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3 september

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Sep 2006 9:57    Onderwerp: 3 september Reageer met quote

3 september 1914
Paris, 3. Septbr. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Präsident Poincaré und die Regierung richteten folgenden Aufruf an das Land:

Franzosen!

Seit mehreren Tagen stellen erbitterte Kämpfe unsere heldenhaften Truppen und die feindliche Armee auf die Probe. Die Tapferkeit unserer Soldaten hat ihnen an mehreren Punkten bemerkenswerte Vorteile eingetragen, dagegen hat uns im Norden der Vorstoß der deutschen Streitkräfte zum Rückzuge gezwungen. Diese Lage nötigt den Präsidenten der Republik und die Regierung zu einem schmerzlichen Entschlusse. Um über das Heil der Nation zu wachen, haben die Behörden die Pflicht, sich zeitweilig von Paris zu entfernen. Indessen wird der hervorragende Oberbefehlshaber der französischen Armee voll Mut und Begeisterung die Hauptstadt und ihre Bevölkerung gegen den Eindringling verteidigen. Aber der Krieg soll gleichzeitig im übrigen Lande weitergeführt werden; ohne die Furcht, nachzulassen, ohne Aufschub oder Schwäche wird der heilige Kampf für die Ehre der Nation und die Sühne des verletzten Rechtes weitergehen. Keine unserer Armeen ist in ihrem Bestände erschüttert. Wenn einige von ihnen bemerkenswerte Verluste erlitten haben, so sind die Lücken sofort von den Depots aus wieder aufgefüllt worden. Der Aufruf von Rekruten sichert neue Quellen an Menschenenergie.
Widerstand und Kampf, das soll die Parole der verbündeten englischen, russischen, belgischen und französischen Heere sein. Widerstand und Kampf, während die Engländer uns zur See helfen. die Verbindungen unserer Feinde mit der Welt abzuschneiden. Widerstand und Kampf, während die russischen Armeen weiter vorrücken, um den entscheidenden Stoß in das Herz des Deutschen Reiches zu führen. Es ist die Aufgabe der republikanischen Regierung, diesen hartnäckigen Widerstand zu leiten. Überall werden sich zum Schutze der Unabhängigkeit Frankreichs die Länder erheben, um diesem furchtbaren Kampfe seine ganzen Kräfte und seine Wirksamkeit zu verleihen.
Es ist unumgänglich notwendig, daß die Regierung freie Hand zum Handeln behält. Auf Wunsch der Militärbehörden verlegt die Regierung daher für den Augenblick ihren Aufenthalt nach einem Punkt Frankreichs, wo sie in ununterbrochener Verbindung mit der Gesamtheit des Landes bleiben kann. Sie fordert die Mitglieder des Parlamentes auf, sich nicht fern von ihr zu halten, um gegenüber dem Feinde zusammen mit der Regierung und ihren Kollegen den Sammelpunkt der nationalen Einheit zu bilden. Die Regierung verläßt Paris erst, nachdem sie die Verteidigung der Stadt und des befestigten Lagers durch alle in ihrer Macht stehenden Mittel sichergestellt hat. Sie weiß, daß sie es nicht nötig hat, der bewunderungswürdigen Pariser Bevölkerung Ruhe, Entschlußkraft und Kaltblütigkeit zu empfehlen. Die Bevölkerung von Paris zeigt jeden Tag, daß sie den größten Pflichten gewachsen ist.
Franzosen! Zeigen wir uns dieser tragischen Umstände würdig. Wir werden den endlichen Sieg erringen, wir werden ihn erringen durch den unermüdlichen Willen zum Widerstande und zur Beharrlichkeit. Eine Nation, die nicht untergehen will, die, um zu leben, weder vor Leiden noch vor Opfern zurückschreckt, ist sicher zu siegen.

Der Aufruf ist von Poincaré und sämtlichen Ministern
unterzeichnet. 2)


Der Kaiser bei den Truppen

Großes Hauptquartier, 1. Septbr.
Am Sedan-Tage trafen sich der Kaiser und der Kronprinz bei Sorbey (Südöstlich von Longuyon). Der Kaiser fuhr dann im Kraftwagen weiter zum Königs-Grenadier-Regiment Nr. 7, dessen Kommandeur Prinz Oskar ist; dort hielt er eine Ansprache, die mit Hurra und der Nationalhymne endete, während die Sonne golden unterging und die Kanonen von Verdun herüberdröhnten. 2)

us Antwerpen

London, 3. Septbr. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Reuter meldet aus Antwerpen unterm 2. September: Ein Zeppelin, der heute früh kurz vor 4 Uhr Antwerpen überflogen hat, ist ziemlich scharf beschossen worden. Gleichwohl hat er es vermocht, mehrere Bomben abzuwerfen. Zehn Häuser sind schwer beschädigt worden. Fünf Bomben sollen auf eine Viehweide gefallen sein. 2)


Die Kämpfe im Südosten

Österreichisches Kriegspressequartier, 3. September.
Die Kämpfe vor Lemberg beweisen nicht nur meisterhafte einheitliche Kampfführung, sondern auch die hervorragende Disziplin und den hohen inneren Wert der dort engagierten österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen, da es sich mehrmals darum handelte, wegen der enormen Schwierigkeiten die Kämpfe gegen den übermächtigen Gegner in Ordnung abzubrechen, also den Gegner genügend zu schwächen, ohne eine Niederlage zu erleiden. Alle mir begegnenden Offiziere und Mannschaften aus der Front berichten übereinstimmend über ausgezeichnete Stimmung, Ordnung in der Verpflegung und Munitionsversorgung. Die Schwierigkeit liegt nur in der enormen Übermacht der Russen, bei denen bereits Reserveformationen im Kampfe sind und daher stets frische Kräfte heranrücken. Trotzdem beschränken sich die österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen keineswegs auf reine Verteidigung, sondern führen fortgesetzt Offensivstöße aus.
Die lange Dauer des Ringens der Westarmee um den schließlichen großen Sieg ist erklärlich aus den verzweifelten Kämpfen des in starken Stellungen gewesenen russischen Gegners, dann aus den Marschschwierigkeiten (tiefer Sand und Moräste). Die Umfassung der russischen Truppen und ihrer Reserven, die immer wieder eingriffen, bedingte stets neue zu erkämpfende Siege, bis schließlich der große Enderfolg kam. Die bisher Gefangenen werden auf dreißigtausend geschätzt, die Zahl der erbeuteten Geschütze auf zweihundertzehn, wozu Massen von Maschinengewehren kommen. Die österreichischen Verluste an Geschützen und Gefangenen sind minimal. Die sonstigen Verluste sind schätzungsweise geringer, als man befürchtete. Die sanitären Verhältnisse sind sehr befriedigend.
Man ist guten Mutes, die strategische Situation ist günstig. 2)


