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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2006 6:22    Onderwerp: 24 mei Reageer met quote

May 24

1917 British naval convoy system introduced

On this day in 1917, driven by the spectacular success of the German U-boat submarines and their attacks on Allied and neutral ships at sea, the British Royal Navy introduces a newly created convoy system, whereby all merchant ships crossing the Atlantic Ocean would travel in groups under the protection of the British navy.

For more than three years of World War I, Britain’s Royal Admiralty steadfastly resisted the creation of a convoy system, believing they could not afford to spare ships and other resources from its mighty fleet where they might be needed in battle. The effect of the German U-boat submarines, however, and their attacks on merchant ships—both belligerent and neutral—proved devastating. With the entrance of the United States into the war in April 1917, there was an even greater need for protection of Allied interests at sea, as large numbers of soldiers and arms would need to be transported from the Atlantic coast to Europe. In early May 1917, it was announced that the previous month had seen the highest shipping losses of the war so far for Allied and neutral countries: 373 ships, or a total weight of 873,754 tons.

Consequently, on May 24, 1917, Britain introduced its convoy system. Under the new arrangements, a convoy of 10 to 50 merchant ships—along with, possibly, a troopship carrying arms and soldiers—might be escorted by a cruiser, six destroyers, 11 armed trawlers and a pair of torpedo boats with aerial reconnaissance equipment that could detect the movement of underwater submarines. Convoy gathering points were established along the Atlantic coast of North and South America, from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Hampton, Virginia, all the way down to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to handle the transport not only of men and arms but also of foodstuffs and horses, the basic supplies of the Allied war effort.

The introduction of the convoy system finally marked the beginning of a sharp decline in the scale of German submarine damage and the death of German hopes to starve Britain into submission. Between May 1917 and November 1918, a total of 1,100,000 American troops were transported across the Atlantic in convoy, and only 637 of them were drowned as a result of German attacks.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2006 6:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 24. Mai 1916

Dorf Cumičres von den Thüringern erstürmt - Wütende französische Angriffe bei Douaumont

Großes Hauptquartier, 24. Mai.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Südwestlich von Givenchy griffen starke englische Kräfte mehrmals unsere neuen Stellungen an. Nur einzelne Leute drangen ein und fielen im Nahkampf. Im übrigen wurden alle Angriffe unter sehr großen Verlusten für die Engländer abgewiesen. ebenso kleinere Abteilungen bei Hulluch und Blaireville.
Südöstlich von Nouvron, nordwestlich von Moulin-sous-Tousvent und in Gegend nördlich von Prunay scheiterten schwache französische Angriffsunternehmungen.
Links der Maas wiesen wir durch Infanterie- und Maschinengewehrfeuer einen feindlichen Vorstoß am Südwesthange des "Toten Mannes" glatt ab. Thüringische Truppen nahmen das hart an der Maas liegende Dorf Cumičres im Sturm. Bisher sind über 300 Franzosen, darunter 8 Offiziere, gefangen.
Östlich des Flusses wiederholte der Feind seine wütenden Angriffe in der Douaumontgegend. Er erlitt in unserem Feuer die schwersten Verluste. Vorübergehend verlorenen Boden gewannen unsere tapferen Regimenter fast durchweg zurück und machten dabei über 550 Gefangene. Die Kämpfe sind unter beiderseits sehr starkem Artillerieeinsatz im Fortgang.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
In der Gegend von Pulkarn (südöstlich von Riga) vertrieben deutsche Truppen die Russen aus einem zwischen den beiderseitigen Linien liegenden Graben. 68 Gefangene fielen in unsere Hand.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Die Lage ist unverändert.

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SUBSUNK 1914 - the Loss of HMA S/M AE 1
© Peter Sinfield 2003

The fate of HMAS Sydney (II) is considered the RAN's most enduring mystery, but an equally enigmatic disappearance occurred some 27 years previously. Overshadowed by time and the story of a more famous sister, this incident is almost forgotten today - but it was a savage blow for the RAN, depriving the infant Navy of 35 brave men and half its submarine force.

At the 1909 Imperial Conference, Australia agreed to the construction of a 'Fleet Unit', a balanced combination of warships capable of tactical operations on its own as well as forming part of a proposed Eastern Fleet. It was to consist of an armoured (battle)cruiser, three second-class cruisers, six destroyers and three submarines. Orders were duly placed for improved classes of the vessels agreed at the conference, two larger, faster and more capable submarines being substituted for the original three. These were the latest 'E' class boats (of which 55 were built for the Royal Navy) and were designated AE.1 and AE.2 respectively - the 'A' for Australian.

Both submarines were built by Vickers at Barrow-in-Furness and cost Ł105,415 each. They were commissioned simultaneously at Portsmouth on 28 February 1914, AE.1 commanded by LCDR T.F. Besant RN and her sister by LCDR H.H.G.D. Stoker RN. They departed Portsmouth for Australia on 2 March, sailing via Suez and Singapore. Two-thirds of the 18,000 km journey was made under their own power, the rest being completed under escort (and tow) of HMAS Sydney (I). The flotilla arrived in Sydney on 24 May 1914 (Empire Day), and the submarines immediately went into refit at Cockatoo Island to make good defects that had emerged during the voyage.

Ten weeks later - on the outbreak of war - they were still there. They were quickly prepared for war service, being ready by 10 August. Towards the end of the month, in company with their parent ship Upolu and escorted by the venerable HMAS Protector, the two submarines sailed northward from Port Jackson. The convoy's initial destination was Palm Island just north of Townsville, where the sailors and soldiers of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (ANMEF) were exercising preparatory to commencing operations against Rabaul, the-then capital of German New Guinea. The little convoy arrived on 2 September, after being delayed by Protector's slow speed and chronic condenser defects in Upolu. Thus, when the assembled squadron - Sydney, Encounter, the submarines, armed merchant cruiser/troopship HMAS Berrima and the supply ship Aorangi - sailed the same day for Port Moresby, Upolu and Protector were ordered to proceed independently to Rabaul.

The convoy reached Port Moresby on 4 September and left again three days later for a rendezvous with Australia and the destroyers Parramatta, Yarra and Warrego in the Louisades on the 9th. The following day the ships sailed for Blanche Bay. The plan of operations was for Sydney and the destroyers to land naval parties at Herbertshöhe (now Kokopo) and Kabakaul, some four miles (approx. 6.5 km) east; Berrima to put the military component ashore at Rabaul; Encounter to patrol off Cape Tawui (north of Blanche Bay); the submarines to patrol off Cape Gazelle to the east; and for Australia to stand off at sea as distant support. Australia, Encounter and the submarines were so placed to guard against hostile incursions by Admiral von Spee's Pacific Squadron or other German warships.

It was while engaged on this duty that AE.1 was lost with all hands. In company with Parramatta (LEUT W.H. Warren RAN), she sailed from Herbertshöhe at 0700 on 14 September, their only orders to search in St George's Channel. To this end the destroyer turned south, while AE.1 headed north-east towards the Duke of York Islands. The still morning was hazy and this got worse during the day, obscuring the submarine from Parramatta's view, the latter turning north-west to regain contact. She sighted the submarine off Berard Point (Duke of York Is) about 1430, and the two vessels 'spoke' briefly before the destroyer steered easterly to continue her patrol.

