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24 juni

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2006 23:12    Onderwerp: 24 juni Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Der Dnjestr von der Armee Linsingen überschritten

Großes Hauptquartier, 24. Juni.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Am Osthang der Lorettohöhe warfen wir den Feind aus einem von ihm vor einigen Tagen eroberten Grabenstück. Südlich von Souchez wurden die Kämpfe für uns erfolgreich fortgesetzt.
Die Labyrinthstellung südlich von Neuville wurde gegen einen nachts einsetzenden starken Angriff im zähen Nahkampf gehalten.
Auf den Maashöhen kam es zu weiteren erbitterten Zusammenstößen, wir nahmen noch 150 Franzosen gefangen, der Feind erlitt bei zwei fehlgeschlagenen Angriffen starke Verluste.
Eine Unternehmung gegen die von uns gestern genommene Höhe bei Ban de Sapt wiesen wir ab, die Zahl der Gefangenen erhöhte sich um 50.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nordöstlich Kurschany ließen die Russen, bei einem von uns abgeschlagenen Angriff, über 100 Gefangene zurück.
Am Omulew führte ein deutscher Vorstoß zur Fortnahme des Dorfes Kopaczyska.
In Polen südlich der Weichsel wurden mehrere feindliche Angriffe zum Scheitern gebracht.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Armee des Generals v. Linsingen hat den Dnjestr überschritten; zwischen Halicz, das vom Feinde noch gehalten wird, und Zurawno steht sie in heftigem Kampf auf dem Nordufer; anschließend bis zur Gegend östlich von Lemberg und von Zolkiew wurde die Verfolgung fortgesetzt Zwischen Rawa-Ruska und dem San bei Ulanow hat sich nichts Wesentliches ereignet.
Im San-Weichsel-Winkel sind die Russen bis hinter den Sanabschnitt zurückgegangen; auch auf dem linken Weichselufer südlich von Ilza weichen sie nach Norden aus.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Ein russisches U-Boot vernichtet

Berlin, 24. Juni.
Am 22. Mai wurde in der Ostsee ein russisches Unterseeboot, anscheinend vom "Akula"-Typ, durch ein deutsches Flugzeug, 25 Seemeilen von Gotland, mit Bomben beworfen.
Der Erfolg konnte damals nicht festgestellt werden. Nunmehr wird von russischer Seite zugegeben, daß dieses Unterseeboot verloren gegangen ist. 1)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Russischer Rückzug zwischen Weichsel und San

Wien, 24. Juni.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die allgemeine Lage in Ostgalizien hat sich nicht geändert. Östlich und nordöstlich von Lemberg sind Kämpfe mit starken russischen Nachhuten im Gange.
Am oberen Dnjestr wurden Mikolajow und Zydaczow genommen. Flußabwärts letzterer Stadt sind die verbündeten Truppen unter heftigen Kämpfen an mehreren Stellen auf das nördliche Dnjestrufer vorgedrungen.
Zwischen Weichsel und San setzt der Feind den Rückzug fort. Nördlich der Weichsel wurden russische Nachhuten über die Kamienna zurückgeworfen. Ostrowiec und Sandomierz sind von unseren Truppen besetzt.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
An der Kärntner Grenze wurde beim Kl. Pal ein Angriff starker italienischer Truppen abgewiesen. Sonst fanden an dieser Grenze und an jener von Tirol nur Geschützkämpfe statt.
Im Krn-Gebiete herrscht Ruhe. Am Isonzo heftiger Geschützkampf. Angriffe der Italiener bei Gradiska und Monfalcone scheiterten.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)


Der torpedierte englische Panzerkreuzer

London, 24. Juni.
Das Reutersche Bureau meldet:
Der Panzerkreuzer "Roxburgh" ist am 20. Juni in der Nordsee von einem Torpedo getroffen, aber nicht ernstlich beschädigt worden. Das Schiff konnte unter eigenem Dampf seine Fahrt fortsetzen. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2006 23:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 24

1915 First operational flight of new German fighter plane

On June 24, 1915, young Oswald Boelcke, one of the earliest and best German fighter pilots of World War I, makes the first operational flight of the Fokker Eindecker plane.

The years of the First World War, 1914 to 1918, saw a staggering improvement not only in aircraft production, but also in technology, on both sides of the conflict. The war began just a decade after Orville and Wilbur Wright made their historic 12-second flight at Kittyhawk, Maryland; by 1918, fighter airplanes had been developed that could serve purposes of observation and reconnaissance, tactical and strategic bombing, direct attack on ground and air targets and use in naval warfare.

The Fokker Eindecker, a plane equipped first with one and eventually with two machine guns that could fire straight ahead through the aircraft’s propellers, would have a huge impact on air combat in the Great War and would put the Luftstreitkrafte, the German Air Service, far ahead of the Allied air forces for several months during the summer of 1915. The British referred to this as the Fokker Menace or the Fokker Scourge. The plane’s designer, Anton Fokker, had based the concept of synchronization, or the precise timing of the propeller blades to avoid being struck by the machine gun bullets, on an aircraft designed by France’s Morane-Saulnier corporation and flown by the famous French ace Roland Garros when he was shot down in April 1915 by the Germans. The Fokker Eindecker, or Fokker E, plane made German pilots like Boelcke and Max Immelmann into national heroes, as the number of their kills increased exponentially.

By the end of the summer of 1915, the Allies had managed to develop their own planes to rival the Fokkers, and balance was restored. Another German air menace reared its head in early 1917, though, as the new German Albatros planes decimated the British Royal Flying Corps in the skies over France. Soon, however, Allied aviation technology and production began to far outstrip the German efforts, as aerial combat became less a question of individual battles by heroic pilots than a matter of mass-production capability. In the last year of the war, Britain, France and the United States jointly produced an average of 11,200 aircraft and 14,500 engines per month, while their financially struggling German counterparts managed below 2,000 of each.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 24 JUNE 1915

NICKELLS, Private Rupert of Inglewood. In connection with the wounding of Pte Nickells at the Dardanelles, particulars received disclose an act of great heroism on the part of Pte LOONEY of Oaonui. It appears that Nickells was wounded at 6 o’clock in the morning and after lying in the trenches until 9 o’clock at night, he was carried to the rear under fire by Pte Looney. The latter received a shot in the stomach as he rose after laying his comrade down and was instantly killed.

WRAGGE, Private Clement Edgerton, Queensland portion of the Australian Expeditionary Forces, was killed in action at the Dardanelles. Eldest son of Mr Clement Wragge, the well known meteorologist who is at present residing in Auckland.

McNAB, Pte Cyril - Wellington Infantry Battalion, reported killed in action, formerly resided in Church St, Palmerston North, with his parents who now live in Motueka, Nelson. His brother Roy was killed in action a fortnight ago.

BROWN, Trooper H B - 4th Waikato Squadron, Auckland Mounted Rifles, who was reported on June 12 to have been killed in action, was a son of Mr F Barnard Brown of Westport. He was 27 yrs old. Educated at the Wanganui College, Tpr Brown was engaged in farming in the Whakatane district, Bay of Plenty, until the outbreak of the war. His grandfather, Captain HEWETT, was killed in the Maori war and his great-grandfather, Colonel HEWETT, was the last surviving Waterloo officer.