Das Seegefecht in der Nordsee

3. September.
Die genauen Berichte über das Seegefecht bei Helgoland, bei dem der Verlust einiger kleiner Kreuzer und eines Torpedobootes zu beklagen war, lassen erkennen, daß auch die englischen Schiffe beträchtlichen Schaden erlitten haben. Das Zugeständnis in englischen Berichten, daß eines ihrer Schiffe stark zerschossen worden ist, läßt den Schluß zu, daß dieses Schiff so ziemlich gefechtsunfähig geworden ist. Da sie verschweigen, um welches Schiff es sich handelt, liegt die Vermutung nahe, daß es einer der großen Panzerkreuzer war. In diesem Fall haben sie nicht den geringsten Anlaß, von einem Erfolg zu sprechen, denn ein solcher Panzerkreuzer hat etwa die zwei- bis dreifache Gefechtsstärke der zerstörten deutschen Schiffe zusammengenommen. Zudem werden die von englischer Seite zugegebenen schweren Beschädigungen sich wohl nicht auf dieses eine Schiff beschränkt haben. Zieht man in Betracht, daß die englische Flotte mit einer ungeheuren Übermacht gegen die wenigen deutschen Vorpostenschiffe kämpfte, die an sich gar nicht zu einem solchen Kampf gegen Panzerkreuzer bestimmt sind, so ist der Verlauf dieses Gefechts für die deutsche Marine höchst ruhmreich gewesen. Denn einige wenige kleine Kreuzer, worunter einer der kleinsten und ältesten, und ein Torpedoboot, hatten sich mit zwei modernen Panzerkreuzern, zwei leichten Kreuzern und 40 Torpedojägern und einem Unterseeboote, also unter mehr als zehnfacher Übermacht, zu messen. Sie haben diesen ungleichmäßigen und aussichtslosen Kampf mutvoll bis zum Ende durchgeführt und dem Gegner einen Schaden zugefügt, der offenbar von diesem recht schwer empfunden wird. Danach kann man mit vollem Vertrauen einer von gleichwertigen Schiffen durchgeführten großen Seeschlacht entgegensehen, auch wenn dabei das zahlenmäßige Übergewicht auf englischer Seite ist. Von der Besatzung der gesunkenen deutschen Schiffe sind etwa 400 Mann gerettet worden. 2)


Der neue Papst

Rom, 3. Septbr. (W. B.)
Die "Agenzia Stefani" meldet:
Kardinal della Chiesa wurde zum Papste gewählt. 2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im September 1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Sep 2006 13:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914: Pope Benedict XV named to papacy

On September 3, 1914, barely a month after the outbreak of World War I, Giacomo della Chiesa is elected to the papacy of the Roman Catholic Church, becoming Pope Benedict XV.

An aristocratic native of Genoa, Italy, who had served as a cardinal since the previous May, Benedict succeeded Pius X, who died on August 20, 1914. He was elected by a constituency made up of cardinals from countries on both sides of the battle lines, because he professed strict neutrality in the conflict. Calling the Great War "the suicide of Europe," Benedict became an insistent voice for peace from the beginning of his reign, though his calls were roundly ignored by the belligerent powers.

After proposing the idea of a general Christmas truce in 1914 without success—although some pauses in the fighting did occur spontaneously in various places along the Western Front that Christmas, initiated by the soldiers—Benedict began to lose influence even within Italy as that nation readied itself to join the war effort. In the months preceding Italy’s declaration of war on Austria-Hungary in May 1915, Benedict’s steady urging for peace was seen as interfering with the national will to fight. In the Treaty of London, which set the conditions for Italy’s participation in the war, the Allies agreed with Italy that any peace overtures from the Vatican to the Central Powers should be ignored.

On August 1, 1917, Benedict issued a seven-point peace proposal addressed to "the heads of the belligerent peoples." In it, he expressed the need for a cessation of hostilities, general reduction of armaments, freedom of the seas and international arbitration of any territorial questions among the warring nations. The proposal was widely rejected by all the warring powers, which were by this point dedicated to an absolute victory and would not consider compromise. To make matters worse, both sides saw the Vatican as prejudiced in favor of the other and refused to accept the pope’s terms. This situation continued in the immediate post-armistice period, when despite its entreaties to be involved in the determination of the peace settlement, Benedict’s Vatican was excluded from the Paris Peace Conference, held at Versailles in 1919.

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Sep 2006 13:57    Onderwerp: Re: 3 september Reageer met quote

Yvonne @ 03 Sep 2006 10:57 schreef:
3 september 1914
Paris, 3. Septbr. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Präsident Poincaré und die Regierung richteten folgenden Aufruf an das Land


Voor het gemak hier ook de Engelse versie van deze tekst:

Quote:
The Abandonment of Paris and the Withdrawal of the French Government to Bordeaux - The Government Proclamation

September 3rd

PEOPLE OF FRANCE!

For several weeks relentless battles have engaged our heroic troops and the army of the enemy. The valour of our soldiers has won for them, at several points, marked advantages; but in the north the pressure of the German forces has compelled us to fall back.

This situation has compelled the President of the Republic and the Government to take a painful decision.

In order to watch over the national welfare, it is the duty of the public powers to remove themselves, temporarily from the city of Paris.

Under the command of an eminent Chief, a French Army, full of courage and zeal, will defend the capital and its patriotic population against the invader.

But the war must be carried on at the same time on the rest of its territory.

Without peace or truce, without cessation or faltering, the struggle for the honour of the nation and the reparation of violated rights must continue.

None of our armies is impaired. If some of them have sustained very considerable losses, the gaps have immediately been filled tip from the reserves, and the appeal for recruits assures us of new reserves in men and energy tomorrow.

Endure and fight! Such must be the motto of the Allied British, Russian, Belgian, and French armies.

Endure and fight, while at sea the British aid us, cutting the communication of our enemy with the world.

Endure and fight, while the Russians continue to advance to strike the decisive blow at the heart of the German Empire.

It is the duty of the Government of the Republic to direct this stubborn resistance.

Everywhere Frenchmen will rise for their independence; but, to insure the utmost spirit and efficacy in the formidable fight, it is indispensable that the Government shall remain free to act.

At the request of the military authorities, the Government is therefore temporarily transferring its headquarters to a place where it can remain in constant touch with the whole of the country.

It requests members of Parliament not to remain away from it, in order that they may form, with their colleagues, a bond of national unity.

The Government leaves Paris only after having assured the defence of the city and of the entrenched camp by every means in its power.

It knows that it does not need to recommend to the admirable population of Paris that calm, resolution, and coolness which it is showing every day, and which is on a level with its highest traditions.

People of France, let us all be worthy of these tragic circumstances. We shall gain the final victory; we shall gain it by unflagging will, endurance, and tenacity.

A nation which refuses to perish, and which, in order to live, does not flinch either from suffering or sacrifice, is sure of victory.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. II, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923

Bron: First World War.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Rava Ruska, 3-11 September 1914 (Poland)

Russian victory over the Austrians during their abortive invasion of Russian Poland. Russian General Plehve in command of the Fifth Army found himself facing a forty mile gap in the Austrian line between the Austrian First and Fourth armies. He advanced into it, and was able to attack the Austrians from the flank and rear around Rava Ruska. General Franz Conrad, the Austrian chief of staff, ordered a general retreat, which soon got out of hand. By the time the Austrians managed to stop the retreat, they had already fallen back over one hundred miles, and lost 350,000 men. The defeat forced the Germans to move troops from the Prussian front to stop a potential Austrian collapse.