AE.1 was last seen from the destroyer about 1530, running south-west and apparently heading back to harbour. She was never seen again. Warren was not particularly concerned (later reporting that 'she would have had to leave at that time to arrive in harbour before dark') and Parramatta did not return to Herbertshöhe until 1900. Yarra put to sea an hour later to commence a search, followed by Parramatta at 2330. The destroyers searched throughout the night, being joined the following day by Warrego, Encounter and a flotilla of motor boats and steam launches commandeered from Rabaul and Herbertshöhe. In desperation the search area was extended to cover all waters between New Britain and New Ireland, but to no avail - no wreckage or other evidence was ever found, and AE.1 was presumed lost with all hands.

In the absence of eyewitnesses and without any effective sub-surface search capability (this was long before the days of ASDIC/SONAR), speculation as to the cause of the loss was rife in the squadron. Although no formal inquiry seems to have been carried out, the eventually accepted opinion, later expressed by the Official Historian, was that: out of many hypotheses the least improbable is that the AE.1 dived for practice in the ordinary course when nearing the mouth of Blanche Bay, and came up so close to the coastal reef - which there forms a precipitous, if not overhanging, edge to the deep channel - that her thin steel plates were cut through by the coral rock. The objection to this hypothesis is that no traces of oil were found; whether that objection is insuperable must be left to technical experts. (Jose, 3rd Ed. 1935, p. 97).

And so the matter stood for 60 years. In 1975-6 Commander J.D. Foster RAN, while Deputy Commander Australian Defence Co-operation Group Papua New Guinea, researched the circumstances surrounding AE.1's disappearance and established a probability area around Mioko Reef and Credner Island - almost in direct line between the submarine's final sighting and Herbertshöhe, around the course AE.1 was likely to have taken when returning to harbour for the night. Approval was given for the survey ship HMAS Flinders to conduct a search of this area using her side-scanning sonar and, on 17 May 1976, she located a contact 1,000 m NE of Credner Is at a depth of 240 m. Unfortunately, the tantalizing possibility that this was the wreck of AE.1 has remained just that - a possibility. The sonar was unable to provide positive identification (although it was established that the object was not a natural feature), and no further search has been undertaken.

Thus, the loss of Australia's first submarine, her officers and ship's company remains an intriguing but largely-forgotten mystery.

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/subsunk.htm
Zie ook http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1914-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 17:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gas Attack - St. Julien 24th May 1915

This account of a gas attack comes from the Kildare Observer 10th July 1915. It was given by Private James Rogers of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers. He mentions St Johns which is probably St Julien . According to the Royal Dublin Fusiliers Association:

“The German gas attack in the early hours of May 24, was described as being about three miles long and forty feet deep. The Allied troops in the trenches had little hope of escape. The 2nd Battalion of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers were serving at the front that night. The gas bleached the grass, blighted the trees and left a 'broad scar of destruction in its wake'.”

Although this was a month later than the First Attack on April 22nd, it is an interesting account of life at the front.

“as I listened to the tale of horror, of valour and of suffering, told in simple yet vivid language with Private James Rogers, of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, unfolded to me. Private Rogers, who is yet little more than a boy, thought he has experienced more of the stern realities of life than fall to the lot of even the most adventurous amongst us in a long lifetime during the "piping time of peace", is son of Mr. John Rogers, Millbrook, Naas, and has seen five and a half years' service with the "Dubs", four and a half with the third battalion since mobilisation in August last. He looks none the worse for his six months in the firing line. Private Rogers has been on a short furlough with his parents in Millbrook after his recovery from the effects of the wound for which he was sent from the front. He has now gone to join his regiment with the prospect of further thrills before him, from which, let us hope, he will return unscathed.”

“We were next moved to reinforce the Cheshire’s in the trenches. There we remained for about ten days, after which we were shifted to St. John. That was on Whit Monday and here the toughest time began. About 5 o'clock we were saluted with gas from the Germans. The first thing I have any clear recollection of in the excitement was a shout of THE GAS! THE GAS! and it was upon us. A lot of our fellows got badly choked by it, but I was not much affected by it at all. After giving up the gas they began to shell us with high explosives. Part of our fellows on our right had retired, thus leaving our right flank exposed. Most of our officers had been knocked over by the gas and shells and either killed or wounded. A Scottish regiment came up to reinforce us about 8 o'clock, but they were gassed and had to retire. All our officers and non-commissioned officers had been knocked over except Lieut. Shanks, who was in charge of what was left of us. We held the position until about 11 o'clock, where there were ONLY SIX OR SEVEN OF US LEFT. The remainder had all been killed or wounded. When the "Jocks" (as we call the Scottish regiments out there) retired it was a matter of looking out for ourselves. Our right and left flanks were gone. We were told that reinforcements were coming up to us, and I said to the few that was left that we should try and hold on until they arrived. A little later four of the six left stole away to look out for themselves, and they got away. There were then ONLY TWO OF US LEFT, myself and a fellow named Andrews, a Dublin chap. We though we had better try to make a rush to get back to headquarters. The very minute we got out of the trench they turned a machine gun on us, but we managed to cover a bit of ground unhurt, and got to about 100 yards behind the reserve trenches, which were unoccupied at this time. The bullets were flying all about us. They tore through my coat and shirt just under the left arm. I had this (producing a Queen Mary Xmas present box) in the pocket on the left side of my tunic, and that must have saved my life. It was full of fags at the time. A bullet struck it, and going through the cover, glanced off the bottom of the box. (The box itself bore evidence of the valuable service it had done Pte. Rogers). The bullets kept on flying and whistling around us, and then I found myself hit in the left arm. I felt the blood running down my sleeve, but in the excitement I did not mind much. Just then Andrews got shot in the wrist and I WENT TO BANDAGE HIM. We lay down in a ditch, which gave us a bit of cover and every time we tried to get up the machine gun opened fire on us. We thought our best chance was to lie there for a while. We lay down in the ditch for a while, but the other fellow could not "stick" it any longer, and said he would have to go to headquarters. He stood up and made a run for it. I waited, lying down, until he had time to get clear (and I found he got safely to headquarters) and then I made a bolt for it. I saw there was a little more cover in a ditch on the other side of the road and thought I would make for that side. They cut the GROUND FROM UNDER MY FEET as I crossed the road, but I got into the drain all right, and crept back to headquarters. The first men I saw when I got there were Captain Leahy and Captain Magan.

"We had sent word down for reinforcements and a message came back from Col. Loveband to hold on a little longer, that the reinforcements were coming. The Colonel was in a "dug out" near headquarters. The "Jocks" told us the Warwicks were coming to our aid, and to try and hold out.

That was the last message we had from Colonel Loveband, and it was at about 8 o'clock in the morning, as I came back to headquarters past the "dug out" I saw a man lying near the trench. I thought I knew the boots - a sort of highlaced boots. I went over and found there was a coat over the man's face. I lifted it off and saw it was the BODY OF COLONEL LOVEBAND. He had, as far as I could make out, been shot through the lip, just at the bottom of the nose. I looked at the wound and saw the bullet had gone through the back of his head. He was evidently anxious about us - to see how we were getting on without the reinforcements and wanted to have a look. He came out of the trench and was evidently got by a sniper. His face when I saw him dead seemed as if he was laughing - a sort of smile on his features.

"When I got to hospital I was like a ragman - my clothes flittered by bullets".

http://outofbattle.blogspot.com/2008/07/gas-attack-st-julien-24th-may-1915.html
Out of battle - "It seemed that out of battle I escaped down some profound dull tunnel, long since scooped through granites which titanic wars had groined." Wilfred Owen...........A blog of anecdotes and articles about the First World War, centering on 8th Battalion, AIF. Mooie blog!
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 17:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Second Battle of Ypres, 1915

Fighting renewed around Ypres on 8 May and continued until 13 May, and then again from 24-25 May, with repeated use of gas attacks. Still the Allied lines held, although German forces secured additional high ground to the east of the town from 8-12 May.