ROSS, L/Cpl Noel - his name was included in one of the first lists of wounded. Writing from Zeitoun on May 6, Cpl Rex HESKETH of Auckland, describes the soldier's injuries. "Noel ROSS is in hospital here, the poor fellow is paralysed from the body downwards. A shell burst beside him. Luckily he was not hit but the shock, which must have been terrific, knocked him out. I think he will be all right later on - they say so at the hospital." A letter was received by Mr George Grant of Gisborne, from Lance Corporal Ross, who is his nephew. Lance Corporal Ross is the only son of Mr Malcolm Ross, official correspondent with the NZEF. He also is a journalist and was on the staff of the Christchurch Sun when he joined the Canterbury Infantry Battalion.

Lees verder op http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn24jun1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Abercrombie (1915)

HMS Abercrombie was a First World War Royal Navy Abercrombie-class monitor. (...)

HMS Abercrombie sailed for the Dardanelles on 24 June 1915 and provided fire support during the Battle of Gallipoli.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Abercrombie_(1915)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

What Happened On April 24, 1915?: Case Study On The Circular Of 24 Apr 1915 & Arrest Of The Armenian Committee Members In Istanbul

Introduction - This article, after a short introduction, shall try to examine the arrest of Armenian committee members in Istanbul in accordance with the 24 April 1915 circular and the prosecutions about them, with reference to the Ottoman archives. .

Although the most powerful and influential Armenian political organization, the socialist Tasnaksutyun, which had also nationalist tendencies, officially took in its last congress in 1914 the decision to remain neutral during the war, a significant number of the Committee members, including certain influential Armenian MPs, left the Ottoman lands when the war broke out to join the voluntary troops formed by the Armenians in Russian territories. As expressed in the Ottoman official document (see Appendix I), the “Armenian committees have been working to accomplish autonomy for the Armenians by means of political and revolutionary societies” and they saw the War as an opportunity to materialise their goal; this eventually led them to cooperate with the Allied powers, primarily the Russians, against the Ottoman government.

At the outset of the War, the Ottoman government preferred to warn the leading Armenians with a view to appease them. For example, Talat Pasha warned Vartkes Efendi, the Erzurum representative, and prominent members of the Dashnak (Dashnaksutyun, Tashnak, Tashnag) committee while Enver Pasha talked to the Armenian Patriarch, both pointing out that the Ottoman government would have to take severe measures if the Armenians inclined towards revolutionary activities. Despite these warnings, Armenian representatives Vahan Papazyan and Karakin Pastırmacıyan moved to the Caucasus and fought against the Ottoman army, as did a number of Armenian volunteers. Like the two, many Armenian soldiers within the Ottoman army fled to join the volunteer Armenian troops in the Caucasia. The reports by German consulate include armed threat by the Armenian soldiers within the Ottoman army during the Caucasian campaign. Equally important, the Hunchak (Hinchak) chief Sabah Gulyan organized an assassination attempt against Talat Pasha that was prevented by the arrest of the conspirators in Istanbul in October 1914.

Lees verder op http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2008/09/2604-what-happened-on-april-24-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Somme, June-November 1916: Day of Infamy for the British Army

The massive preparatory bombardment, meant to destroy the German defences started on 24 June 1916 at 06.00. Over 1.7 million shells were fired but a high proportion, some 30 percent, failed to explode as the Ministry of Munitions had abandoned any semblance of quality control in order to be able to produce the quantities needed in time. Tunnelling companies dug hollowed out chambers underneath key German strongpoints and filled them with explosives. The shelling had started on 'U' Day and was meant to go on until 'Z' Day, which was 29 June 1916 but heavy rains caused the approach roads, trenches and crater ridden No-Man's land too muddy and so the assault was postponed until 1 July.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_somme.html

June 24, 1916

The Allies begin a week-long artillery bombardment of German defensive positions on the Somme River in northern France, in preparation for a major British-led offensive. Over 1.5 million shells are fired along a 15-mile front to pulverize the intricate German trench system and to blow apart rows of barbed wire protecting the trenches. British Commander Douglas Haig believes this will allow an unhindered infantry advance and a rapid breakthrough of the German Front on the first day of battle.

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1916.html
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Jun 2010 21:56, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British Report on the Battle of Jutland, 24 June 1916

Reproduced below is the official British report issued in the wake of the 31 May-1 June 1916 Battle of Jutland - up to that point arguably the greatest naval battle in history. The report's author was Sir John Jellicoe, British Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Fleet.

Although regarded by many as tactically a German victory - more damage was inflicted upon the British Grand Fleet than upon the German High Seas Fleet - strategically the victory belonged undeniably to the British. The German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, afraid of the dangers faced by his fleet, forbade them to engage the British in similar fashion for the remainder of the war.

Thus the German fleet remained in port while the British controlled to patrol freely, imposing an increasingly effective naval blockade upon Germany.

Sir John Jellicoe's Report on the Battle of Jutland, 31 May-1 June 1916

24 June, 1916

Sir,

Be pleased to inform the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that the German High Sea Fleet was brought to action on May 31, 1916, to the westward of the Jutland Bank, off the coast of Denmark.

The ships of the Grand Fleet, in pursuance of the general policy of periodical sweeps through the North Sea, had left its bases on the previous clay, in accordance with instructions issued by me.

In the early afternoon of Wednesday, May 3lst, the 1st and 2nd Battle-cruiser Squadrons, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Lightcruiser Squadrons and destroyers from the 1st, 9th, 10th and 13th Flotillas, supported by the 5th Battle Squadron, were, in accordance with my directions, scouting to the southward of the Battle Fleet, which was accompanied by the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron, 1st and 2nd Cruiser Squadrons, 4th Lightcruiser Squadron, 4th, 11th and 12th Flotillas.

The junction of the Battle Fleet with the scouting force after the enemy had been sighted was delayed owing to the southerly course steered by our advanced force during the first hour after commencing their action with the enemy battle-cruisers. This was, of course, unavoidable, as had our battle-cruisers not followed the enemy to the southward the main fleets would never have been in contact.

The Battle-cruiser Fleet, gallantly led by Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty, and admirably supported by the ships of the Fifth Battle Squadron under Rear-Admiral Hugh Evan-Thomas, fought an action under, at times, disadvantageous conditions, especially, in regard to light, in a manner that was in keeping with the best traditions of the service.

On receipt of the information that the enemy had been sighted, the British Battle Fleet, with its accompanying cruiser and destroyer force, proceeded at full speed on a S.E. by S. course to close the Battle-cruiser Fleet.

During the two hours that elapsed before the arrival of the Battle Fleet on the scene the steaming qualities of the older battleships were severely tested. Great credit is due to the engine-room departments for the manner in which they, as always, responded to the call, the whole Fleet maintaining a speed in excess of the trial speeds of some of the older vessels.

The Third Battle-cruiser Squadron, which was in advance of the Battle Fleet, was ordered to reinforce Sir David Beatty. At 5.30 p.m. this squadron observed flashes of gunfire and heard the sound of guns to the southwestward.

Rear-Admiral Hood sent the Chester to investigate, and this ship engaged three or four enemy light-cruisers at about 5.45 p.m. The engagement lasted for about twenty minutes, during which period Captain Lawson handled his vessel with great skill against heavy odds, and, although the ship suffered considerably in casualties, her fighting and steaming qualities were unimpaired, and at about 6.05 p.m. she rejoined the Third Battle-cruiser Squadron.

The Third Battle-cruiser Squadron had turned to the northwestward, and at 6.10 p.m. sighted our battle-cruisers, the squadron taking station ahead of the Lion at 6.21 p.m. in accordance with the orders of the Vice-Admiral Commanding Battle-cruiser Fleet.