Rickard, J. (23 February 2001), Battle of Rava Ruska, 3-11 September 1914, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ravaruska.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Benedict XV, 3 September 1914 — 22 January 1922

Cardinal Giacomo della Chiesa, the Genoan aristocrat, had a somewhat checkered career in the church. His rise to prominence during the pontificate of Leo XIII was rapid. Had it not been for the Austrian veto against Leo’s Secretary of State, Cardinal Rampolla, there is little doubt that had Rampolla become pope, Benedict’s rise would have continued. He was Undersecretary of State to Cardinal Merry del Val. But the atmosphere of suspicion and internal spying which characterized the Papacy during Pius X’s era touched della Chiesa.

His vocal comparisons of the leadership of Leo XIII and Pius X, in which the latter was cast in an inferior mold, disquieted Pius X who, in 1907, evicted him from the Roman Curia and demoted him, assigning him as Archbishop of Bologna. That see, however, was of such a stature that its Archbishop could expect a rapid rise to the conferment of a cardinal’s hat. But Archbishop della Chiesa waited seven years and only received it in the same year he was elected pope. Born November 21, 1854, he was fifty-nine at the date of his election as pope.

Whether or not motivated by spite, emanating from his transfer out of the Curia to a diocese as an Archbishop, he dismissed Cardinal Merry del Val as Secretary of State and appointed Cardinal Pietro Gasparri who fifteen years later was to have the honor of signing the Lateran Treaty which restored sovereignty to the Vatican on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church.

One matter which served the Church well was his dismantling of the Sodalitium Pianum (Solidarity of Pius), the spy network which Pius X had established and fostered. It breathed fresh air into the Papacy. Pius X had placed Umberto Benigni as his spy chief. He worked in the mornings in the Department of Extraordinary Affairs, while in the afternoon and at weekends he led the espionage work from his private apartment. His agents avidly reported on the activities of modernists and Benigni used this intelligence-gathering to destroy the careers of those thought to be holding views contrary to those of Pius. Having a media background he harnessed the press to promote his anti-modernist campaign.

Benedict XV promptly dismissed Benigni upon his acceptance of the Bishopric of the See of Rome. Benigni must have been a man of unusual skills in the art of espionage, for the future Fascist Dictator of Italy, Benito Mussolini, was only too happy to acquire his services in this area of expertise. He was no doubt suited to the task, for he had publicly denounced cardinals, including the archbishops of Paris and Vienna, and he was particularly harsh in his denunciations of theologians and Roman Catholic academics whose views were deemed to be of the modernist variety.

While Benedict had scope for a far greater revolution in Vatican affairs, he declined to pursue other needed change. In fact he continued the requirement of the Anti-Modernist Oath for the priests. There was no relaxation of the right of the Papacy to censor the writings of the clerics, if judged appropriate, and he supported the completion of the reorganized canon law which greatly enhanced his own position as the final arbiter of faith and morals.

As had become a tradition of Papal policy, Benedict attempted to take a noncommittal stand during the First World War. Once more it was an unpopular "neutrality." The Axis powers accused him of being pro-Allies. The Allies, on the other hand, viewed him as partial to the Axis cause.

Benedict XV failed utterly as a peacemaker in the Great War, largely due to the fact that neither set of belligerents trusted him and that, in any case, the thirst for victory was so great that the nations in conflict were prepared to waste the lives of the young manhood of the nation in order to pursue their lust for victory. Russell once met the niece of the British Commander-in-chief, Field Marshal Douglas Haig, whose statue astride a horse was erected in Whitehall. He had been created an Earl of the realm for the ultimate success of the Allied cause. His niece was, quite understandably, enormously proud of her uncle. Yet like other war-time leaders he appeared to take little care in minimizing casualties. Benedict’s peacemaking was delayed to 1917 and it came too late. He was excluded from the deliberations of the Treaty of Versailles and his efforts to encourage American President Woodrow Wilson to set reasonable terms for Germany utterly failed.

De Rosa (Vicars of Christ, p. 376) described Benedict as an intellectual lightweight who "did little to help the church face up to the modern world." What he did do was to prove more satisfying to the modernists amongst the Catholic intellectuals. When the Roman Catholic Abbé Bremond was inducted into the Académie Française in 1924 he stated that he had lived under four pointiffs—Pius IX, Leo XIII, Benedict XV and Pius XI. His omission of Pius X from his list was undoubtedly an intended slight to the deceased pope. By this omission he intended to silently register his distaste for Pius X’s Sodalitium Pianum which condemned and effectively punished the propagation of a new theology in the Roman Catholic Church. Bremond’s inclusion of Benedict XV in his list indicated a level of appreciation of his greater range of tolerance.

In his relatively brief pontificate, more than half of which coincided with the Great War, Benedict was ever fearful of Russia with its hordes of Eastern Orthodox adherents. He decided to do nothing which would extend Russian influence. Since Russia, until the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, was an ally of Britain and France, Benedict was wary of promoting the Allied cause. However, he was not devoid of ecumenical ambitions. In 1919 he warmly welcomed Eastern Rite Catholics, loyal to the Pope, in the hope that this would encourage Eastern Orthodox followers to return to communion with Rome. With this aim in mind he supported Archbishop Andrzej Szeptycki, Metropolitan of Galicia, a Pole of the Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church, who was opposed by Latin Rite Catholics in Poland. Similarly motivated he founded the Pontifical Institute for Oriental Studies in 1917.

Perhaps it was this limited venture into ecumenism, which was later to have success beyond his immediate ambitions, that contributed just a little to the healing of the deadly wound. In fact, unlike his seven predecessors since the infliction of the deadly wound, Benedict contributed little to the return of the Papacy to its prophesied role. Perhaps the least that can be stated is that he did not, as had some, foster circumstances which seriously set back the healing process.

Benedict XV’s untimely death at sixty-seven years of age was the result of infection by the influenza virus which caused twenty million deaths worldwide.

http://www.sundaylaw.net/books/other/standish/twobeasts/tb40.htm
Zie ook http://www.another-view-on-history.de/2008/09/03/benedikt-xv-wahl-zum-papst-3-september-1914/
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Sep 2010 16:14, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Marne

(...) A French offensive in Lorraine prompted German counter-attacks that threw the French back onto a fortified barrier. Their defence strengthened, they could send troops to reinforce their left flank - a redistribution of strength that would prove vital in the Battle of the Marne. The German northern wing was weakened further by the removal of 11 divisions to fight in Belgium and East Prussia. The German 1st Army, under Kluck, then swung north of Paris, rather than south west, as intended. This required them to pass into the valley of the River Marne across the Paris defences, exposing them to a flank attack and a possible counter-envelopment.