On 24 May a heavy German assault forced a further Allied withdrawal, although little extra ground was ceded. A want of supplies and manpower obliged the Germans to call off the offensive; all that they could do was to bombard the town. Even so, the German attacks had considerably reduced the size of the Allied salient. The highest ground had been lost and it was no more than three miles across and five miles deep.

Losses during the Second Battle of Ypres are estimated at 69,000 Allied troops (59,000 British, 10,000 French), against 35,000 German, the difference in numbers explained by the use of chlorine gas. The Germans' innovative use of gas set the trend for the rest of the war.

Although roundly condemned by the Allies as barbaric and reprehensible, sentiments echoed by many neutral nations, the Allies quickly developed their own form of gas warfare, with the British releasing gas canisters at Loos at the end of September 1915 (although the prevailing wind turned and wafted the gas back into the British trenches). All the allied countries had made extensive use of poison gas by the close of the war.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ypres2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 17:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anzac truce 24 May 1915

Scene in no man's land at Anzac during the truce of 24 May 1915, organised to bury the Turkish dead from the attack of 19 May, in which an estimated 3,000 men were killed.

Indrukwekkende foto... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anzac_truce_24_May_1915.jpg

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

24 May 1915 - A truce allowed the Turks to bury their dead lying in no-man's-land between the trenches. Because of the summer heat the bodies had begun to rot and the smell was overpowering.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/may-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 Joint Allied Declaration Condemning Turkish Genocide of Armenians
Turkey's Deeds Explicitly Termed "Crimes Against Humanity."

Zie ook http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4874

On May 29, 1915, the State Department iN Washington received a telegram from its embassy in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) transcribing a joint declaration, issued on May 24, 1915, by the allied powers--England, France and Germany--condemning the Turkish-Kurdish massacres of Armenians as "crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization."

Curiously, The New York Times transcript of the declaration, published in the May 24, 1915 edition of the paper, does not include the critical words--"crimes of Turkey against against humanity and civilization." It refers only to "these fresh crimes committed by Turkey." Either the Times' transcription of the declaration was inaccurate, or the State Department's telegram was embellished. The former is the likelier scenario. If so, the joint declaration provides the first evidence in recorded history of the phrase "crimes against humanity."

Here's the full text of the declaration, as transcribed in the State Department (a readable image of which is available here), followed by the version that ran in The Times.

Transcript of the State Department Telegram

Department of State, Washington

May 29, 1915

Amembassy [sic], Constantinople.

French Foreign Office requests following notice be given Turkish Government.

Quote. May 24th

For about a month the Kurd and Turkish populations of Armenia has been massacring Armenians with the connivance and often assistance of Ottoman authorities. Such massacres took place in middle April (new style) at Erzerum, Dertchun, Eguine, Akn, Bitlis, Mush, Sassun, Zeitun, and throughout Cilicia. Inhabitants of about one hundred villages near Van were all murdered. In that city Armenian quarter is besieged by Kurds. At the same time in Constantinople Ottoman Government ill-treats inoffensive Armenian population. In view of those new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization, the Allied governments announce publicly to the Sublime-Porte that they will hold personally responsible [for] these crimes all members of the Ottoman government and those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres.

Unquote.

May 24, 1915 New York Times Transcript of the Declaration

For the past month, Kurds and the Turkish population of Armenia have been engaged in massacring Armenians with the connivance and help of the Ottoman authorities. Such massacres took place about the middle of April at Erzerum, Dertshau, Moush, Zeitun, and in all Cilecia.

The inhabitants of about a hundred villages near Van were all assassinated. In the town itself the Armenian quarter is besieged by Kurds. At the same time the Ottoman government at Constantinople is raging against the inoffensive Armenian population.

In the face of these new crimes, the allied governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold all members of the government, as well as such of their agents as are implicated, personally responsible for such massacres.

Note: The paragraph breaks are in the original Times dispatch.

http://middleeast.about.com/od/turkey/qt/me090318.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CICATRIZATION OF WOUNDS.

II. MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION OF THE CURVE REPRESENTING CICATRIZATION.

BY P. LECOMTE DU NOUY.


(From the Laboratories of The Rockefeller Institutefor Medical Research, New York, and Hospital 21, Compiegne, France.)

(Received for publication, May 24, 1916.)

In order to study the process of cicatrization, a technique for measuring accurately the area of wounds was developed. Sterilized cellophane was applied to the wound and the edge was outlined with a wax pencil. This drawing was transferred in ink to an ordinary sheet of paper. Afterwards the area was measured by means of a planimeter, either the Amsler system or some other. A curve was obtained by carrying the area, in square centimeters, in ordinates, and the time, in days, in abscisse.
In many experiments made by Dr. Carrel the curve representing the cicatrization of aseptic wounds was of regular and geometric appearance.
These curves were expressed by a mathematical equation in function of time and area.

Voor de geinteresseerden... http://jem.rupress.org/content/24/5/451.full.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Council of Four: minutes of meetings March 20 to May 24, 1919, pp. [V]-917

United States Department of State / Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Volume V (1919)

PDF'je van 305 MB... http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&entity=FRUS.FRUS1919Parisv05.p0011&id=FRUS.FRUS1919Parisv05&isize=M
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 May 1916, Commons Sitting

FIELD PUNISHMENT.


HC Deb 24 May 1916 vol 82 c2100 2100

Mr. JOWETT asked the Under-Secretary of State for War the number of cases in which Field Punishment No. 2. has been inflicted upon men at the front during the War; whether there is a record kept of such cases at the War Office; and whether the names of the officers ordering the infliction of this punishment are recorded at the War Office for reference?

Mr. TENNANT No, Sir; no such record is kept.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/may/24/field-punishment
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

May 24, 1917: British naval convoy system introduced

On this day in 1917, driven by the spectacular success of the German U-boat submarines and their attacks on Allied and neutral ships at sea, the British Royal Navy introduces a newly created convoy system, whereby all merchant ships crossing the Atlantic Ocean would travel in groups under the protection of the British navy.

For more than three years of World War I, Britain s Royal Admiralty steadfastly resisted the creation of a convoy system, believing they could not afford to spare ships and other resources from its mighty fleet where they might be needed in battle. The effect of the German U-boat submarines, however, and their attacks on merchant ships?both belligerent and neutral?proved devastating. With the entrance of the United States into the war in April 1917, there was an even greater need for protection of Allied interests at sea, as large numbers of soldiers and arms would need to be transported from the Atlantic coast to Europe. In early May 1917, it was announced that the previous month had seen the highest shipping losses of the war so far for Allied and neutral countries: 373 ships, or a total weight of 873,754 tons.

Consequently, on May 24, 1917, Britain introduced its convoy system. Under the new arrangements, a convoy of 10 to 50 merchant ships?along with, possibly, a troopship carrying arms and soldiers?might be escorted by a cruiser, six destroyers, 11 armed trawlers and a pair of torpedo boats with aerial reconnaissance equipment that could detect the movement of underwater submarines. Convoy gathering points were established along the Atlantic coast of North and South America, from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Hampton, Virginia, all the way down to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to handle the transport not only of men and arms but also of foodstuffs and horses, the basic supplies of the Allied war effort.

