk/129.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2011 23:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The First World War Diary of Bdr Charles Bertram Spires (1917-1918)

22nd January 1918 - Fritz objects to us signalling from the hill top so gives us three rounds.

http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/tedspires/Diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2011 0:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Seattle General Strike, 1919

The Shipyard Strike

The Seattle General Strike grew out of a shipyard strike that began on January 21, 1919. In that strike, 35,000 union members, most of them affiliated with the Metal Trades Council, walked out of Seattle shipyards that were still bustling with wartime prosperity: World War I had just ended. The strike was aimed as much at the federal government's Emergency Fleet Corporation, which coordinated wartime shipbuilding, as at the private shipyard owners themselves.

As the shipyard strike began, Seattle's Central Labor Council of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) debated launching a general strike in solidarity with the shipyard unions. Ironically, the Labor Council held the key vote during a January 22, 1919, meeting while many prominent -- and moderate -- labor leaders happened to be in Chicago discussing the possibility of a nationwide general strike to protest the imprisonment of Tom Mooney. Mooney, a fellow AFL leader from San Francisco, was serving a life term for murder based on what labor leaders believed was perjured testimony. At the Seattle meeting, the remaining, more radical leaders voted to poll the various locals for a strike authorization in support of the shipyard workers.

http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=861
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2014 9:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vassar Miscellany, Volume XLIV, Number 4, 22 January 1915

Even beginnen met een krantje en een kop koffie...
http://newspaperarchives.vassar.edu/cgi-bin/vassar?a=d&d=miscellany19150122-01.1.1&e=-------en-20--1--txt-IN-------
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2014 11:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Winston Churchill to the Duke of Marlborough, January 22, 1916

Although the duties of a battalion commander in the Sixth Royal Scots Fusiliers took up most of his time, Churchill continued to give careful thought to British domestic politics as well as the overall course of the war. This letter displays his disgust with the policies of his former colleagues. The Germans, Churchill believed, had managed to fool British leaders into dispersing their forces even as they lured them into breaking "our teeth on their tremendous defensive lines in the West & in Russia."

Transcript:

22.1.16 6TH ROYAL SCOTS FUSILIERS

IN THE FIELD

My dear Sunny,

Your letter was very welcome, and will I hope be repeated. I must write to old Morley. He responds to attention, but he c'd not reasonably expect me to oppose the war of leave the gov't on its declaration. "My propensities were all the other way."

I have been commanding this battalion for the last 3 weeks, & now in a few days I shall take them into the line. I have paid a couple of visits to the trenches & they are the best & most comfortable I have seen, in what is now a large & varied (examination?) of the front. They are dry, well supplied with dugouts, good communications, good wire, & minor conveniences. Our battalion H.Q. will be in a farm about 500 yards from the front line. Few of the buildings in this area are much knocked about but this farm has been hit a good many times & is a target. This is the blemish on an otherwise harmonious scheme. When we go into ‘rest' we only retire about 1500 yards, and so we shall dwell for the next few months continually within range of the enemy's artillery, field as well as heavy. Things are however fairly quiet at present on this sector; tho' no doubt we shall stir them up a bit. We shall not be far away from that wood in which you used to take an interest in the early days of the war. The battalion is one of the 9th (Scottish) division which fought heroically at Loos, storming the German trenches with a loss of 6000 men out of about 9000 engaged. It is in consequence shattered & only 2 officers who were present in the battle are still on duty. I have no regular officers (except Archie Suielaei/Swilaei?) who I brought with me & made 2nd in command) & hardly an officer over 25 years. The average must be about 231/2. I have 1g 2nd Lieuts. Re. these circ's. you will realise that my task is not an easy one, & that a very great deal of labor & responsibility will fall on me when we are actually in contact with the enemy. The battalion has improved since I came & the utmost loyalty & wish to do right characterizes everybody, & I am hopeful that we shall get in all right. But think what the professional soldiers will have said 2 years ago of a battalion so composed & efficient.