On 3 September, Joffre ordered a halt to the French retreat and three days later his reinforced left flank began a general offensive. Kluck was forced to halt his advance prematurely in order to support his flank: he was still no further up the Marne Valley than Meaux. (...)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/battle_marne.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

3 September, 1914 - Official Proclamation Concerning the Abandonment of Paris

The members of the Government of the Republic have left Paris, to give a fresh impulse to national defense.


I have been intrusted with the task of defending Paris against the invader. That task I will fulfill to the end.

GALLIENI, Commandant of the Army of Paris.

http://www.gwpda.org/1914/parisbye.html

Joseph Gallieni

Joseph Simon Gallieni (24 April 1849 - 27 May 1916) was a French soldier, most active as a military commander and administrator in the French colonies and finished his career during the First World War. He was made Marshal of France posthumously in 1921. Historians such as Georges Blond, Basil Liddell Hart, and Henri Isselin credit Gallieni with being the guiding intelligence behind the French victory in the First Battle of the Marne in 1914. (...)

Retiring from the army in April 1914, Gallieni was recalled in August to assist in the defence of Paris prior to the First Battle of the Marne. Joffre, wary of Gallieni's influence and reputation, marginalised Gallieni's role to an extent. Joffre kept him at arm's length from headquarters, although it is widely believed that Gallieni's energy and foresight was what saved Paris from the Germans. While credit for the successful defense of Paris was largely assigned to Joffre, the fact that some believed Gallieni had actually won the battle once prompted Joffre to remark famously, "Je ne sais pas qui l'a gagnée, mais je sais bien qui l'aurait perdue." (I do not know who won it [the battle], but I know well who would have lost it.").[1]

Gallieni saw an opportunity to attack when the German First Army turned east in early September, sending the Sixth Army to strike its flank, and subsequently rushing reserves to the front by commandeered taxis in response to German counter-attacks. Upon seeing the "taxicab army" ferrying troops to the front, Gallieni made one of the most oft-quoted remarks of the First World War: "Eh bien, voilà au moins qui n'est pas banal!" ("Well, here at least is something out of the ordinary!"). The actual effects of the "taxicab army" on the French victory at the Marne may have been more modest than the myth.

Gallieni subsequently served as Minister of War in October 1915 before retiring, again citing ill-health in March 1916; his relationship with Joffre had proved a quarrelsome one, particularly over the tactics used at Verdun. The strain of high office having broken his already fragile health, Joseph Gallieni died in May 1916. He was posthumously made Marshal of France, in 1921.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Gallieni
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German 5th Army - Battle by Varennes-Montsaucon, 2-3 September 1914

http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/914GIAD.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LVIV / LWOW / LVOV / LEMBERG

At the outbreak of WW I, Lviv was flooded with thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing the barbarities of the Cossacks. The Russians took the city on 3rd September 1914 after the Austrians withdrew. About 16.000 Jews succeeded in fleeing. The 40,000 who remained were subjected to severe abuse, with 40 killed over the alleged shooting of a Russian solider and some taken hostage and exiled on the Russian withdrawal in May 1915. With the collapse of the Habsburg Empire at the end of WW I, Lviv was temporary proclaimed capital of the independent Republic of West Ukraine. In November 1918 the troops of the re-emergent Poland seized the city, and Lviv returned to Polish rule until the Red Army took control in September, 1939.

http://www.jewish-guide.pl/sites/33
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Twee maanden oorlog - Wat er in Asse van augustus tot eind september 1914 voorviel
Jaak Ockeley

De 1ste september ging deken Leyten naar Bekkerzeel om er voor te gaan bij de begrafenis van pastoor Vanneygen. Langs de Poel te Walfergem kwam hij er zonder hinder aan. Omtrent 11.30 u., na de dienst, was gans Bekkerzeel bezet met Duitsers zodat de deken slechts met een vrijgeleidebrief van de majoor naar Asse kon terugkeren. Daar de bevelhebber verbod had opgelegd het centrum te verlaten verkreeg de deken na lang aandringen ook voor de onderpastoors en de koster voor 14 dagen een "sauf-conduit" zodat zij de laatste sacramenten kon gaan toedienen.

Op 3 september werden de kerktorens van Mazenzele, Mollem en Bollebeek "afgeschoten" door de Duitsers. Dieudonné preciseert dat er gaten in de bedakking van de kertorens werden gemaakt om er "kijkgaten" in te maken.

In de nacht van 3 op 4 september arriveerden opnieuw een 30.000 Duitse soldaten in Asse en omgeving. Julie Van Beneden zegt dat het "de plunderaars van Leuven" waren en Dieudonné schrijft dat de Assenaren die dag niet vlug zullen vergeten. De staf nam hier verblijf. Zij plaatsen de telefoon op de kerktoren. Luiden en kleppen werd voortaan verboden. In de Wijndruif logeerden een luitenant, twee onderofficieren en 15 soldaten en hun paarden.

http://www.ascania.be/ascaoorlog02.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd Lt Arthur Douglas Richardson: ‘Forgotten' Officer of the 10th West Yorkshire Regiment

(...) When war broke out in August 1914, Arthur Douglas Richardson was a qualified Electrical and Mechanical Engineer with three years practical and managerial experience. On 3 September 1914, aged 28 years and 1 month, he enlisted in the 19th (Service) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers, which was recruiting at Westminster.

Surviving records held in The National Archives (TNA) at Kew show that Richardson had joined the army with the rank of Private. He was issued the number 3568 and sent to Epsom to begin his training with ‘A' Company of the 2nd Battalion, Royal Fusiliers. His service papers prove revealing in other ways and offer some insight into the real person and man. Standing at 5 feet 9.5 inches, and weighing just over 11 stone, Richardson is described as having a ‘ruddy' complexion, and with a chest measuring almost 40 inches when fully expanded; his development was clearly enhanced by a good diet and nutrition. His background and education also ensured that he was not to stay in the ranks for long, and six days after enlisting Richardson was recommended for a Temporary Commission. Stating a preference for the West Yorkshire Regiment, Richardson was subsequently interviewed and passed fit for military service at York, and discharged to commission two months later. He had served a total of 57 days with the Royal Fusiliers, and he joined the 10th West Yorkshire Regiment at Wareham in Dorset as a Temporary Second Lieutenant on 29 October 1914. (...)

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/brothers-arms/1055-2nd-lt-arthur-douglas-richardson-forgotten-officer-10th-west-yorkshire-regiment.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 2 September, on the Southwest Front, the Russian 8th Army was moving from south to north on Lemberg, which was taken the following day, while the 3rd Army attacked from the east and north. The Russians were victorious at the Battle of Lemberg. The Austro-Hungarians lost 130,000 men, their units being driven back in full retreat.

From 2-17 September, the Russian 3rd and 8th Armies carried out an advance of over 160 kilometers, taking Stryj on the 4th, Mikuliczyn on the 8th, Krasnik and Rava Russka on the 10th.