Meanwhile, at 5.45 p.m., the report of guns had become audible to me, and at 5.55 p.m. flashes were visible from ahead round to the starboard beam, although in the mist no ships could be distinguished, and the position of the enemy's battle fleet could not be determined. The difference in estimated position by "reckoning" between Iron Duke and Lion, which was inevitable under the circumstances, added to the uncertainty of the general situation.

Shortly after 5.55 p.m. some of the cruisers ahead were seen to be in action, and reports received show that Defence, flagship, and Warrior, of the First Cruiser Squadron, engaged an enemy light-cruiser at this time. She was subsequently observed to sink.

At 6 p.m. Canterbury, which ship was in company with the Third Battle-cruiser Squadron, had engaged enemy light-cruisers which were firing heavily on the torpedo-boat destroyers Shark, Acasta and Christopher; as a result of this engagement the Shark was sunk.

At 6 p.m. vessels, afterwards seen to be our battlecruisers, were sighted by Marlborough bearing before the starboard beam of the battle fleet.

At the same time the Vice-Admiral Commanding Battle-cruiser Fleet, reported to me the position of the enemy battle-cruisers, and at 6.14 p.m. reported the position of the enemy battle fleet.

At this period, when the battle fleet was meeting the battlecruisers and the Fifth Battle Squadron, great care was necessary to insure that our own ships were not mistaken for enemy vessels.

I formed the battle fleet in line of battle on receipt of Sir David Beatty's report, and during deployment the fleets became engaged. Sir David Beatty had meanwhile formed the battle-cruisers ahead of the battle fleet.

At 6.16 p.m. Defence and Warrior were observed passing down between the British and German Battle Fleets under a very heavy fire. Defence disappeared, and Warrior passed to the rear disabled.

It is probable that Sir Robert Arbuthnot, during his engagement with the enemy's light-cruisers and in his desire to complete their destruction, was not aware of the approach of the enemy's heavy ships, owing to the mist, until he found himself in close proximity to the main fleet, and before he could withdraw his ships they were caught under a heavy fire and disabled.

It is not known when Black Prince, of the same squadron, was sunk, but a wireless signal was received from her between 8 and 9 p.m.

The First Battle Squadron became engaged during deployment, the Vice-Admiral opening fire at 6.17 p.m. on a battleship of the Kaiser class. The other Battle Squadrons, which had previously been firing at an enemy light-cruiser, opened fire at 6.30 p.m. on battleships of the Koenig class.

At 6.06 p.m. the Rear-Admiral Commanding Fifth Battle Squadron, then in company with the battle-cruisers, had sighted the starboard wing division of the battle fleet on the port bow of Barham, and the first intention of Rear-Admiral Evan-Thomas was to form ahead of the remainder of the battle fleet, but on realizing the direction of deployment he was compelled to form astern, a manoeuvre which was well executed by the squadron under a heavy fire from the enemy battle fleet.

An accident to Warspite's steering gear caused her helm to become jammed temporarily and took the ship in the direction of the enemy's line, during which time she was hit several times. Clever handling enabled Captain Edward M. Phillpotts to extricate his ship from a somewhat awkward situation.

Owing principally to the mist, but partly to the smoke, it was possible to see only a few ships at a time in the enemy's battle line. Towards the van only some four or five ships were ever visible at once. More could be seen from the rear squadron, but never more than eight to twelve.

The action between the battle fleets lasted intermittently from 6.17 p.m. to 8.20 p.m. at ranges between 9,000 and 12,000 yards, during which time the British Fleet made alterations of course from S.E. by E. to W. in the endeavour to close.

The enemy constantly turned away and opened the range under cover of destroyer attacks and smoke screens as the effect of the British fire was felt, and the alterations of course had the effect of bringing the British Fleet (which commenced the action in a position of advantage on the bow of the enemy) to a quarterly bearing from the enemy battle line, but at the same time placed us between the enemy and his bases.

At 6.55 p.m. Iron Duke passed the wreck of Invincible, with Badger standing by.

During the somewhat brief periods that the ships of the High Sea Fleet were visible through the mist, the heavy and effective fire kept up by the battleships and battle-cruisers of the Grand Fleet caused me much satisfaction, and the enemy vessels were seen to be constantly hit, some being observed to haul out of the line and at least one to sink.

The enemy's return fire at this period was not effective, and the damage caused to our ships was insignificant.

As was anticipated, the German Fleet appeared to rely very much on torpedo attacks, which were favoured by the low visibility and by the fact that we had arrived in the position of a "following" or "chasing" fleet.

A large number of torpedoes were apparently fired, but only one took effect (on Marlborough), and even in this case the ship was able to remain in the line and to continue the action. The enemy's efforts to keep out of effective gun range were aided by the weather conditions, which were ideal for the purpose. Two separate destroyer attacks were made by the enemy.

The First Battle Squadron, under Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil Burney, came into action at 6.17 p.m. with the enemy's Third Battle Squadron, at a range of about 11,000 yards, and administered severe punishment, both to the battleships and to the battle-cruisers and light-cruisers, which were also engaged.

The fire of Marlborough (Captain George P. Ross) was particularly rapid and effective. This ship commenced at 6.17 p.m. by firing seven salvoes at a ship of the Kaiser class, then engaged a cruiser, and again a battleship, and at 6.54 she was hit by a torpedo and took up a considerable list to starboard, but reopened at 7.03 p.m. at a cruiser and at 7.12 p.m. fired fourteen rapid salvoes at a ship of the Koenig class, hitting her frequently until she turned out of the line.

The manner in which this effective fire was kept up in spite of the disadvantages due to the injury caused by the torpedo was most creditable to the ship and a very fine example to the squadron.

The range decreased during the course of the action to 9,000 yards. The First Battle Squadron received more of the enemy's return fire than the remainder of the battle fleet, with the exception of the Fifth Battle Squadron. Colossus was hit but was not seriously damaged, and other ships were straddled with fair frequency.

In the Fourth Battle Squadron - in which squadron my flagship Iron Duke was placed - Vice-Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee leading one of the divisions - the enemy engaged was the squadron consisting of Koenig and Kaiser class and some of the battle-cruisers, as well as disabled cruisers and light-cruisers.

The mist rendered range-taking a difficult matter, but the fire of the squadron was effective. Iron Duke, having previously fired at a light-cruiser between the lines, opened fire at 6.30 p.m. on a battleship of the Koenig class at a range of 12,000 yards. The latter was very quickly straddled, and hitting commenced at the second salvo and only ceased when the target ship turned away.

The rapidity with which hitting was established was most creditable to the excellent gunnery organization of the flagship.

The fire of other ships of the squadron was principally directed at enemy battle-cruisers and cruisers as they appeared out of the mist. Hits were observed to take effect on several ships.

The ships of the Second Battle Squadron, under Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Jerram, were in action with vessels of the Kaiser or Koenig classes between 6.30 and 7.20 p.m., and fired also at an enemy battle-cruiser which had dropped back apparently severely damaged.

During the action between the battle fleets the Second Cruiser Squadron, ably commanded by Rear-Admiral Herbert L. Heath, with the addition of Duke of Edinburgh of the First Cruiser Squadron, occupied a position at the van, and acted as a connecting link between the battle fleet and the battle-cruiser fleet.

This squadron, although it carried out useful work, did not have an opportunity of coming into action.

The Fourth Light-cruiser Squadron, under Commodore Charles E. Le Mesurier, occupied a position in the van until ordered to attack enemy destroyers at 7.20 p.m., and again at 8.18 p.m., when they supported the Eleventh Flotilla, which had moved out under Commodore James R. P. Hawksley, to attack.