The introduction of the convoy system finally marked the beginning of a sharp decline in the scale of German submarine damage and the death of German hopes to starve Britain into submission. Between May 1917 and November 1918, a total of 1,100,000 American troops were transported across the Atlantic in convoy, and only 637 of them were drowned as a result of German attacks.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/british-naval-convoy-system-introduced
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Clayton M. Sherwood: Diary of Foreign Service, August 1917 to February 1919

May 24. [Friday] - On 3 and 4 dugout building stone wall for dirt [?]. Arguments with Tubby [MacDonald] all P.M. More Kazoo papers [Kalamazoo newspapers arrived]. Tie for M.I.A.A. [Michigan Intermural Athletic Association]. Lambke [friend from Kalamazoo College] still there.

http://webspace.webring.com/people/pj/jcsherwood1950/neville/WarDiaryMay18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of Paul B Hendrickson [1919]

May 23 Fri- got book of NY pictures and sent home. wrote to Mother in afternoon had 3 pictures taken, 2 of Co. & 1 of Band. Saw Mallorys wife. played quite a great deal 4 companies are quarenteen. Bill Foren came in, has been here 6 mos. got letters from Mother May 3 Maude Apr 25 Cecil May 4, 18. I weigh 147 lbs. wrote to Cecil Delegation from Rockford & Aurora here - gave their soliders $5 apiece.

May 24 Sat. Ordered 1 large & 1 small picture $1.50 they are very good. Rehearsal all morning. Gov Lowden gave a fine talk in auditorium. we played Ill's. One deafening roar of applause. Long talk with Y man. Sent watch to Emma Jordan in Elgin. Saw play - "Here Comes the Bride" and it was a great hit with the boys. was in the Merritt Hall - library, a wonderful room for soldiers.

http://www.jimgill.net/wwipages/diary/pd190522.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Bert

GAOL, (Birmingham Military Hostpital), 24/5/15

Dear Mum & Dad & Brothers & Sisters.
My last letter was posted at Gibralter. Have quite got over my attack of fever & am picking up nicely now tho my arm is not much use yet. I can use the forearm O.K but have no strength in the upper arm or shoulder. It hurts a good bit to move it. I was marked down for the convalescent home 3 days ago, & was to leave tomorrow Tuesday, but I think its fallen throu. I fancy the reason is cos they want all the Stralians to be together & for that purpose are constructing a Home for us which is not yet completed.

We arrived at Southampton on Sunday 16th – your birthday Viola - & were put in the most comfortable hospital train imaginable & arrived in Birmingham a few hours later, where we were met by motahs which conveyed us to this gaol. There was a great crowd waiting outside the station & they cheered us till I got quite bashful – I don’t think. We were cheered & waved to all the way to prison. This is the Birmingham Infirmary, & has been converted into a Military hospital. All of our nice “active” uniform (& it was active I can tell you _ _ _.) was rudely taken from us, & we were supplied with nice grey flannel pyjama suits & also a suit of blue fleecelined material in which to knock about. I didn’t get my blue suit till the Wednesday & as the nurses wouldn’t let me stroll throu the grounds in my jamates, I had to stay in bed. Hot water is laid on, at least steam is laid on & when you want hot water you turn the water on & then turn on sufficient steam to heat the water as it passes through it. Have been able to indulge in the glorious luxury of a hot barf every morning.

I’ll probably get a complete new rigout when I leave this hospital. When I was handing in my uniform the Sgt thort I could do with a new coat, so he ripped the other to pieces. Said that most likely I’ll also get a new overcoat & troozers.

After I read the R’s & Regs of this establishment I arrived at the conclusion that we are dangerous criminals. You see, they allow us to go out, but the number of places in the back yard that you cant enter would fill a big book, & to see that we don’t enter they’ve stationed sentries all over the place, who have an exaggerated idea about doing their dootie. Result, we are confined to a little bit of earth that’s too small to exercise on. First day I was allowed up tho, didn’t do too bad. Got 3 kindred spirits & as the sentries had not arrived, we disregarded the “out of bounds” notices & went for a stroll. Got out of our own backyard by a back path & entered a loonie asylum, & had an interesting chat with a few illusioned celebrities, & on tiring of that, we passed throu & got into the workhouse & still keeping on we got back to the hospital again near the front gate. There was a crowd there, mostly attractive young ladies & flapperites, so of course we steered for them. Suddenly an unearthly yell resounded & on looking round saw a corporal going mad. He was approaching us at a high speed & his arms were describing fantastic figures in the atmosphere. We didn’t like the look of him, & didn’t like the thort of him getting loose amongst the beautiful damsels at the gate, so we moved towards him also at a high speed. Our determined front had the desired effect, & he was quite calm when we reached him. However we did not trust him, so we accompanied him back & after seeing him safe with some of his mates, we strolled off in a new direction. We also discovered a gate opening on to a street, & of course it didn’t take long for us to get boxes & planks etc against the gate to stand on, & in a few moments we were admiring an English back street & incidentally some of the residents – especially the female element. They provided us with cigarettes, lollies, fruit etc in exchange for bloodcurdling tails – mostly fishy ones – about the front. Being bashful I didn’t take an active part in the operations, I merely contented myself thoroughly examining & scrutinizing the upturned rosycheeked faces with mouths open in wondering astonishment at the experiences of the narrators.

Tuesday 25th

After a while another corporal bobbled up from somewhere & there was a general scramble down. Owing to only having one arm, & to having a strong contempt _ _ _. for rank I was the last, so he came over to me & gave me a 7ft 6 lecture & 9ft of advice. I kept saying “yes” every now & again till he finished.

I’ve just got word after all that I’ve to go to the convalescent home today. I don’t know where it is but I spose I’ll find it if I have someone to take me there.

I’ve got a new rigout cept overcoat. It’s awful. They only had two sizes in coats. 9’s & 3’s I take 4’s so had to be content with a 3. It’s a small edition of an Eton _ _ _. The troozers are too big but it was the best. I’ll look a nut when I start off. They’ve given me two underpants each about 8 lb _ _ _. Well I’ll have to close now. Hope you all are in the best of health & spirits. Don’t worry over either of us – we’ll be alright. I’ll just about get back in nice time to enter Constant’. Love to all your loving son & brother Bert.

http://smythe.id.au/letters/15_17.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A 'Pathetic Sideshow' - Australians and the Russian Intervention, 1918-1919

(...) The reaction in Australia to these events, and to the involvement of Australians, was muted. The newspapers carried many stories about the fighting in Russia, but most of these were reprints of articles in the British press, and rarely mentioned Australians. The raising of the relief force had caused some comment, however. The journal of the Returned Sailors' and Soldiers' Imperial League, The Soldier, had wondered how Australian soldiers would like working under British officers (15). Several of the papers produced by the labour movement carried critical editorials, generally on the theme that Australian soldiers should have no part in putting down a popular revolution (16). Apart from reports of the men's return to Australia and the award of two Victoria Crosses to them, the mainstream press paid the contingent little attention. The one exception to this was a trenchantly argued editorial in the Melbourne Truth on 24 May. Like the labour press, this newspaper argued that Australians should not be part of an attempt to suppress a popular revolution and set up a military dictator ship. The paper stated that the Australian uniform 'has not yet been stained by anything of which an Australian need be ashamed', and called for the removal of Australians from the force (17). (...)