On 3 September, in the Baltic Sea, the Russians began fortifying the Aaland Islands and Moon Sound, stationing torpedo boats and submarines in those areas, while simultaneously increasing the guard on the critical Irben Straits.

http://warchron.com/lemberg.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nusret Minelayer

For the Turkish side, Nusret is the symbol of the Wars of Dardanelles. With its twenty-six mines, it stopped the Allied Fleet, puzzled the allied commanders, boosted the morels of the Turkish soldiers, and brought joy to the Turkish nation.

After the wars have ended, the heroic story of Nusret became a legend. Today, it took its place in books of legends. "The night of 17 March" in the most of the records, the venture of Nusret begins. Although the date is incorrect, to emphasise the dramatic sides the mission it achieved, this date is commonly mentioned. In fact, venture of Nusret begins beforehand, with its arrival to the strait on 3 September 1914.

Lees verder op http://www.canakkale.gen.tr/eng/closer/closer4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gezinsreconstructies Mechelen - Achtergrondverhalen

1914 - Marie Lauwers vindt de buit van de Duitse invallers te Hombeek

Marie Lauwers was meid bij juffrouw Moyson, en met andere dorpsbewoners van Hombeek op de vlucht geslagen voor de naderende Duitse troepen bij het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Aan de vlucht gingen enkele afgrijswekkende gebeurtenissen vooraf waarover in Hombeek druk werd gesproken. Eerder, eind augustus, werd al slag geleverd te Zemst en te Hofstade. Daar werden huizen in brand gestoken, en naar verluid werd de smid in zijn huis opgesloten en levend verbrand. Mensen waren er op de vlucht geslagen naar Klein-Willebroek. Sommigen kwamen via Antwerpen in Nederland terecht.

Op 3 september 1914 werden in de Zenne bij Hombeek drie lijken gevonden van soldaten van de 2e Linie. Vermoedelijk waren ze verdronken tijdens de slag te Eppegem of te Weerde. Twee lijken werden begraven op de dijk terwijl het Duitse geschut hevig bulderde. Het derde lijk moest men laten liggen omdat het geschut zo hevig was. Het was 's anderdaags afgedreven met de vloed. Een week later, op 10 september, vond met in de voormiddag nog een soldaat van het 2e Linie. De secretaris van Hombeek, die elke morgen van Willebroek terugkeerde, stelde met sluiswachter Staf Smets vast dat de ogen waren uitgestoken en dat er een koord in de mond zat die aan het achterhoofd was toegesnoerd. De Duitsers waren daarna voor een korte tijd teruggedrongen tot Brussel.

http://www.laurentii.be/GRMechelenverhalen.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Military Dental Services in New South Wales

The following is from an unpublished manuscript written by Colonel J. W. Skinner, ED, MDS, FACDS, entitled "The Military Dental Services in New South Wales," written in the 1950s. It deals with the history of the dental services of New South Wales during the 1914-1918 war.

By 21 September it was reported that 72 dentists had offered their services for dental treatment of volunteers and that should the authorities not agree to the suggestion to send a dentist with each ship, the authorities had agreed to send dental materials in hope that one of the volunteers would be a dentist. At the Dental Association of NSW meeting on 3rd. September 1914 the President, Dr Maxwell Allan received Capt. Chard, 4th. Battalion 1st. Brigade who thanked members for their Voluntary efforts on the troops stating he had put 1,200 men up for treatment. Captain Chard presented an illuminated address to the association from the officers and staff of the 4th Battalion and mentioned that consideration had been given by the Colonel to one or two applications for commissions by dentists.

http://www.vlib.us/medical/dental.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilbur Taylor Dartnell

William Thomas Dartnell VC (6 April 1885 – 3 September 1915) (enlisted as Wilbur Taylor Dartnell) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Dartnell was born in Melbourne, Australia. After marrying Elizabeth Smyth, he moved to South Africa, where he was living at the outbreak of the First World War. He enlisted in the Royal Fusiliers and was shipped to British East Africa. On 3 September 1915, whilst his company were being evacuated, he stayed behind in an attempt to save the lives of the wounded. (...)

Shortly after the victory at Bukoba, the battalion moved to Voi in preparation for an allied advance towards German East Africa. Two companies were dispatched by rail to Maktau, a small village in the lee of the Taita Hills. Thirty-five miles from Voi, it was the railhead of the military railway then under construction towards Taveta. On 3 September 1915, his mounted infantry patrol was ambushed.

"On 3 September 1915, near Maktau, Kenya, during a mounted infantry engagement, the enemy were so close that it was impossible to get the more severely wounded away. Lieutenant Dartnell, who was himself being carried away wounded in the leg, seeing the situation, and knowing that the enemy's black troops murdered the wounded, insisted on being left behind, in the hope of being able to save the lives of other wounded men. He gave his own life in a gallant attempt to save others."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilbur_Taylor_Dartnell
Zie ook http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/29414/supplements/12797
Zie ook http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A080235b.htm
Zie ook http://www.frontiersmenhistorian.info/fusiliers.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

3 September 1915 - The body of Major-General Sir William Throsby Bridges, commander of the 1st Australian Division, who died of wounds received on Gallipoli on 15 May 1915, was buried in the grounds of the Royal Military College, Duntroon, Canberra. Bridges was the first commandant of Duntroon and he was the only Australian soldier who died overseas in the two world wars whose body was returned to home during the course of the war.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/september-october-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Guillemont, 1916

A subsidiary attack of the Somme Offensive, and launched at midday on 3 September 1916 under the protection of a creeping barrage (of 25 yards per minute) as part of a wider attack, the Battle of Guillemont was primarily intended to distract German attention away from the Romanian front where the Romanians were coming under increasing pressure, although the capture of Guillemont had been repeatedly attempted (and failed) earlier in July and August.

With its maze of underground tunnels, dugouts and concrete emplacements, Guillemont was a veritable fortress and an unquestionably tough nut to crack, as evidenced by the earlier failures of the British attacks during the previous two months.

The 3 September attack finally saw Guillemont fall to the British. Other targets during the wider attack, such as High Wood and the Schwaben Redoubt, remained however firmly in German hands. On the banks of the Somme the French succeeded in taking both villages of Clery and Omiecourt.

The attack continued until 6 September, with the British capturing Leuze Wood on 4-5 September (referred to as 'Lousy Wood' by the troops), some three miles east of the 1 July front line. The French meanwhile captured a further village, Bouchavesnes, on 4 September.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/guillemont.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff

Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff assumed the post of the Imperial German Navy's Chief of the Admiral Staff on 3 September 1915. Kaiser Wilhelm II had relieved Holtzendorff's predecessor, Admiral Gustav von Bachmann, and his deputy, Admiral Paul Behncke, of their posts over a dispute on the conduct of the U-boat war. In the wake of the Lustiania and Arabic incidents the Kaiser and his government had unequivocally adopted a moderate position that subordinated military considerations to political ones--primarily with a view to avoid American belligerence. Holtzendorff's appointment was intended to preserve the fiction of imperial control over naval policy, which had in fact largely passed to the State Secretary of the Imperial Naval Office, Grand-Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz. The State Secretary, however, quickly converted Holtzendorff to his view, and the appointment thus did nothing to bolster the Kaiser's standing within the naval leadership nor did it end the controversial and politically harmful public debate over the indiscriminate use of U-boats.