On each occasion the Fourth Light-cruiser Squadron was very well handled by Commodore Le Mesurier, his captains giving him excellent support, and their object was attained, although with some loss in the second attack, when the ships came under the heavy fire of the enemy battle fleet at between 6,500 and 8,000 yards.

The Calliope was hit several times, but did not sustain serious damage, although, I regret to say, she had several casualties. The light-cruisers attacked the enemy's battleships with torpedoes at this time, and an explosion on board a ship of the Kaiser class was seen at 8.40 p.m.

During these destroyer attacks four enemy torpedo-boat destroyers were sunk by the gunfire of battleships, lightcruisers and destroyers.

After the arrival of the British Battle Fleet the enemy's tactics were of a nature generally to avoid further action, in which they were favoured by the conditions of visibility.

At 9 p.m. the enemy was entirely out of sight, and the threat of torpedo-boat destroyer attacks during the rapidly approaching darkness made it necessary for me to dispose the fleet for the night, with a view to its safety from such attacks, whilst providing for a renewal of action at daylight.

I accordingly manoeuvred to remain between the enemy and his bases, placing our flotillas in a position in which they would afford protection to the fleet from destroyer attack, and at the same time be favourably situated for attacking the enemy's heavy ships.

During the night the British heavy ships were not attacked, but the Fourth, Eleventh and Twelfth Flotillas, under Commodore Hawksley and Captains Charles J. Wintour and Anselan J. B. Stirling, delivered a series of very gallant and successful attacks on the enemy, causing him heavy losses.

It was during these attacks that severe losses in the Fourth Flotilla occurred, including that of Tipperary, with the gallant leader of the Flotilla, Captain Wintour. He had brought his flotilla to a high pitch of perfection, and although suffering severely from the fire of the enemy, a heavy toll of enemy vessels was taken, and many gallant actions were performed by the flotilla.

Two torpedoes were seen to take effect on enemy vessels as the result of the attacks of the Fourth Flotilla, one being from Spitfire, and the other from either Ardent, Ambuscade or Garland.

The attack carried out by the Twelfth Flotilla (Captain Anselan J. B. Stirling) was admirably executed. The squadron attacked, which consisted of six large vessels, besides light-cruisers, and comprised vessels of the Kaiser class, was taken by surprise.

A large number of torpedoes was fired, including some at the second and third ships in the line; those fired at the third ship took effect, and she was observed to blow up. A second attack made twenty minutes later by Maenad on the five vessels still remaining, resulted in the fourth ship in the line being also hit.

The destroyers were under a heavy fire from the lightcruisers on reaching the rear of the line, but the Onslaught was the only vessel which received any material injuries.

During the attack carried out by the Eleventh Flotilla, Castor (Commodore James R. P. Hawksley) leading the flotilla, engaged and sank an enemy torpedo-boat destroyer at point-blank range.

There were many gallant deeds performed by the destroyer flotillas; they surpassed the very highest expectations that I had formed of them.

Apart from the proceedings of the flotillas, the Second Light-cruiser Squadron in the rear of the battle fleet was in close action for about 15 minutes at 10.20 p.m. with a squadron comprising one enemy cruiser and four light-cruisers, during which period Southampton and Dublin suffered rather heavy casualties, although their steaming and fighting qualities were not impaired. The return fire of the squadron appeared to be very effective.

Abdiel, ably commanded by Commander Berwick Curtis, carried out her duties with the success which has always characterized her work.

At daylight, June 1st, the battle fleet, being then to the southward and westward of the Horn Reef, turned. to the northward in search of enemy vessels and for the purpose of collecting our own cruisers and torpedo-boat destroyers.

At 2.30 a.m. Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil Burney transferred his flag from Marlborough to Revenge, as the former ship had some difficulty in keeping up the speed of the squadron. Marlborough was detached by my direction to a base, successfully driving off an enemy submarine attack en route.

The visibility early on June 1st (three to four miles) was less than on May 31st, and the torpedo-boat destroyers, being out of visual touch, did not rejoin until 9 a.m.

The British Fleet remained in the proximity of the battlefield and near the line of approach to German ports until 11 a.m. on June 1st, in spite of the disadvantage of long distances from fleet bases and the danger incurred in waters adjacent to enemy coasts from submarines and torpedo craft.

The enemy, however, made no sign, and I was reluctantly compelled to the conclusion that the High Sea Fleet had returned into port.

Subsequent events proved this assumption to have been correct. Our position must have been known to the enemy. as at 4 a.m. the Fleet engaged a Zeppelin for about five minutes, during which time she had ample opportunity to note and subsequently report the position and course of the British Fleet.

The waters from the latitude of the Horn Reef to the scene of the action were thoroughly searched, and some survivors from the destroyers Ardent, Fortune and Tipperary were picked up, and the Sparrowhawk, which had been in collision and was no longer seaworthy, was sunk after her crew had been taken off.

A large amount of wreckage was seen, but no enemy ships, and at 1.15 p.m., it being evident that the German Fleet had succeeded in returning to port, course was shaped for our bases, which were reached without further incident on Friday, June 2nd.

A cruiser squadron was detached to search for Warrior, which vessel had been abandoned whilst in tow of Engadine on her way to the base owing to bad weather setting in and the vessel becoming unseaworthy, but no trace of her was discovered, and a further subsequent search by a light-cruiser squadron having failed to locate her, it is evident that she foundered.

The enemy fought with the gallantry that was expected of him. We particularly admired the conduct of those on board a disabled German light-cruiser which passed down the British line shortly after deployment, under a heavy fire, which was returned by the only gun left in action.

The conduct of officers and men throughout the day and night actions was entirely beyond praise. No words of mine could do them justice. On all sides it is reported to me that the glorious traditions of the past were most worthily upheld - whether in heavy ships, cruisers, light-cruisers, or destroyers - the same admirable spirit prevailed.

Officers and men were cool and determined, with a cheeriness that would have carried them through anything. The heroism of the wounded was the admiration of all.

I cannot adequately express the pride with which the spirit of the Fleet filled me.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/jutland_jellicoe.htm
Zie ook http://www.northeastmedals.co.uk/britishguide/jutland/jellicoe_dispatch_1916.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Jun 2010 21:59, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The following information was recorded in the town’s newspaper of 24 June 1916.

A memorial notice advised that Corporal McLaren J Mitchell, son of 1/4th Royal Scots Fusaliers, son of Mr and Mrs Peter Mitchell, 56 Eglinton Street, Beith, died on board HMS Simols on 22 June, 1915 from wounds received at the Dardanelles. He was 21 years of age and buried at sea.

Our townsman, Mr John R Balfour, of the West of Scotland Cabinet Works, of the Royal Scots Fusaliers, has been promoted from the rank of temporaryh Lieutenant Colonel to that of permanent Lieutenant Colonel. This honour is highly complimentary to him and a distinction to the town of Beith.

The new Military Service Act comes into force today, and all men of military age unless those exempted, will be deemed to be soldiers and liable to be called upon at any moment. Beith is pretty well denuded of eligible men, and, like other towns, now presents a singularly silent appearance.