Noten:
15.The Soldier: Official Organ of the Returned Sailors' and Soldiers' Imperial League of Australia, 6 June 1919, p.4.
16.Australian Worker, 3 July 1919, p.15; The Worker, Brisbane, 10 July 1919, p.11.
17.Truth, 24 May 1919, p.4


Interessant artikel op http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/north_russia/journal.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sean T O'Ceallaigh to Dublin

Paris, 24 May 1919

A Chara:
Your two letters dated 19-v-19 per Mr. Lee were delivered here Wednesday night.1 I also received per the same messenger
(a) Official repudiation of signatures of British Delegates on behalf of Ireland;
(b) Specimen draft of letter to Clemenceau; and
(c) Per the other messenger case containing copies of memorandum for presentation to Peace Conference.

As regards (a): This I had handed in at the Foreign Office, Quai d'Orsay, on Thursday, 22nd inst., addressed as directed to M. Clemenceau. I had copies made and sent to the French, American and English Press Clubs, and also to the News Agencies. I am now having copies made, to be sent to all delegates to the Peace Conference, and to all prominent newspapers in Europe.

With regard to this letter, I am sorry to have to report Seoirse and other competent judges here are not satisfied with the work of your French translator, and Seoirse says more care should be taken to have important work of this kind done properly.

While on this topic I have also to call your attention to an error which appears on page 4 of the French translation of the 'Memorandum'. Towards the end of that page the word 'ports' is spelled 'forts', thus destroying the sense of the paragraph. This of course we will have corrected.

As regards (b): This will be seen to as directed. As to (c): We are awaiting copies of formal demands referred to, signed by three delegates before doing anything in this matter. We shall require at least 90 (ninety) copies of memorandum for presentation to delegates to Peace conference alone. This number will also be increased when the German and neutral nations, not now represented, send their delegates to the formal signing of the Peace. We are having copies of the French translation of the memorandum printed in pamphlet form for presentation to the Press of Europe and for sale here afterwards.

We hope to receive from you as early as possible copy of 'demand for Ireland's inclusion in League of Nations'; also 'demand for Recognition of Republic' to which you refer - your letter of 19th.

We must send at least three copies of each of these documents to Rome, and I expect our friend there will be able to have a copy or two passed on to Uncle Paul.

Before dealing with other matters I will first answer other points raised in your letter.

1. I think the press and publicity side of the work here has been and is being as well looked after as possible, at any rate I think you need have no fear of our neglecting it in future. You have no idea of the difficulty of dealing with the French papers and the delicate handling they require.

We both realise fully the necessity for keeping our question continually hot and all hands may rely on us to do our very best in that direction.

2. As regards getting into close contact with S. Africans and others mentioned, we have so far done all that we could do in that matter. We are in constant communication with Egyptians and S. Africans. There are no Indians here that we know of - except the one who is pro-British delegate to Conference, and we know there is no use touching him. We have been so far acting in an advisory capacity to the Egyptian and S. African delegations, who look to us for aid and assistance in drawing up their documents and presenting their claims etc., to the conference and the press.

We have made efforts to get into closer touch with the representatives of a number of the smaller European states, but though we have succeeded to some extent, we have not had all the success we would wish. The reasons for this it would take too much time to explain in detail here.

Now as to our American friends: As I have already told you in my letter per J.W. - which I trust you have safely received - they were charmed beyond measure with their wonderful reception and with all they saw and heard while in Ireland. Ryan, as previously explained, seemed to think enough had not been made of him, and he is still somewhat sore over this. He complained of never having had a chance to talk privately with you, and he has also stated that he was prevented from calling on Mr. John Dillon - which he was most anxious to do. He left here to-day for America, and last night gave out a statement to the press announcing his departure and the reason for it. This I presume you have already read in the Irish papers. Ryan has promised to urge on our friends in America the necessity of raising at once large funds to carry on the fight, and it has been agreed here that he should report to the Convention Committee that they must prepare at once for a most vigorous and widespread campaign against ratification of the Peace Treaty till Ireland's claim has been settled. Walsh and Dunne are making arrangements to return about June 7th. We expect they will stay on longer if later they find they are required, or can accomplish anything by staying. Walsh is particularly anxious to get back in time for the Convention of the American Federation of Labour which meets in Atlantic City about June 15th. He says he expects to be able to get this body to take up Ireland's case, and if he can do this he is practically certain he can make it most difficult for Wilson to get the Treaty or League of Nations ratified, unless he does something to help our cause. As I have already said in a recent letter, Walsh is most anxious you should do your very best to get a delegate or two from Irish Labour sent out to that convention. He says that would give tremendous help and would enable all labour friends at convention to insist on having Ireland's case raised and discussed. Walsh would like Hughes and Johnson to go if possible. Walsh has told us that he is prepared to devote himself to the work of pressing Ireland's cause in America. He has been so deeply impressed with all he saw and heard in Ireland that he is satisfied to do everything that is humanly possible for him to do to help us. Dunne is all right, too, on this end, but for many reasons - family and otherwise - we cannot expect as much from him. If Shannon is on the Continent he should communicate with us; in fact we think he ought to come to Paris to see Walsh at once. We had hoped to see Miss Louie Bennett on her way from Switzerland, but she has not turned up.

Now, as to your coming here: We have had several talks on that subject, and we have definitely decided to recommend you not to come. We cannot see what you would gain by doing so, and we don't see that any good could accrue to the Cause by your presence. Again yesterday Walsh and I discussed it, and it is our view and I know that Seoirse shares it too, that there is now no chance of the Dail delegates being allowed to appear before the Peace Conference or any of its committees or commissions, so even if you were here we cannot see that you could do more than is being done at present. It is our view that it would not be wise or proper to bring you here to have you and the Irish Republic snubbed by the Peace Conference, and thus give further opportunities for our enemies to belittle the cause. We are all of opinion that Wilson is not likely now to take strong action in pressing our claim for a hearing. Even if he does it is felt that the English would never agree. The most that may be done now is that the American delegates to the Peace Conference may give the American Commission on Irish Independence an opportunity of stating Ireland's claims before them. It is not certain that Wilson would be willing to attend with the other delegates, even if they do consent to a meeting. My opinion is that they ought not to go there even if Wilson does not promise to attend to hear Ireland's case stated. However, Walsh has not made up his mind on that point yet. As you probably are aware the American Commission sent a strong letter to Wilson on Tuesday last asking of him personally to demand a hearing for Ireland. You have probably seen stated in the papers that he has since sent a reply through his private secretary stating that the matter was being attended to and that a reply would be sent by Mr. Lansing, Secretary of State. We expected this reply a day or two ago, but so far it hasn't turned up. We are at a loss to know what can be the cause of the delay. It is not expected that the reply will be a favorable one when it does come. All our present plans are being arranged on that basis.
As I have already said our American friends are satisfied the fight must be transferred to the United States, and they are prepared to do their share in making the issue a burning one. For that reason we are of opinion that it would be useful if you could go to the States as soon as it is definitely known that we have been turned down here, and that all hope of achieving anything through the Peace Conference has vanished.

The question of your demanding safe conduct from the British authorities directly we think it better to leave to yourselves to decide. It is possible there may be some reference to this in the reply which we are promised from Secretary of State Lansing. If so, of course you will get that information in the newspapers, as naturally we shall publish the reply as soon as it has been received.