I watch politics as through a reversed field glass. L.G. seems after all his manoeuvres to be quite isolated & kept in control. He was foolish to throw me over for together we were a power. Asquith flourishes like the green bay tree, & everything looks like holding together for some time to come. Meanwhile so far as I understand it the policy continues to be unwise. We are locking up a large army at Salonika whose only rôle seems to be to make enemies of the Greeks & to prevent the Turks & Bulgars from falling out. We are locking up another large army in Egypt, which K[itchener] and EG [Edward Grey] have got on the brain. The German game is a clear one. They should continue to frighten us at both places with the expectation of an attack & do their utmost to push large Turkish forces to Mesopotamia & Persia & rouse the East against us. Meanwhile they should invite us to break our teeth on their tremendous defensive lines in the West & in Russia. There is every reason to believe they will take this extremely obvious & disagreeable course, & that we shall continue to do at each stage exactly what they wish & need us to do. However I am not going to let myself be fretted by events I cannot control & of which my news may at any moment be cut off.

With every good wish,

Your affectionate cousin

W.

P.S. How lucky Cornelia is with her children. Chelmsford was as an extraordinary choice. But I daresay he will do it very well.

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/churchill/interactive/_html/wc0070.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Jan 2014 11:05, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2014 11:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1st King's (Liverpool Regiment )

Deduced casualties, determined from other sources:

11836 A/Cpl William Richardson, 23, a native of Saffron Walden, died of wounds on 22 January 1916. He is buried in Bethune Town Cemetery.

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-1kings.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2014 11:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Spectator Archives, 22 JANUARY 1916, Page 2

We have the greatest respect for Quakers, but we are bound to say that this does seem to be pushing the tenderness of con- science very far indeed. During his speech, in which he described the extreme Quaker position, and while he was declaring that he would not resist the conscription of all his worldly possessions, Mr. Harvey was met with the interjection : " What would you do if a German took your wife 1 " That probably seemed to Mr. Harvey a rude and irrelevant question, but after all it is a substantial one. If no wrong, however great, is to be resisted, are you not actually tempting men to indulge their vilest passions ? If the Quaker argument were pushed as far as Mr. Harvey pushes it, you would very soon reach the point that you must not punish wrongdoing, or at any rate must only preach against it.

http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/22nd-january-1916/2/we-have-the-greatest-respect-for-quakers-but-we-ar
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2014 11:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 January 1916 - 10th Essex

Battalion relieved in trenches by 6th Rl. Berks Regt. order of relief 1. Counter Attack coy 2. Left Front Coy 3. Right Front Coy 4. Reserve Cot. All movements (in and out of trenches) done via Berkshire Avenue; Relief completed at 12.55pm.

Battalion passed into Brigade Reserve in Albert.

Billets clean and good.

Fighting strength. Officers 34 Other ranks 920.


A casualty return in the war diary listed one casualty for this day: 15497 Pte J Ray- wounded.

http://alihollington.typepad.com/historic_battlefields/2011/01/22-january-1916-10th-essex.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2014 11:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Os Ridiculos, Wednesday 22 January 1916

Portugese cartoon... http://www.cphrc.org/index.php/docsimages/imcartoons/144-1916-01-22-you-have-to-go-in-force
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Jan 2014 11:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anderson, William McDougall: A Farmhouse Kitchen, France, 22nd January 1916

Beschrijving: The interior of a farmhouse kitchen. A woman sorts through a laundry basket watched by a soldier smoking a pipe and wearing jodhpurs. A small child sits at a table playing with a cigar box, and a dog sits under the table.

Afbeelding op http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/283
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2014 9:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 January 1918: Infanterist Viktor Voplakal, K K Inf-Rgt Nr 21.

A 'private employee' in Oukrov, Bohemia, Viktor was born on 12 August 1883. After being recalled into service in late 1914, he spent the war fighting on the Russian and Italian Fronts before dying of wounds at Sternthal, Steiermark, Slovenia on 22 January 1918. Viktor's grave location is unknown.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/2843-22-january-1918-infanterist-viktor-voplakal.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jan 2015 9:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die militärischen Ereignisse vom 15. bis 22. Januar 1917

Kaart! http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/en/europeana/record/9200299/BibliographicResource_3000073872785_source
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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