Mrs Chalmers, Bunswynd, Beith, has reeived intimation from the War Office that her husband, Private James Chalmers, Royal Scots Fusaliers, previously reported missing, was killed in action on 12 July 1915. Mrs Chalmers is left with a family of six children. Private Chalmers was at one time one of the compositors in the Supplement Office.

http://home.clara.net/caths/24_Jun1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 22:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EYES OF THE ARMY: The Life and Letters of World War I Aerial Observer Lt. Mortimer M. Lawrence

June 24, 1917

Milwaukee Athletics Club
Milwaukee, Wis.

Dear Folks:-

Just a line to let you know I am O.K. and everything is fine.

I came up here yesterday afternoon, late, to spend the week-end with Frank Gritzmacher who was in Co. N with me.

Am having a fine time. This morning we took a long auto ride around the city. Went out to Pigsville where they had that flood yesterday and saw the wreckage.

The storm barely touched us at the Fort. We only had about 15 min. hard rain.

When you send my laundry back please put in a clean pillow-case and my auto glasses which you will find in the lift hand drawer of my chiffonier.

My arm hasn’t bothered me a bit in fact the marks* are about all gone.

We are awfully busy nowadays but will try to write in a day or two.

Love to all,

Mortimer

* The marks on his arm to which Lawrence is refering are those left by the vaccinations he has received.

http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/june-24-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jasta 6

Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 6 was founded on 25 August 1916. It was one of the original units of the Luftstreitkräfte, which was the forerunner to the Luftwaffe. The jasta was formed from Fokkerstaffel Sivry, itself an early attempt to use the new winged weapons of fighter aircraft. On 29 September, it was assigned to 2 Armee and refurbished with Albatros D.I fighters.

When Manfred von Richthofen formed Jagdgeschwader 1 on 24 June 1917, Jasta 6 moved to Markebecke on 2 July to join them. The squadron would remain part of the Flying Circus for the rest of the war. In June, July, and August of 1917, the jasta lost a commanding officer per month to enemy action, even as the unit moved from one hot spot to another. It also struggled with technological problems, as it needed genuine castor oil to lubricate the rotary engines of its airplanes. (...)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasta_6
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Naval Historical Society of Australia

24 June 1918 - The Australian Naval Board proposed to the Defence Council the early establishment of airship stations at Sydney, Melbourne and Fremantle. Two non-rigid airships, and three kite balloons, were to be stationed at each port. The proposal was not adopted by the Defence Council.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1914-1918/page/6/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

COMMAND HISTORY of the NASP METOC

The “Aerological” Office at Naval Air Station, Pensacola, is almost as old as naval aviation itself. It was the first weather office established to support naval aviation.
The requirement for an Aerological Unit was identified on 8 May 1917 when a request was made to the Commandant of the Pensacola Naval Station to employ a competent civilian to keep records of air conditions and other meteorological phenomena at NAS Pensacola. The necessity for a Meteorological Unit was further recognized when wind directions and velocities aloft to altitudes of approximately 1,500 feet were needed in connection with the dirigible, free balloon, and kite balloon work which was being carried on at that time. This information could not be obtained from the Weather Bureau, due to the manpower shortage caused by the war.

Prompted by these requirements, the Bureau of Navigation was requested to furnish a meteorology officer, and on 17 April 1918, LT William F. Reed, Jr., USNRF, reported to NAS Pensacola, Florida for “Aerographical Duty.” His superior was LCDR E. F. Johnson, Superintendent of Aeronautics.

The following summation of entries in the NAS Pensacola Meteorological Office Log document the early developments of meteorology and its history in the U.S. Navy (the original log book is now held at the National Museum of Naval Aviation in Pensacola):

… During the month of April 1918, the meteorological observatory began receiving weather reports via the Western Union Office, at Pensacola, Florida; instrument shelters were constructed, and an anemometer and single register installed. Plans were submitted to have a nephoscope and a gustograph built. The first weather maps were drawn and arrangements were made with dirigible officers for equipping a “Nurse” to carry instruments for upper air work and the construction of a gas kite. Authority was received from the Commandant to take cloud photos and make lantern slides for instruction work. LT Reed started giving lectures to advanced flying classes on ‘Exploration of the Air.’ It is noteworthy that the majority of the instruments used in the meteorological observatory were designed and built by personnel attached to the aerographic office.

In May 1918, LT Reed, with ENS Maxwell as the pilot, made the first weather reconnaissance flight over the Gulf of Mexico in an R6 aircraft. Specific flights were conducted during this period to detect “bumps.”

In May 1918, upper-air work with a “Nurse” balloon and gas kites commenced. In June 1918, the nephoscope designed by LT Reed was received from the machine shop and put to use. Blackboard weather maps were completed and installed at the south entrance of the flying school.

In August 1918, the Aerographic Office began transmitting weather conditions to Miami, Hampton Roads, Cape May, and the Blue Hill Observatory.

In November 1918, drawings were completed for a “Pilot Balloon Aerograph.” The blueprints were forwarded to the Bureau of Navigation with a request that authority be granted for the manufacture of two aerographs--one for the Aerographer and one for the use of pilots for navigation flights.

During this period, an altitude-recording anemometer designed by LT Reed and instrument maker Dean was received. It was a half-size anemometer which mechanically recorded miles, ½ miles, ¼ miles, and 1/8 miles on a barograph sheet. The barograph was encased with a clock drum geared to make one revolution in three hours. The instrument was devised to be sent up on kites or held by hand in the basket of an observation balloon to get the altitude and wind velocity. An excerpt from the 20th of November 1918 log entry states:

… The observation balloon was put up for an endurance test in the afternoon and a Robinson anemometer was sent up for wind rates, connections being made to a single register in the wind shed. The circuit was completed by returning the kite cable through the circle of the pulley in the grounding block. This enabled the kite to remain aloft at 300 feet all night. Previously, a separate reel had been installed for the work, which was reeled in and out by hand, as the kite went up and down.

On 19 December 1918, a booklet on “Aviation Meteorology” was submitted to the Superintendent of Aeronautics. This booklet was prepared by LT Reed, with suggestions from LT H. F. Farr, Naval Instructor, Royal Navy, and other British officers. There was also input as to the needs of the service from the American flight officers under the direction of the Superintendent of Aeronautics.

On 20 January 1919, the Aerographic Office began taking winds-aloft observations utilizing the present method of determining them. This system, now in universal use, was first developed at Fort Omaha, Nebraska during the period 28 November to 17 December 1917, and consisted of plotting pilot balloon positions as recorded by the use of a theodolite; assuming a given rate of ascent of a balloon of a given free lift. Prior to this time, the only methods of determining winds aloft was by ascertaining the movements of various cloud formations by means of a nephoscope, or else by obtaining actual wind velocity records with an anemometer attached to a kite or balloon.

Even with the seemingly crude methods and lack of personnel (one officer, two rated men and one seaman) the value of the unit can be readily seen from the Questionnaire Pensacola WFR:AR:AB, Director of Naval Aviation dated 13 June 1919 which is quoted:

… The Aerographic personnel are of inestimable value to this station in its warnings of approaching squalls and general storms for use in the protection of aircraft and floating property. The early preparation at this station, each day, of charts showing the general condition of the weather over the country, the Gulf of Mexico, and the western Caribbean Sea, and issuance of special bulletins on expected weather and winds has an important bearing on the general flight work of the station. The forces of wind with direction are obtained for altitudes up to 5,000 feet during flight hours for seaplane and airship navigation, and special advises are given the seaplane and airship school by the Aerographic Officer when long flights are used.