As regards the Franco-Irish Society: This body you needn't take too seriously. As far as it exists at all it has been brought into existence by me. The Irish community here is very small in number and if possible of much less account from the point of view of influence. I think the total membership of the Society numbers six, and so far as we can discover there are no other likely members in and around Paris at present. I thought it well from a propaganda point of view that such a Society should be founded and reports of its meetings sent to the press from time to time. There is very little the members can do but that little they are willing and ready to do as occasion offers. Mr. Mac White, who is the Secretary, I have known in connection with Sinn Fein affairs for fifteen years or nearly so. Gavan Duffy too knows him very well. He is not in a position to be of much assistance to us here, but what little he can do he does gladly and we make all possible use of him.

The French press has been most timid about touching the Irish Question up to the present, but we are assured from reliable sources and in fact we see ourselves from day to day quite recently that the press and French public opinion generally is continually growing more and more anti-British, and we believe that once the Peace Treaty has been signed many opportunities will offer for pushing our propaganda here. I am glad to say that we have been already able to arrange with one or two friends to write some articles on Ireland from our point of view in some important French newspapers. M. Goblet, for instance, has promised to do a series for the 'Journal des Debate'. We will have more to say on this subject later.

We think that the period of Madame Vivanti's usefulness here is drawing to a close, and that we shall be able soon to dispense with her services, which we are glad to say have been of the highest value. We still find Victor Collins useful; in fact it would be difficult to get on without some one to do the rough work he is doing, and we propose retaining his services for the present.

Tonight we are having General Hertzog and two of his colleagues to dinner, together with our American friends. We intend to discuss the possibilities of joint action of some kind, either here before the Peace Conference breaks up, or afterwards. We shall take up this subject with the Egyptians also and with some other of the smaller and oppressed nations later, as occasion offers.

Seoirse thinks it well we should let you know that we here have no difficulty in corresponding with America. As far as we can gather there is no interference by French censors. If therefore you have any mail you want sent, and cannot send safely from Ireland or England perhaps you could send it to us from time to time to post here.

I think now I have answered all your points fully as I can and that I have given you the fullest information as to how matters stand here at the moment, together with the possibilities of the future as far as we can foresee them.

With kindest regards and very best wishes from us both,
Sean T. O'Ceallaigh

http://www.difp.ie/viewdoc.asp?DocID=11
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Mei 2010 20:00, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mei 2010 19:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THIRD ANGLO-AFGHAN WAR (1919)

The British used aircraft in the Third Afghan War in 1919, and with great success against an uprising in Iraq from 1922 onwards. The famed Handley Page V/1500 was called into action and ordered to bomb the royal Palace in Kabul. On 24 May 1919, a lone plane flown by Captain Robert “Jock” Halley appeared on the Kabul sky. After circling for a while it hovered above the royal palace and dropped its entire ammunition load that consisted of four large sized bombs. Although the bombing itself did little physical damage but it had a great psychological impact on the citizens – the women of the royal harem rushed on to the streets in terror – and in a few days King Amanullah had called a truce.

The Third Anglo-Afghan War was the shortest of the conflicts between Britain and Afghanistan, lasting from 4 May 1919 until a cease-fire was agreed to on 3 June 1919. During World War I, Afghanistan had remained neutral (although some members of the government had favored an invasion of India), and Amir Habibullah had anticipated receiving a financial reward from Britain and a recognition of Afghanistan’s status as an independent nation. However, Britain was not prepared to relinquish its hold over Afghanistan, and Habibullah was assassinated in February 1919 without any progress having been made.

Lees verder op http://warandgame.wordpress.com/2009/12/27/third-anglo-afghan-war-1919/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2010 10:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VORMING VAN DE IEPERSE BOOG EN TROEPENOPSTELLING

(...) De verwarring bij de geallieerde legerleiding was onbeschrijfelijk en de toestand zou nog dagen verward blijven. Toch slaagden vooral de Canadezen erin de bres gedeeltelijk te dichten, met de hulp van een aantal niet-gevluchte Fransen, en aan de flank bij Steenstrate gesteund door de Belgen. Dit dank zij de pauze die de Duitsers genomen hadden om zich in te graven. Nog tot 24 mei zouden er bijna dagelijks zeer hevige gevechten geleverd worden. Toch slaagden de Duitsers er niet meer in om hun droom te verwezenlijken, namelijk Ieper te veroveren.(....)

Lees beslist verder op http://www.digilife.be/teleducatie/vbssj/omd98/omd20.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2010 10:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British Cemetery: Poelcapelle British Cemetery

Royal Irish Regiment
Twee goede vrienden liggen naast mekaar begraven, en sneuvelden beide op dezelfde dag, ten noordwesten van Mouse Trap Farm.
- Pte T. Carthy (47) LVI-F-7
Royal Irish Regiment 24th May 1915
- Pte J. Condon (14) LVI-F-8
Royal Irish Regiment 24th May 1915

John Condon is de jongste Britse gesneuvelde uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Hij werd geboren op de parochie van Holy Trinity Without, in Waterford, in juni 1901 en hij was een goed gebouwde jongeman, die in 1913 voor een zeventienjarige kon doorgaan. Hij engageerde zich in het 2e bataljon van het Irish Regiment, voordien de North Tipperary Light Infantery, die dan enkel parttime soldaten opnam.

Hij gaf zijn leeftijd op als zestien jaar oud, wanneer hij dienst nam in juni 1913 en was nog steeds in dienst wanneer de oorlog uitbrak in 1914. Zijn eigenlijke voornaam was Patrick, maar hij had zich in beide gevallen de voornaam van zijn oudere broer John aangenomen. Hij kwam in een depot in Clonmel terecht. Jong zijnde waar hij gedurende de eerste dagen van de oorlog verbleef. Maar in april 1915 werd het bataljon in actieve dienst aangevuld en John Condon kon het zo schikken, dat hij op de actieve lijst geraakte. Hij vertrok naar het vasteland vóór zijn familie wist dat hij Ierland verlaten had. Het 2e bataljon, het Royal Irish Regiment, was in gevechten in Sint-Juliaan en omgeving gewikkeld, wat inhield vier dagen in de vuurlinie, gevolgd door vier dagen rust.

Op 24 mei 1915 legde de Duitsers een hevige artillerie-barrage op de eerste lijn en John was tussen de tweeëntwintig man, die die dag omkwamen. Precies op diezelfde dag ontdekte zijn familie, dat hij niet meer in de kazerne in Ierland was, maar naar het front vertrokken was. In een brief aan Minister-President Lloyd George onthulden ze zijn echte leeftijd met het verzoek hem naar huis te zenden. Maar de tussenkomst kwam te laat.

Hij stierf op 24 mei 1915 op dertien jaar, elf maanden en twee weken. Zijn graf heeft als opschrift: 6322 Private John Condon Royal Irish Regiment 24th May 1915 age 14

Nu zijn er heel wat vraagtekens bijgekomen over de leeftijd van John Condon en als het ook wel hijzelf is die onder het grafsteen ligt in Poelkapelle. Een mysterie die misschien ooit zal worden opgelost.

http://poelkapelle.wimme.net/Britischcemetery
Zie m.b.t. John Condon ook http://www.wo1.be/age14//
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2010 11:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

24 mei 1916 - Er waren problemen met de vergoeding van Isidoor Valgaeren, als militair geďnterneerd in Zeist. Zijn ouders ontvingen geen betaling van juli 1914 tot mei 1916, zijnde 23 maanden ŕ 15 frank = 345 frank. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:07-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1916&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2010 11:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

de BROQUEVILLE, Graaf Charles, M.-P.-A.

Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog speelt Charles de Broqueville een sleutelrol als regeringsleider.