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/holtzendorffmemo.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 16:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mucky Farm 1916

(...) On 3 September 1916 the Australian troops were given their final chance to take the farm. 4th Division AIF had been reinforced by 1 Canadian Brigade, but it was to be the Australian's own 13 Brigade that would make their attack on the farm.

At 05:10 hours 49th Battalion began their assault on the trench systems to the far right of the farm whilst the 51st Battalion assaulted the farm itself with 52nd battalion between them covering the Fabeck Graben.

The 49th made good progress in the face of stiff opposition linking up with the 52nd who had managed to get up past the farm as the 51st clawed their way into the pile of rubble that Mouquet Farm had become.

Unfortunately a counter attack by the Germans at 08:00 hours was pressed home under the cover of a heavy barrage and the Australians were forced out of the farm and many of the captured trenches. The leading units of the 51st Battalion were never seen again.

The Canadians were pushed into the line to halt the Germans and the Allied front line was secured on the right to include part of the gains made by the 49th Battalion. (...)

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_mouquet.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edward Dwyer

Corporal Edward Dwyer VC (25 November 1895 – 3 September 1916) was a British soldier during World War I and English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award of the British Commonwealth for gallantry "in the face of the enemy". (...)

He was 19 years old, and a Private in the 1st Battalion, East Surrey Regiment, British Army during World War I, and was awarded the VC for his actions on 20 April 1915 at Hill 60, Belgium.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty at "Hill 60" on the 20th April, 1915. When his trench was heavily attacked by German grenade throwers he climbed on to the parapet, and, although subjected to a hail of bombs at close quarters, succeeded in dispersing the enemy by the effective use of his hand grenades. Private Dwyer displayed great gallantry earlier on this day in leaving his trench, under heavy shell fire, to bandage his wounded comrades.
—London Gazette, 21 May 1915

Dwyer was also awarded the Cross of St. George (Russia). He later achieved the rank of Corporal. He was killed in action, Guillemont, France, on 3 September 1916. Grave/memorial at Grave at Flatiron Copse Military Cemetery, France. 4 miles E. of Albert (Plot III, Row J, Grave 3)

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Princess of Wales' Royal Regiment (Queens and Royal Hampshires) (Dover Castle, England).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Dwyer
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pozières

3 September, 1916 - Last attack by Australians on Pozières. Total losses for the 6 week period :

1st Division = 7,000
2nd Division = 8,100
4th Division = 7,100

http://www.anzacsinfrance.com/1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Athy Heritage Centre-Museum

World War 1

Welcome to the Athy Heritage Centre-Museum's World War 1 page. This page is a comprehensive guide to World War 1 in Athy with information on all of County Kildare, Ireland including local newspaper reports and a list of men from County Kildare who were killled during the war. Through this site we hope to give some idea of how the Great War impacted on Ireland.

During the Great War more than 2,000 men from Athy and district joined the British Army. Many were former soldiers, others joined to escape the poverty of Irish urban life or were young men caught up in the excitement of the time who enlisted for adventure and the opportunity to travel.

In 1914, a recruitment office was opened in Leinster Street. Recruiting in Athy was extremely heavy in the last three months of 1914 and while it eased off considerably in 1915, the Leinster Leader of 3rd June reported that: "the last official figures obtainable about recruiting in Athy showed that 1600 men from it and its environs had joined the colours."

A nun from the local convent of Mercy had noted that men: "every other day came to the convent before their departure to beg for sacred heart scapulars to take away with them. Few of these poor fellows ever saw home again." A local committee formed by Lady Weldon of Kilmoroney House collected funds to improve the comfort of the Athy soldiers. The local golf club put on entertainment for the benefit of convalescing troops. Athy technical School manufactured splints, bedrests, bed tray tables and crutches as part of the Irish War Hospitals Supply Depot Scheme.

An Athy man was awarded the highest British Army award, the Victoria Cross, for valour during World War One. John Vincent Holland, son of a local veterinary surgeon volunteered in 1914 after spending some time in Argentina as a railway engineer. An officer in the 7th Battalion of the Leinster Regiment, he took part in the Battle of the Somme. The 7th Battalion attacked the German trenches some 300 yards north of the village of Guillemont. Their swift attack took the Germans by surprise and wiped them out in their trenches. The bombers fearlessly led by Holland advanced and cleared a greater part of the occupied village. In the attack, Holland lost 21 of his 26 men and captured 50 German soldiers. The London Gazette noted that: "By this very gallant action he (Holland) undoubtedly broke the spirit of the enemy and thus saved us many casualties when the Battalion made a further advance."

The award of the Victoria Cross to Holland was marked by special meetings of the Athy Urban District Council and Kildare County Council to register their appreciation of the honour bestowed on him. A public subscription was taken up in the county and a presentation was made to Holland on the occasion of his marriage on 17th January 1917. He later emigrated to Australia and died in 1978 at the age of 89 years in Tasmania.

"For most conspicuous bravery, during a heavy engagement, when not content with bombing hostile dug-outs within the objective, he fearlessly led his bombers through our own artillery barrage and cleared a part of the village in front. He started out with 26 bombers and finished up with only five, after capturing some fifty prisoners. By this very gallant action he undoubtedly broke the spirit of the enemy, and saved us many casualties when the battalion made a further advance. He was far from well at the time, and later had to go to hospital." 3rd September 1916

It was not long before the news of the first deaths in the trenches of France and Flanders reached Athy. Patrick Heydon, a private in the Irish Guards, was the first Athy man killed during the Great War. He died in France on 4th September 1914 when the war was just one week old. Eddie Stafford died on 24th September 1914 followed by his brother Tommy on 6th September 1916. Brothers Joe and Anthony Byrne were killed within two days of each other in 1915. The Kelly family of Meeting Lane lost their sons John and Owen who had enlisted in the Leinster regiment on the same day in May 1915. Their younger brother Denis was killed on 30th September 1918. The Curtis family of Kilcrow also lost three sons, Patrick, John and Laurence. When the war ended on 11th November 1918, 102 men from Athy town and 82 from the surrounding countryside had lost their lives.

http://www.athyheritagecentre-museum.ie/worldwar1/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WORCESTERSHIRE AND SHERWOOD FORESTERS REGIMENT - VICTORIA CROSS WINNERS

Lieutenant William Leefe Robinson VC Worcestershire Regiment attached to Royal Flying Corps. On a patrol over Cuffley, Hertfordshire 2/3 September 1916 engaged in night flying in the defence of London. After he had been in the air over two hours and had attacked one airship he attacked a Zeppelin in particularly difficult and dangerous circumstances sending it down in flames - the first destruction of an airship in England.