On 24 June 1919, ENS L. H. Lovelace reported for duty as LT Reed’s assistant, until the lieutenant’s detachment.

http://cmapskm.ihmc.us/rid=1103741289924_1920848424_7533/METOC%20History.htm
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Bert

Chickerell
Near Weymouth
24/6/15

AUST IMP FORCES ABROAD

Dear Mum & Dad & Brothers & Sisters.
I’ve had my furlough – a fortnight & am now at the Australian base waiting to be sent back to the front. I heard that a batch of us were going on an English transport about the end of the month.

Chickerell is about 2 ½ miles out of Weymouth a pleasure resort on the South Coast of England. There are about 160 men here, all Austns & N.Z’s & we live in huts & have straw mattresses to sleep on. We have a pretty easy time of it. Do a little light marching in the morning, & a little again in the afternoon finishing about 4pm.

I’m sending you some photos. I’ve got two enclosed in with yours that I want you to send to Elsie. I didn’t send them separately as I thort they’d get broken on the way. Keep one of the big ones for yourself & give the other to Mrs Fox if she cares for it.

Had a fortnights furlough but didn’t enjoy myself much. Too blooming lonely. Was among the first lot of Austns to be discharged from hospital & just after we got out the English discovered that there were wounded men from “down under” & all the ones left in hospital were invited to private families as soon as they were discharged & had the time of their lives _ _ _. But all the same managed to knock out a bit of fun. Went to a theatre almost every night, but with the exception of “The Arcadians”, which was in Sydney not so long ago the plays were not up to much. There were two war plays “For England home & beauty” & “In War Time” but they were very lame, unconvincing & in parts ridiculous. Visited the zoo & Art gallery, & in fact don’t know what I didn’t visit. One day went to Madame Taussards the waxworks. You might have read of them & the Chamber of Horrors. I went particularly to see this chamber of Horrors as I’d heard a lot about it. One of the attendants goodnaturedly showed us around & at last as I was getting impatient asked him to show us the Chamber of Horrors. You could have knocked me down with a feather when he told us that we’d just been throu it _ _ _. It was very very tame indeed. When we were near a door one of our party said “Doesn’t she look natural” referring to a figure at a table. “She” immediately began tidy up some papers on the desk & seemed quite amused _ _ _.

I’ve bought two collapsible periscopes one for Vernie & the other for myself. I was going to get something for you at home when I remembered about the necessity for a periscope each, & I knew you’d rather I spent it on them than otherwise. They were 15/- each. As we have to do a lot of observing they might be the means of saving our lives some day.

I suppose that Vernie will be a Leuit by the time I get back if he’s not one already. GA has been seriously wounded & Vernie certainly should get the position. I hope GA recovers OK but at the same time I hope Vernie gets a commission.

I see by the honours list that Cpl Moore of “A” co, 3rd Bn, won a “D.C.M.” – Distinguished Conduct Medal. It is equivalent to a D.S.O. with an officer. I knew him very well. He was a nice & very quiet boy, only about 5ft 6 high too. Good Luck to him.

Saw a Sunday Times tother day – the first one after we’d landed, & amongst other things it supposed that that 1st Brigade hadn’t been engaged in the first few days fighting cos they hadn’t received any officers casualties for that Brigade. We lost a lot of men & officers on that first Sunday & were at it a couple of hours after the first party had got ashore.

They made some mistake about the casualty lists here. I drew their attention to the fact that at least six men marked “13th Bn” were 3rd men, & about a week later saw that the whole sheet of names including those six had been changed from “13th” to 3rd.

We had a strawberry fight the other afternoon here followed by a concert. It was organised & got up by the Weymouth people. Besides unlimited quantity of other goodies, we each had two large plates heaped with strawberries, & cream ad lib (Note that Viola – AD LIB – Do you know what it means _ _ _.) In fact we were being continually urged not to spare the cream - & we didn’t. Well I’m fond of strawberries but I could only account for one plate. After the strawberries we had to do our best with the cakes etc. The concert that followed was pretty good.

Was taken out twice whilst on the in the Big Smoke. Last Saty the Austn War Contingent Assn took a large party of us in a char-a-banc to St Albans where after reviewing the very ancient church, we were entertained by the Mayor. It was a very pleasant afternoon. On the way home they gave us a pleasant surprise by taking us in to see our boys at our own Australian hospital at Harfield. The Dr, staff & patients are Austn. You could almost see Kangs & Emus, & smell the wattle _ _ _. Saw a lot of chaps I knew there. The next day – Sunday – a Mrs Chisholm invited six of us to afternoon tea & kept us there till 10p, & we had a bonzer time. There was a little girl of 9 & a boy of 7 there & they kept us entertained almost all the time. Both were pretty efficient in rifle drill & made us drill them for quite a while. The little girl got me to promise to send her a Turkish field gun, machine gun, & rifle when I go back. She also wanted me to post her a dead Turk, until I told her he’d go bad, so she sposed I’d better only send his clothes _ _ _. Before she went to bed she gave me her address on a piece of paper, & after she’d been sent to bed came running out & whispered in my ear “Don’t forget” _ _ _.

Met one of my signallers Percy Morgan who was also wounded, & he invited me out to his mothers place. Arrived there one afternoon & stayed till late next night. His mother is a dear old lady & she quite spoilt me. It made me think of home again & I longed to be back. One of her sons took us all out for a nice long motor drive to our boys at Harfield, & next day we visited the aerodrome & inspected several machines. Saw one go up & then saw it alight later. We spent the rest of the morning motoring, & in the afternoon visited some places of interest per bike. On the way home had a collision with another cyclist. No one hurt. Mrs Morgans grandorter is named Eileen so with a Percy & an Eileen in the house I couldn’t help feeling at home could I.

Well I’ve run out of news so I’ll have to close, hoping everyone of you are quite well & happy. Haven’t had a single letter since 20th of April. They’ve got all the letters at the base at Alexandria, so I’m quite anxious to get back there & get some letters. With best of love from your loving son & brother Bert.

[Sidebar] That letter I wrote to Miss MacDonald sometime ago must have offended her proper _ _ _. And yet I thort I’d pologised quite handsomely. Can’t understand women _ _ _.

http://smythe.id.au/letters/15_19.htm
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 22:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Viv

Trentagh House
St. Johnstone
24/6/19

Dear Love

I am here for a few days on my first leave before embarking and Mrs. Hyndman is very kind indeed to me although, I’m afraid, she doesn’t altogether understand my ways. However she says she’s not going to take notice of anything nasty I sat because she knows I don’t mean it. That makes it so much easier for me. The difficulty all along has been that I don’t see anything nasty in lots of thing that she does find nasty, so I never know where I am. On Friday we went to the Strathbane Show where William had a few entries. He got tow thirds for horse jumping against some crack jumpers so was quite pleased with himself. He is very fond of horses and at present greatly troubled over a little thoroughbred foal that is sickly. It is on the mend now and he is getting quite cheerful again.

On Sat I went with Mrs. H. to Portrush , the North Ireland watering place. It is a bleak, bare looking place not a tree about but merely a collection of houses near the water. It looks most depressing as one approaches but improves with closer acquaintance. It is quite a fashionable resort in the season, which commence with the 1st of July. The appearance of the waterfront reminds me slightly of Kiama and brought up sweet memories of four years ago. I suppose I may indulge in these memories now that we may be united again in a little over two months time mayn’t I?

As I’ve had no mail for ages, Mrs. Hyndman has very kindly been reading out Mary’s letters. They are very interesting and Mary thinks a deal of you and the you have received and treated her. The whole family are also included. Reading between the lines if fancy she did not hit it off too well with Viola and Rita. Perhaps their religious fervour was a bit overwhelming. However they will cool down and become sensible again before very long. Wait till they are married!