Charles de Broqueville begon zijn politieke carričre als Volksvertegenwoordiger voor het arrondissement Turnhout in 1892, wat hij zou blijven tot november 1919.

Op zijn vijftigste, in 1910, werd hij Minister van Spoorwegen.

In 1911 viel het kabinet Schollaert over de schoolbon, die op weerstand van Koning Albert I gebotst was. Het kabinet Schollaert wilde met zijn nieuw onderwijsvoostel de schoolplicht optrekken tot veertien jaar en tegelijk alle scholen op gelijke voet subsidiëren. Om dit te bereiken had hij een systeem van schoolbons bedacht die aan de ouders zouden worden toegestuurd en die zouden de ouders kunnen inleveren bij de school van hun keuze.

Op 9 juni 1911 werd Charles de Broqueville Eerste Minister, of Kabinetshoofd zoals het toen genoemd werd. Onder zijn bewind wordt op 28 mei 1913 de wet op de militaire dienstplicht gestemd – in het kader van de nakende oorlogsdreiging – welke één zoon per gezin dienstplichtig maakt en de wet op lager onderwijs tot 14 jaar in 1914.

In 1914 besloot de regering de neutraliteit met de wapens te verdedigen.

De Eerste Minister had het druk. In het belegerde en bijna afgesneden Antwerpen overreedde hij de militairen om, samen met de Koning, de terugtocht naar de kust aan te vatten. Als Minister van Oorlog leidde hij mee het leger dat, in moeilijke omstandigheden, terugplooide achter de IJzer.

De regering kwam in het Franse Le Havre terecht. De regeringsleider bleef echter in West-Vlaanderen wonen, vlak bij de Vorst. Met hulp van de Verenigde Staten kon men in het binnenland de hongersnood voorkomen, ondanks Engelse en Franse bezwaren.

De Broqueville voerde tijdens de oorlog een afgewogen en onafhankelijke politiek, gericht op het sparen van het leger en herstel van de vrede, zonder overtrokken eisen, en liefst zonder zich met handen en voeten te binden aan de drukkende grootmachten Frankrijk en Groot-Brittannië.

Een eerbare vrede zat er echter niet in.

Hij evolueerde tijdens de oorlogsjaren van Kabinetshoofd naar een leidinggevende Eerste Minister. Niet zonder risico. Zijn ‘Komiteit voor Oorlog en ’s Lands Wederopbouw’ vormde in feite een kernkabinet, met één oog gericht op de politieke toekomst na de oorlog. In 1917 nam de Broqueville de portefeuille van Buitenlandse Zaken van Baron Beyens over.

Tegenover de Vlaamse soldaten stond de Broqueville meer begrijpend dan anderen. Hij wilde tegemoetkomen aan Vlaamse eisen omdat hij dacht dat dit voor de Belgische staat een kwestie van leven of dood was. Op 13 januari 1916 verstuurt hij een eerste circulaire, waarop hij aandringt op de correcte toepassing van de taalwet van 1913 en de aalmoezeniers, officieren en onderofficieren aanspoort om met de soldaten te praten in hun moedertaal.

Tijdens de oorlogsjaren zaten zowel de Koning als de Broqueville dicht bij het front. De Ministers zaten in Le Havre. Beslissingen drongen zich soms onverhoeds op. De verantwoordelijkheid was zwaar, een incident altijd mogelijk. De Eerste Minister zat tussen twee vuren, regering en Koning. De stress lag in zulke momenten op de loer, zeker toen het Duitse leger in 1918 zijn lentenoffensief inzette. Op 17 april vroegen de Franse President Poincaré en opperbevelhebber Maarschalk Foch Koning Albert om het bevel over het leger aan de Geallieerden over te dragen. Ze vingen bot.

Koning Albert I beschouwde wat in de Grondwet staat ‘De Koning is Opperbevelhebber van het Leger’ niet als een dode letter. De legeradministratie, de operaties en de oorlogspolitiek genieten zijn aandacht. De Koning is van oordeel dat in oorlogstijd en voor militaire operaties dit niet onder de voogdij van de Minister van Oorlog valt. Hij voert effectief het bevel, bijgestaan door de generale staf.

De ministers waren eenparig misnoegd omdat de Koning met de instemming en de handtekening van Generaal de Ceuninck, pink op de broeksnaad en de nieuwe Minister van Oorlog, Generaal Gillain tot stafchef benoemd had, zonder advies van de ministerraad. Op 24 april vertolkte de Eerste Minister dit standpunt bij de Koning. Op het einde van het onderhoud overhandigde de Broqueville achteloos een nota van zijn kabinetchef Louis de Lichtervelde, een nota waarin de persoonlijke bevelvoering van de Koning over het leger op constitutionele gronden betwist werd, en die hij maar vluchtig had kunnen doorlezen, zo zei de Broqueville.

Die nota viel bij de Koning in slechte aarde. De Regeringsleider moest de Koning dadelijk zeggen of de nota zijn gedachten weerspiegelde.

Het antwoord was ‘dubbelzinnig’. De Broqueville had het niet zo scherp bedoeld, maar Albert duldde geen kritiek op zijn bevelvoering. Uitleggen en rechtzetten was er niet meer bij.

De Eerste Minister was nu een gemakkelijke prooi geworden, zonder dekking. Een tweede tegenslag opvangen kon hij niet meer, want in en buiten de regering zat men niet stil, beter nog, men had nooit stil gezeten. Dit keer ging het over de Vlaamse Kwestie. Om het hoofd te bieden aan de Frontisten, had hij het programma van de pacifistische flaminganten gesteund. Hierop dreigden de liberale ministers met ontslag. Broquevilles vrienden steunden hem niet meer, toch niet openlijk.

Op 24 mei 1918 diende Charles de Broqueville zijn ontslag in als Eerste Minister. Het ontslag werd zondermeer aanvaard door de Koning en de katholiek Gerard Cooreman werd zijn opvolger. Op 31 mei 1918 werd hij tot Minister van Staat benoemd.

Het Verdrag van Versailles beoordeelde de Broqueville als te vernederend voor Duitsland. Een andere aanpak zou een betere aanpak voor vrede geweest zijn.

Lees verder op http://www.ars-moriendi.be/DE_BROQUEVILLE.HTM
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 17:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lingekopf @ 24 Mei 2008 11:25 schreef:
Aankomst van de Amerikanen in Noord-Frankrijk: http://nord-pas-de-calais-picardie.france3.fr/info/43122906-fr.php

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"All Wars Arise For The Possesion Of Wealth" (Plato)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2011 17:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Schets van Lokeren voor 1919.

De laatste vooroorlogse parlementsverkiezingen hadden plaats op 24 mei 1914. Het land van Waas had recht op vier volksvertegenwoordigers. In verband met de senaatsverkiezingen had het arrondissement Sint-Niklaas toenadering gezocht met het arrondissement Dendermonde. Beide besloten zich inzake senaatsverkiezingen samen te smelten. Samen hadden ze recht op vier senatoren.

