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German WWI Heavy Artillery 1914.

 
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Tandorini



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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2009 20:17    Onderwerp: German WWI Heavy Artillery 1914. Reageer met quote







The use of stereoscopic binoculars at an observation post of the Prussian Guard heavy artillery. Each German battery had a six-horse ‘observation wagon’, and the seven-man battery commander’s staff included observers and telephonists for the relay of data. ‘Observed’ fire was the norm in 1914: ‘predicted’ or map fire techniques were in their infancy, but developed rapidly after 1914.

The most common weapon was either a 15cm heavy field howitzer (schwere Feld Haubitze, or s.F.H.) or 21cm mortar (Mörser, or Mrs.).

There were four variants of the s.F.H.:

s.F.H. (the oldest): 10.8 caliber barrel and 6,616 yard range

s.F.H. ’02: 12 caliber barrel and 8,147 yard range

s.F.H. ’13: 14 caliber barrel and 9,296 yard range (improved ’02)

lg. 15cm s.F.H. ’13: 17 caliber barrel and 9,296 yard range

The mortar (about 25% of the arm’s total weapons) came in three variants:

21cm Mrs. [1902 variant]: 10 caliber barrel and 8,968 yard range

Mrs. [1910 variant]: 10,288 yard range

Lg. 21cm Mrs. [long-barreled variant]: 11,155 yard range

The arm also used some guns, principally 10cm and 15cm cannon (Kanone, or K.):

10cm K.04:[1] 11,264 yard range

13.5 cm Kanone 09

15cm Ring Kanone [R.K.]: 23 caliber barrel, 8,649 yard range

lg. 15cm K.: 30 caliber barrel, 10,936 yard range

15cm S.K.[2] L/30: 30 caliber barrel, 13,233 yard range

15cm S.K. L/40: 40 caliber barrel, 20,451 yard range

Heavier weapons were comparatively rare. These included two versions of 28cm Mrs., one for field use and the other a coastal defence weapon. There were several weapons in the 30.5cm category. Two were coastal defence weapons (10,000 yard range) and three field weapons. One was a 30.5cm 1911 Austrian weapon, with a 10,000 yard range and 838lb shell (used against the Liege forts). A small number of a similar weapon were produced in Germany; only 20 of those were produced in total, so even fewer would have been available in 1914. The largest weapon was the a 42cm “short naval gun” (Kz.Mar.K.) with an 18,000 yard range.

A long-ranged weapon (29,200 yards) was the 17cm S.K. L/40, which came in a variety of mounts: wheeled carriage, flat railway carriage, as a true railway gun (17cm. K.Eis.),[3] or a fixed mounting. Two larger naval guns, the 21cm S.K. L/45 Eis. And the 24cm S.K. L/40 Eis., only existed as railway guns in the field, although the latter could be found as well on a fixed platform. The two heaviest weapons were the 35.6cm S.K. L/52 (50,300 yard range) mainly used for coastal defence (although one was emplaced near Lille during the war) and the 38cm S.K. L/45 (46,000 yard range), also mounted in a concrete pit.

The field battalions, at least, were large units, with 1,219 personnel in the heavy howitzer battalion and 835 in the mortar battalion. A battalion with the 10-cm gun would have another 27 personnel in each battery, or about 108 more in each battalion. The heavy howitzer battalion (16 howitzers) had 707 horses and 56 ammunition wagons; the mortar battalion (8 mortars) had 515 horses and 24 ammunition wagons.

The active regiments (including the Lehr regiment) totaled 50 battalions, of which 34 ˝ were allotted to the field army and 15 ˝ designated for fortresses and coast defence.[4]The Army also had 5 heavy coastal mortar batteries (30.5cm, 2 guns each) and 3 naval gun batteries (42cm) available for field duty. [5]

The 24 active regiments were supplemented with 22 reserve foot artillery regiments (Guard, 1 – 11, 13 – 18, 20, and 1 – 3 Bavarian) and three separate reserve battalions (possibly only formed on mobilization: 12, 19 and 6 Bavarian). Initially, at least, one 10cm gun battalion was assigned to the field army and the rest to fortresses. Gradually, the regular and reserve units shifted to the front and new Landwehr and Landsturm Foot Artillery battalions assumed fortress duty.[6]

The battalion was the basic tactical unit of the Foot Artillery, and regimental staffs in the field became army level headquarters units; those left in fortresses may have retained a tactical role.

[1] Earlier variants were the 10cm K. and 10cm K.97; the latter presumably introduced about 1897.

[2] Seekannone, or naval gun.

[3]Eisenbahn: railway.

[4]Cron is not completely consistent in how he discusses heavy artillery, since he also notes that the field army had 26 heavy howitzer battalions, 14 mortar battalions, and a 10cm gun battalion, along with a Reserve 10cm gun battalion. From his narrative it appears that the original Garde-Fußartillerie-Regiment was numbered as 1 and the Lehr regiment formed a 2.Garde-Fußartillerie-Regiment for field service.

[5]Each type of battery was simply numbered in sequence, beginning with 1. One more 42cm and two more 30.5cm batteries were formed during 1914.

[6] The Landwehr formed 24 foot artillery battalions in August 1914: 1 and 2Guard, 1-11, 13-20 and 1-3 Bavarian).
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2009 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wat is je bron voor dit artikel, Tandorini?
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Tandorini



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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2009 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Percy Toplis @ 18 Mei 2009 21:41 schreef:
Wat is je bron voor dit artikel, Tandorini?


http://warandgame.wordpress.com/
_________________
"Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae"
"Van hen(de Galliërs) allemaal zijn de Belgen de dappersten"
Julius Caesar(100 VC - 44 VC)
http://nl.escertico.wikia.com/wiki/Militaria_Wiki
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 14326
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Mei 2009 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tandorini @ 18 Mei 2009 21:46 schreef:
Percy Toplis @ 18 Mei 2009 21:41 schreef:
Wat is je bron voor dit artikel, Tandorini?

http://warandgame.wordpress.com/

Dank je!
Leuke site trouwens.
Groet,
P.
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