I called on Dorothy & Percy out at Bayswater where they have furnished rooms & spent a day with them. Up till then the parents had not relented and had not acknowledged the letters both P & D sent them. Perhaps they have got over it by now.

I wouldn’t be at all surprised if I start within a fortnight of this letter so you’ll have me treading on its heels, so to speak. Haven’t cabled yet but will do so as soon as I get definite word. Have a letter from Mrs. M. enclosing your latest to her. You mention Vi as a sort of a nurse fir the “Flu” so I presume Mum’s leg is quite well, even so, there’s a lot of housework to do that shouldn’t be troubled with. I’d better wait and see for myself before I start “exploding” or put my foot in it but I can’t help getting annoyed when I think of her leg being allowed to get bad again and I feel like having big row with the first person who gets in my way.

Please excuse scrawl. I’m writing this on my knee and can’t hold the paper firm enough. As the time is shortening over here and the day f my embarkation is approaching, I’m getting more and more impatient and the desire to have you nestling close to me becomes so strong that I can find sufficient patience to wait the two or three weeks before I get started. With all my faults and weaknesses & I have many Sweetheart. I love you and you only and it will be always be so. I love you so much that I cannot feel worthy to have and to hold your love. May god help me to make myself so & keep and guard you always. With all my love only and forever yours Viv.

http://smythe.id.au/letters/viv_13.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2010 22:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 June 1920 → Commons Sitting → LEAGUE OF NATIONS.

GERMANY.


HC Deb 24 June 1920 vol 130 c2362 2362

Mr. NEWBOULD asked the Prime Minister whether he can state when it is proposed to invite Germany to become a member of the League of Nations?

The PRIME MINISTER Germany will be invited to become a member of the League of Nations when she shows an earnest desire to carry out her obligations under the Peace Treaty.

Mr. NEWBOULD Has not the right hon. Gentleman already stated in this House that Germany is making every effort to carry out these obligations?

The PRIME MINISTER No, I certainly did not, not with regard to disarmament. I have a very strong feeling on that subject that she is not.

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY Is the right hon. Gentleman aware that the Minister for War has stated repeatedly in this House that Germany is doing all she can in that direction?

The PRIME MINISTER No.

Mr. RAFFAN asked the Prime Minister whether Poland has informed the Supreme Council of her intention to occupy German territory should Germany fail to carry out her engagement with the Poles; and, if so, whether he can see his way to referring the matter to the Council of the League of Nations, as being one which endangers the peace of the world?

The PRIME MINISTER I have no information in regard to the first part of the hon. Gentleman's question. The second part does not, therefore, arise.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/jun/24/germany

24 June 1920 → Commons Sitting

EX-KAISER (TRIAL).


HC Deb 24 June 1920 vol 130 c2370 2370

Captain TUDOR-REES asked when the last step in the direction of bringing the ex-Kaiser to trial was taken; and what was the nature of it?

The PRIME MINISTER The Lord Privy Seal made a statement in the House on the 19th April as to the course of the negotiations with the Netherlands Government relative to the extradition of the ex-Emperor. I have nothing to add to that statement.

Captain TUDOR-REES Have no steps been taken since then?

The PRIME MINISTER No steps have been taken. The Netherlands Government refused to hand him over.

Captain W. BENN Then this is the finish of the talk about hanging the Kaiser?

The PRIME MINISTER I am afraid that your friend is not quite safe yet.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/jun/24/ex-kaiser-trial
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 22:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 juni 1915

Western Front


Germans repulsed in an attack on the heights of the Meuse.

Political, etc.

British memorandum on neutral commerce handed to U.S. Ambassador.

Mr. Asquith announces forthcoming bill on the registration and organisation of national resources.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1915_06_24.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 22:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front


Battle of Verdun: French counter-attack regains some ground; Germans occupy part of Fleury, their farthest point of advance.

Eastern Front

Russians checked in Lutsk salient; Austrians driven out of Bukovina.

Southern Front

Artillery preparation by Italians from Brenta to Adige (Trentino).

Bulgars cross Greek frontier.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Germans defeated on Lukigura River (German East Africa).

General van Deventer drives them back on to Central Railway.

Political, etc.

Embargo on Greek shipping suspended.

1917
Western Front


French recover more ground near Vauxaillon.

British advance on 1.5 mile front near Lens.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Mutiny of Russian Black Sea Fleet at Sevastopol.

Political, etc.

New Austrian Ministry, Dr. v. Seidler Premier.

British and German delegates on Prisoners of War question meet at The Hague.

The �400,000,000 U.S.A. Liberty Loan largely over-subscribed.

M. Pashich forms new Serbian Government.

1918

Southern Front

Right bank of Piave cleared of Austrians; Italians attack Austrians north-west of M. Grappa without much success. Further 8,000 prisoners.

Political, etc.

Speeches of Mr. Lloyd George in House of Commons and of von Kuhlmann, on the situation.

Emperor Charles refuses resignation of von Seidler.

Appeal of Irish Recruiting Council: Irish overseas aghast at inaction in Ireland.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1918_06_24.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle for the Somme has a unique place in British military history.
Haig was in the middle of preparations for a British offensive but came under strong pressure to mount an attack due the French commitment to the Battle for Verdun, a city which held an important place in the nation's psyche and that the Germans had attacked in February 1916. Any Allied offensive would therefore have to be carried mainly by the British. Haig was therefore forced to undertake an offensive near to where the British and French lines met, near Bray-sur-Somme in Picardy, although he would have preferred to attack further north and to have had longer with which to prepare his new army. The battlefield was bisected by both the Albert – Bapaume Road and the River Somme, and was a series of gentle chalk ridge lines into which the Germans had dug a series of well-prepared fortifications. Haig's plan called for Rawlinson's Fourth Army to achieve a breakthrough in the centre (in the process capturing the Pozières ridgeline) after which Gough's Reserve Army (later renamed the Fifth Army) that happened to include cavalry, would exploit, roll up the German defences and capture Bapaume. Allenby's Third Army would undertake a diversionary attack on Gommecourt, which lay to the north.

The massive preparatory bombardment, meant to destroy the German defences started on 24 June 1916 at 06.00. Over 1.7 million shells were fired but a high proportion, some 30 percent, failed to explode as the Ministry of Munitions had abandoned any semblance of quality control in order to be able to produce the quantities needed in time. Tunnelling companies dug hollowed out chambers underneath key German strongpoints and filled them with explosives. The shelling had started on 'U' Day and was meant to go on until 'Z' Day, which was 29 June 1916 but heavy rains caused the approach roads, trenches and crater ridden No-Man's land too muddy and so the assault was postponed until 1 July. Just after dawn on 1 July, the first British wave clambered out of their trenches and started to make their way towards the German frontline. As they did, seventeen enormous mines were detonated and the barrage moved forward. The infantry followed behind and although there were local gains on the first day – the 36th Ulster Division had some success near Thiepval and Montauban was taken – generally things looked bleak. The British suffered 57,470 casualties (19,240 killed and 2,152 missing) that was an unprecedented experience for the British Army. Some thirty-two battalions lost over 500 men – twenty were from Kitchener's 'New Army', many being 'Pals' battalions, groups of men who had joined up together. Seven 'New Army' divisions attacked, alongside three Territorial and four regular Army divisions. The French attack on the right of the British line was smaller than had been originally intended as troops had to be diverted to the fighting around Verdun but their attack went relatively successfully and the preponderance of heavy guns in the French sector also helped the British forces adjacent to them.