London Gazette 5 September 1916

http://www.wfrmuseum.org.uk/vcwinners.htm
Zie ook http://www.rafhornchurch.thehumanjourney.net/History/Zeplinbusters.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Adamson Act

Adamson Act, enacted on 3 September 1916 at President Woodrow Wilson's behest in response to a pending strike by the major brotherhoods of railway workers. It established an eight-hour day for interstate railway workers and time and a half for overtime. The railroads challenged the law before the Supreme Court, claiming that it raised wages rather than regulated hours. In March 1917, impatient with the Court's inaction, the brotherhoods demanded immediate institution of the eight-hour day and scheduled a strike. Wilson again intervened, postponing the strike and then securing from the railroads a promise to grant the eight-hour day regardless of the Court's decision. One day after the settlement was announced, the Court upheld the law in Wilson v. New, 243 U.S. 332 (1917).

http://www.answers.com/topic/adamson-act
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oskar von Hutier

General Oskar von Hutier (1857-1934) served as a boldly effective field commander during World War One and was renowned for his efficient use of so-called infiltration tactics. (...)

In January 1917 Hutier was assigned to command of Army Section 'D' on the Duna River south of Riga, preparatory to being handed command of Eighth Army three months later. It was while commanding Eighth Army that Hutier established the reputation upon which his fame is based.

On 3 September 1917 Hutier's forces captured Riga while demonstrating the German army's new infiltration tactics. Although Hutier played no role in the development of such tactics (which were based upon British and French tactics) his prominent and wide scale use of them caused the British to dub them 'Hutier tactics' - the name remained. On 6 September Hutier was awarded the prestigious Pour le Merite for his successful efforts.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/hutier.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mont St Quentin, Second Australian Division Memorial

On 30 August 1925, after unveiling the 2nd Division memorial at Mont St Quentin, Marshal Foch and his entourage proceeded a short distance down the road to the Péronne Communal Cemetery Extension. Here lie the remains of 512 Australian soldiers, many of whom died in the capture of Péronne by the 5th Australian Division between 1 and 3 September 1918. Foch placed a wreath on one of the wooden crosses where an Australian soldier lay buried for the cemetery had not yet received its permanent headstones.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/mont-st-quentin/peronne.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Robert Lansing on the Creation of a Czech State, 3 September 1918

Reproduced below is the text of U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing's official statement formally recognising Tomas Masaryk as the prospective head of a post-war Czech state.

Robert Lansing on U.S. Recognition of Czecho-Slovak National Council as a de facto Belligerent Government, 3 September 1918

The Czecho-Slovak peoples having taken up arms against the German and Austro-Hungarian empires, and having placed in the field organized armies, which are waging war against those empires under officers of their own nationality and in accordance with the rules and practices of civilized nations, and Czecho-Slovaks having in the prosecution of their independence in the present war confided the supreme political authority to the Czecho-Slovak National Council, the Government of the United States recognizes that a state of belligerency exists between the Czecho-Slovaks thus organized and the German and Austro-Hungarian empires.

It also recognizes the Czecho-Slovak National Council as a de facto belligerent government, clothed with proper authority to direct the military and political affairs of the Czecho-Slovaks.

The Government of the United States further declares that it is prepared to enter formally into relations with the de facto government thus recognized for the purpose of prosecuting the war against the common enemy, the empires of Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/czechstate_lansing.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 17:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

80th anniversay of the Russian Revolution - Beware the Bolsheviks

How did the Bolsheviks go about 'securing' the revolution? Trotsky, as leader of the Red Army, reintroduced regular army discipline, not only including executions for desertion but also all the petty regulations like saluting that gave officers special positions. He abolished election of officers, writing "the elective basis is politically pointless and technically inexpedient and has already been set aside by decree".

The White Terror was responded to with collective punishments, categorical punishments, torture, hostage taking and random punishments. These were not just directed at known 'Whites' but also at their friends and families. On 3rd September 1918, the Bolshevik newspaper 'Ivestia' announced that over 500 hostages had been shot by the Petrograd Cheka, not because they had committed a crime but because they were unlucky enough to come from the wrong background.

Some will argue that this terror was legitimised by the White Terror. But by April of 1918 the terror was to be used against political groups that supported the revolution but opposed Bolshevik rule. Over two days in April 1918, 40 anarchists were killed or wounded and around 500 put in prison in a series of attacks in Moscow and Petrograd.

http://flag.blackened.net/revolt/ws98/ws53_bolshevik.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GENERAL OF THE ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES
AND
GENERAL OF THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES


The terms "General of the Armies of the United States" and "General of the Army of the United States" are commissioned officer grades of the Army of the United States.

Prior to 14 December 1944 there were, since the formation of the United States, but four Generals of the Army or of the Armies of the United States (both phrases being held to mean the same thing): Generals Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, and Pershing. (...)

The office of general was again revived in 1919 by the title of "General of the Armies of the United States" when General John J. Pershing was appointed to that office on 3 September 1919; accepted the appointment on 8 September 1919, was retired with that rank on 13 September 1924, and held it until his death on 15 July 1948. No other officer has occupied this office. General Pershing held the grade of General of the Armies of the United States under the provisions of the Act of Congress of 3 September 1919, (Public Law 45) which is quoted as follows:

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the office of General of the Armies of the United States is hereby revived, and the President is hereby authorized, in his discretion and by and with the consent of the Senate to appoint to said office a general officer of the Army who, on foreign soil and during the recent war, has been especially distinguished in the higher command of military forces of the United States: and the officer appointed under the foregoing authorization shall have the pay prescribed by section 24 of the Act of Congress, approved July 15, 1870, and such allowances as the President shall deem appropriate; and any provisions of the existing law that would enable any other officer of the Army to take rank and precedence over said officer is hereby repealed: Provided, that no more than one appointment to office shall be made under the terms of this Act."

http://usmilitary.about.com/library/milinfo/armyorank/blgoa.htm
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_military_leaders_by_rank
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Sep 2010 20:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Three Scarborough trawlers sunk by mines in 1920

Most trawlers were sunk by U-Boats in World War I after their crews were allowed to leave. Some fishermen were on board several sunken trawlers during the war. Very few died. Fishermen would rather come up against a German U-Boat than a German mine. Having said that - the only Scarborough trawler to be sunk in the war by a mine was the Condor in June 1915. This went down with all hands lost. After the war the German submarines of course stopped their campaign but the mines hung around for years afterwards. In 1919 the Filey drifter "The Emulator" was sunk with all hands on board. 1920 proved to be a terrible year for Scarborough trawlers. Three were sunken by German mines. (...)

Jack Johnson : The month of September saw another Scarborough vessel sunk by a mine. The Jack Johnson was one of Scarboroughs largest trawlers skippered by Mr James Walker. It left Scarborough and was destroyed thirteen hours after it left port on the 3rd September,1920. Another Scarborough vessel, the Stratherrick, was fishing in the vicinity and heard an explosion. They came home and enquired about the "Jack Johnson". It was a large trawler and was not overdue. It could stay out all week. But Scarborough was extremely anxious. Then anxiety gave way to gloom as the vessel did not return.

The trawlers crew was :
- James Walker, Skipper, 152 Longwestgate.
- James Megginson,mate.
- F Crosby, third hand.
- GH Cappleman,first engineer.
- I Taylor,second engineer.
- A Nightingale,fireman.
- J Pye, cook.
- H Trotter, deck hand.
- E Eves, deck hand.
- E Matson, deck hand.

Skipper James Walker, was highly associated with the vessels of James Johnson. He was on the Seal when it was sunk by U-Boats. He was also on board the Merrie Islington when the U-Boats sank that. He also encountered a shot down zeppelin which "narrowly missed his vessel". He was later presented a Gold watch for his wartime services by James Johnson. Other crewmen had wartime experience. TH Cappleman served as an engineer on two boats sunken by U-Boats. The cook, J Pye was also on board the Seal with James Walker.

http://www.scarboroughsmaritimeheritage.org.uk/amines.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Sep 2011 8:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SEPTEMBER 3, 1914

Paris.
==The Paris Bourse closes
==Gallieni publicly proclaims that he will defend Paris “to the end.”
==Gallieni learns that the German Army is turning away from Paris [morning] and he makes plans to attack its exposed flank, conferring with his Chief of Staff [830.PM]

The Far Northwestern Front.
==At Senlis, near Paris, French composer Magnard is killed in his burning house after shooting two German cavalrymen
==German cavalry reaches Ecouen, only eight miles from Paris

The Northwestern Front.
==A French Cavalry Corps is organized to protect the left flank of the French 5th Army, exposed by the rapid retreat of the BEF
==The main bodies of the BEF and 5th Army retreat over the Marne [afternoon]
==Joffre sacks the overwhelmed Lanrezac [late afternoon], replacing him with the tough, energetic d’Esperey as 5th Army commander - d’Esperey tells a reluctant corps commander “There is to be no more discussion. You will march; march or drop dead.”
==Kluck’s German 1st Army reaches the Marne [evening]
==Rheims is abandoned by the French as an open city and is occupied by Bülow’s 2nd Army

Lorraine.
==Rupprecht’s German 6th Army launches a renewed offensive on the Moselle in Lorraine


==> http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne04.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Sep 2018 13:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

3 september 1918 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Florent Colman is op 12 februari 1897 geboren in Temse. De ongehuwde zoon van Pierre en Elisa Pauwels treedt als oorlogsvrijwilliger in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

In de nacht van 2 op 3 september 1918 raakt hij in de sector Diksmuide per ongeluk door granaatscherven gekwetst en wordt geëvacueerd naar het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Hoogstade, dat gevestigd is in het Gasthuis Clep. Hij overlijdt daar kort na zijn aankomst om 1.50 uur 's nachts.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 6 september 1918 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Hoogstade, oorspronkelijk onder het grafnummer 1028. Nu rust hij daar onder het grafnummer 476.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/3-september-191
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Sep 2018 13:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

3 September 1918 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage: War Roll committee appeals for information

The names of men who have served and died in the present war are wanted. In newspaper adverts this week, the special committee established by the States is asking for the public to provide details of qualifying family members for permanent recording on the island’s roll of honour and service.

Established in April 1917, the committee’s task is to assemble the names of all men from Jersey who have been members of the armed forces since August 1914 and those who have died while serving. A question remains open whether this includes those serving and dying in the Mercantile Marine.

The list will go on to form an official record of the island’s wartime service and sacrifice, published following the war’s end to forever honour their names.

It has been a challenging responsibility given the numbers of men involved, the various services, ships, regiments and corps they have and are serving in and the theatres across the world in which that service has taken place. The committee, under its chairman Jurat Reginald Malet De Carteret, is therefore appealing for the public to help by coming forward with any relevant names and information.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/3-september-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Sep 2018 13:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914-1918: Ein rheinisches Tagebuch - Quellen aus Archiven des Rheinlands

Stadtarchiv Solingen, Bergische Arbeiterstimme 3. September 1918

Aus der Partei
Dem „Vorwärts“

ist der Geschäftsbericht des Sozialdemokratischen Volksvereins
arg in die Glieder gefahren. In seiner Freitagnummer end-
lich stammelt er etwas. Durch unsere Spaltungsarbeit hätten
wir die gute Organisation des Kreises zertrümmert, meint der
„Vorwärts“, trotzdem durch die nüchternen Feststellungen des
Berichts zu ersehen ist, daß die Haltung der früheren Partei-
mehrheit bei uns wie anderwärts die Schuld daran trug, daß
die Masse der Parteimitglieder davongelaufen war und jetzt
erst nach und nach zu uns kommt, trotzdem wir gar nicht
öffentlich agitieren. Die Abhängigen dagegen haben
eine Reihe Versammlungen abgehalten und die Gut-
mütigkeit unserer Genossen ließ sie ein volles Jahr lang sich im
lokalen Teil unseres Blattes tummeln, welche Gelegenheit sie
denn mit schätzenswertem Eifer benutzten. Viele Genossen
wurden auch dadurch vor den Kopf gestoßen und ließen ihre
Parteizugehörigkeit fahren. In dem halben Jahr, seit dieser
Zustand geändert ist, sind denn auch wieder 500 Genossen zur
Organisation zurückgekehrt, umgerechnet der 320 Genossen, die
eingezogen wurden. Rechnen wir die im Feld stehenden Ge-
nossen hinzu, so ist unsere Organisation wieder völlig intakt.
Und wie sieht es bei den Abhängigen aus? Sie begrüßten
zunächst eine Anzahl früher Ausgeschlossener wieder als Mit-
glieder, trotzdem es diesen gar nicht einfiel, sich bei den Ab-
hängigen aufnehmen zu lassen. Die Abhängigen bezeichnen sich
gern als die „alte Partei“, trotzdem diese nicht mehr existiert,
seitdem sie in zwei oder mehr Teile zerfiel. Nehmen wir aber
einen Augenblick an, sie seien die alte Partei, dann sind diese
Aufnahmen ungültig, denn nur der Parteitag kann Ausge-
schlossene wieder aufnehmen. Aber tatsächlich existieren diese
Aufnahmen nicht. Dann wurde das Personal unseres Partei-
geschäfts zum Teil „abhängig“, weil sie sich von den leitenden
Personen des Geschäfts, die zu den Abhängigen zählen, ab-
hängig glaubten. Ebenso ist es mit einem Teil des Personals
vom Konsumverein, dessen beamtete Leitung zu den Ab-
hängigen zählt. Dazu kommen noch die Familienmitglieder der
Abhängigen, die bisher unorganisiert waren und gleich sind
die „Erfolge“ der Abhängigen erklärt.
Nun zum Stand der Presse. Wir haben gar nichts ver-
schwiegen, sondern erklärt, daß wir 1200 Abonnenten mehr
haben, als die Elberfelder „Freie Presse“ Auflage druckt.
Unsere Solinger Stadtauflage ist um 1800 größer, als jene der
„Freien Presse“ in Elberfeld und Barmen. Solingen hat
50 000 Einwohner, Elberfeld-Barmen hat 360 000 Einwohner.
Sollen wir noch deutlicher werden?

https://archivewk1.hypotheses.org/59125
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