Lees verder:
http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_somme.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 22:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Heinrich von Bayern (1884–1916)



Heinrich von Bayern (* 24. Juni 1884 in München; † 8. November 1916 im Kreis Argeș/Rumänien) war Prinz von Bayern, entstammte dem Adelsgeschlecht der Wittelsbacher und war ein hochdekorierter Offizier der bayerischen Armee im Ersten Weltkrieg.


Heinrich war der einzige Sohn des Prinzen Arnulf von Bayern und dessen Ehefrau Therese Prinzessin von und zu Liechtenstein. Der Prinz wurde von Gebhard Himmler, dem Vater Heinrich Himmlers, erzogen. Später wurde der bayerische Prinz Taufpate Heinrich Himmlers.[1]

Nach dem Abitur trat er im Jahr 1901 im Alter von 17 Jahren als Leutnant in das Infanterie-Leib-Regiment ein. Vier Jahre später wechselte er zum 1. Schweren Reiter-Regiment. 1907 wurde Prinz Heinrich zum Oberleutnant befördert, ehe er drei Jahre später Rittmeister wurde. Als Chef der 2. Eskadron zog er am 3. August 1914 in den Ersten Weltkrieg. Er führte eine der wenigen klassischen Reiterattacken an der Westfront mitten in den Feind und wurde hierbei durch einen Lanzenstich verwundet. Nach seiner Genesung erkannte er, dass es im Stellungskrieg für die Kavallerie nichts mehr zu bestellen gab, und meldete sich zur Infanterie.

Im Januar 1915 zum Major befördert, übernahm er am 12. März 1915 das III. Bataillon des Königlich Bayerischen Infanterie-Leib-Regiments, das dem neu aufgestellten Deutschen Alpenkorps unterstellt war. Prinz Heinrich war Abschnittskommandant an der Frontlinie in den Karnischen Alpen südostwärts von Innichen im Pustertal. Unter der ansässigen Bevölkerung war er äußerst beliebt.

In der Schlacht von Verdun gelang es ihm, das Dorf Fleury und die Höhe westlich davon zu nehmen. Er richtete sich im Keller eines Hauses seinen Befehlsstand ein, als dieser durch ein Artilleriegeschoss getroffen wurde. Das Haus über ihm stürzte zusammen und begrub den Prinzen mit seinen Männern. Nach Stunden gelang es einem seiner Mitstreiter, ein Loch durch eine Mauer zu brechen und Hilfe zur Rettung der Verschütteten zu holen.

Mit der Ablösung aus dem Frontabschnitt am 24. Juni 1916 wurde er für sein tapferes Verhalten und seine militärischen Verdiensten mit dem Eisernen Kreuz I. Klasse ausgezeichnet. Zudem wurde ihm das Ritterkreuz des Militär-Max-Joseph-Ordens Nr. 117 (Zählnummer während des Ersten Weltkriegs) "wegen der in den schweren Kämpfen bei Fleury und später am Rothen-Turm-Paß in Rumänien abgegebenen Beweise außergewöhnlicher, todesverachtender Tapferkeit, kühner Entschlußkraft und vorbildlicher Einwirkung auf die Truppe"[2] verliehen.

Im September/Oktober 1916 bewährte er sich nochmals bei den Kämpfen am Roten Turm-Pass. Bei einer Erkundung am Monte Sate (Rumänien/nördl. Sălătrucu, etwa 60 km südöstlich Hermannstadt/Siebenbürgen) am 7. November 1916 verzichtete er trotz Warnung vor Scharfschützen auf Deckung und wurde beim Zurückgehen durch eine Gewehrkugel schwer verwundet. Er erlag am darauf folgenden Tag seinen Verletzungen. Seine letzten Worte sollen "Noblesse oblige!"[3] (Adel verpflichtet) gewesen sein.

Prof. Dr. Günther Freiherr von Pechmann, ein Frontsoldat des Leibregiments, schrieb später in seinen Kriegserinnerungen: „Das KBIL (Königlich-Bayerisches Infanterie-Leib-Regiment) hatte nicht nur einen seiner tapfersten Führer, sondern auch seinen besten Fürsorger verloren.“
Er ist in der Theatinerkirche in München beigesetzt.

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_von_Bayern_(1884%E2%80%931916)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jun 2018 11:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Day in History… June 24, 1918: Canada’s First Airmail Flight

On June 24, 1918, Captain Brian Peck made the first airmail flight in Canada.

Like many nations at the time, Canada had sent a number of pilots to Europe to join in World War I. However, many didn’t return home and the number of Royal Flying Corps recruits was very low.

To increase interest, Captain Brian Peck arranged an air exhibition in which he’d fly from Montreal to Ontario. Meanwhile, members of the Aerial League of the British Empire heard of Peck’s planned flight and saw it as a unique opportunity. They were determined to make it the first airmail delivery in Canada, proving “that aviation was the way of the future.” Two members, G. Lighthall and E. Greenwood contacted the Postmaster General in Ottawa and convinced him send mail with Peck on his flight.

Peck’s flight was initially scheduled for June 22, 1918, but was postponed due to poor weather. Then, on the morning of June 24, 1918, Peck wound up his JN-4 Curtiss Canuck two-seater at Bois Franc Polo Grounds in Montreal and prepared for the flight. With his mechanic, Corporal C.W. Mathers, in the passenger seat carrying the bag of 120 letters, Peck lifted off at 10:12 a.m. Wind and rain were strong that day, forcing Peck to land to refuel in Kingston and Deseronto. Peck reached his destination, the Leaside Aerodrome in Ontario, at 4:55 p.m.

At the time, it may have been puzzling to spectators that watched as Peck’s plane struggled to get off the ground. And it never flew above an altitude of 40 feet. The plane’s excessive weight was likely part of the reason it needed to stop and refuel twice. It wasn’t revealed until 1954 that the plane had secretly been weighed down by something illegal at the time – scotch! Alcohol was prohibited in Ontario since 1916, but one of Peck’s friends asked him to sneak him some on the now-historic flight.

It’s interesting to note that the covers from this first airmail flight were incorrectly dated June 23. The special cachets created for the event read, “Inaugural Service Via Aerial Mail Montreal 23.6.1918.”

Weeks later, Katherine Stinson became the first female pilot to deliver airmail in Canada on July 9, 1918. Over the next five years, there were about 20 more flights that carried mail, though Canada still had no official airmail service. Also during the 1920s, various companies began flying to the more remote northern areas of Canada, often for prospectors or miners. These companies were permitted to charge for the letters they delivered and even issued their own stamps, which could be bought from some post offices. But the Post Office was not officially in charge of the service nor did it help pay for it.

Finally, in 1927, Canada’s Post Office began budgeting for and experimenting with airmail service. The first experimental service was between Montreal and Rimouski, and was intended to connect with trans-Atlantic steamers to speed up mail with Europe. The following year, Canada issued its first airmail stamp on September 21, 1928. There were two types of Post Office flights – airmail, which provided faster service, and air stage, which delivered mail to areas that were too difficult to reach by other means of transportation.

In 1939 Canada introduced daily airmail service between Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver. And in 1948, they created All Up Service, by which all first class mail in Canada weighing up to one ounce was sent by airmail without paying an additional fee. This service eventually spread to cover mail sent to the U.S. and overseas as well.

https://www.mysticstamp.com/info/this-day-in-history-june-24-1918/
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