Bij die laatste vooroorlogse parlementsverkiezingen hadden de katholieken schrik hun parlementaire meerderheid te verliezen, omdat de invoering van de persoonlijke dienstplicht (1913) en de sociale wetgeving een verzwaring van de belastingen met zich hadden meegebracht. De verkiezingen zelf stonden in het teken van de militaire en onderwijspolitiek van de regering, terwijl de oppositie streefde voor het algemeen enkelvoudig stemrecht. Liberalen en socialisten trokken afzonderlijk ten strijde, omdat het kartel van 1912 niet de verwachte resultaten had opgeleverd. Ook nu bleef na de verkiezingen de toestand onveranderd: drie katholieken werden tot volksvertegenwoordiger herkozen, namelijk Raemdonck, Nobels en Van Brussel, samen de met liberaal Jan Persoons

http://www.ethesis.net/lokeren/lokeren_hfst_1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2011 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Great War - 24.05.1915

http://www.flickr.com/photos/4kleuren/5496452551/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2011 18:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Panorama...

... is al sinds 1913 een van de meest bekende familietijdschriften. Verscheen 2x per week, vanaf 24 mei 1916 wekelijks.

http://www.krantvanjegeboortedag.nl/online-bestellen/719208/panorama/online-bestellen.html#
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2011 18:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Majoor Sylvain-Eugčne Raynal

Wanneer de 49-jarige Raynal (1867-1939) op 24 mei 1916 arriveert in het Fort de Vaux, loopt de Majoor moeizaam met een wandelstok. Als Commandant van het 7me Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens raakt hij in september 1914 al gewond aan zijn schouder door een mitrailleurkogel. In december 1914 raakt Raynal opnieuw gewond, als hij geraakt wordt door de inslag van een granaat op zijn commandopost. Na 10 maanden van revalidatie zendt het leger de Majoor weer naar het front. Enkele dagen na zijn aankomst op 1 oktober 1915 raakt Raynal alweer gewond, deze keer door "shrapnel"-kogels (2) in zijn been. Opnieuw moet Raynal herstellen van zijn verwondingen tot het begin van 1916. In die tijd verordonneert het Ministerie van Oorlog, dat officieren, die ten gevolge van hun verwondingen niet meer in de eerste linie kunnen vechten, benoemd kunnen worden tot commandant van een (veiliger geacht) fort. Onmiddellijk meldt Raynal zich in februari aan als vrijwilliger om te mogen dienen in een fort bij Verdun. (...)

Wanneer Raynal op 24 mei zijn post in het Fort de Vaux betrekt, is hij Commandant van het garnizoen, dat bestaat uit de 6de compagnie en een deel van de 7de compagnie van het 142me Régiment Infanterie van het Tweede Leger, uit 2 Mitrailleur Compagnies van het 142ste, een eenheid van kanonniers van het 5me Régiment d'Artillerie de Position (RAP) en het 6me RA, een eenheid van sappeurs (4) van het 2me Régiment de Génie en het 9me, en verplegers van het 101me R.I., samen zo'n 250 man.

Leest verder! http://pierreswesternfront.punt.nl/index.php?r=1&id=460205&tbl_archief=1
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2011 18:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gedenkteken Oudstrijdersplein (Poperinge - WOI)

Deze gedenksteen en de bijhorende straatnaam 'Oudstrijdersplein' werden ingehuldigd als blijk van waardering tegenover de oud-strijders op de 50ste verjaardag van de wapenstilstand. Op deze plaats stond aan de vooravond van WOI het Sint-Vincentiusgesticht: een complex van gebouwen verdeeld in de verblijfplaats van de zusters die het gesticht bestuurden, het ouderlingentehuis en het jongenswezenhuis, de Roboutschool. In 1914 werd het opgeëist door de geallieerden om dienst te doen als medische post voor de gewonde militairen. De bewoners werden geëvacueerd naar Frankrijk waar zij de hele oorlog bleven. Op 24 april 1915 en 24 mei 1917 werd het huis zwaar getroffen door het Duits kanongeschut. Na de herstellingswerken in 1923 kwamen de vluchtelingen terug.

http://inventaris.vioe.be/woi/relict/859
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2018 8:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sicilian school publication commemorating Italy’s entry into the First World War

This publication was issued on 24 May 1918, the third anniversary of Italy’s entry into World War One. It was free, and produced by a primary school in Catania, on the island of Sicily. Both the children and teachers wrote the texts, addressed mainly to the children’s families.

https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/24may-1915-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2018 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EADY J (Private) - Machine Gun Corps - killed in action 24 May 1918

Telegram... https://discoveringanzacs.naa.gov.au/browse/records/170309/2
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2018 9:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gertrude Bell Archive: Letter to her stepmother and father, Dame Florence Bell and Sir Hugh Bell, 24 May 1918

Baghdad May 24 Dearest Parents. Will you forgive me if I write in pencil - it's not really a bit hot but hot enough to make a fountain pen rather a nuisance; it dries up so fast. Here we are at the end of May and the temp. rarely over 100 - it's wonderful. I've had rather an uneventful week - let me see. I went to tea with the C. in C. who wasn't well and wanted company, but he is all right again. And then I went to breakfast with him to see a [sic] see an out of doors place on the river they've made for a breakfasting room, very nice indeed but their garden isn't nice - because it has no plants in it, so I've taken it over and am stocking it with cheerful plants in pots. He's a great dear the C. in C. Also I went to tea with an old saiyid at Kadhimain [(Al Kazimiyah)], a charming man. I took a colleague and rode out - it's about 5 miles. But we had to leave the horses there and come home by train for it's the other side of the river and the bridge is cut about sunset. Next day the saiyid paid me a visit of digestion - it appeared to be done the other way round here, by the host not by the guest - in order to tell me that the heads of the inhabitants of Kadhimain had touched the Pleiades on account of our coming to the tea party. It's uncommon, isn't it, to produce such notable results by going to tea parties. We've been having a Red X week in a modest way - but the sums collected are far from modest - culminating in a garden party in the public garden this evening, to which went [sic]. It was very successful, largely thanks to the co-operation of the Jews. A good many leading inhabitants came and were introduced to the C. in C. after which I walked round with him and translated. Finally he made a speech - composed by Captain Wilson and me in the morning, mostly by Capt. Wilson. It was all very friendly and pleasant. I'm not sure if you realize who Capt. Wilson is though he is a very notable person. He is Dep. Civil Commissioner, and Acting C.C. while Sir Percy is away - a most remarkable creature, 34, brilliant abilities, a combined mental and physical power which is extremely rare. I'm devoted to him - he is the best of colleagues and he ought to make a wonderful career. I don't think I've ever come across anyone of more extraordinary force.
Oh dear, how much I would like to have you just for an hour and show you our office, I'm accustomed to it now, but it's a wonderful place. We occupy 2 big houses built round courtyards on the river. Capt W. and I have rooms next door to one another on the 1st floor. Mine is all shielded with mats and blinds against the sun and is beautifully cool. It has a writing table and a big map table, a sofa and some chairs with white cotton covers and lovely bits of Persian brocade over them, 2 or 3 very good rugs on the brick floor and a couple of exquisite old Persian glass vases on top of the blackwood bookcase. The walls covered with maps. It's a nice place. On the verandah which runs round the inside of the court sit our kawasses - office servants, in khaki uniform - to fetch and carry files and papers for us, run messages and so on. They are mostly Arabs, some Persians with immensely high bulbous felt hats. Opposite is the room of the Financial Adviser, Major May; the peacock mostly sits with him; and in between, the map room, the cypher room, the room of the P.O. Baghdad, Captain Gillan with a crowd of people waiting always to see him. In the next house all the clerks, British N.C.O.s, capital men, Eurasians doing the confidential work (and they are first rate too), two vernacular departments, Arab and Persian, the one presided over by a brilliant young Italian, born in Egypt, with an amazing gift of tongues, the other by an Afshan Nawab, born in Karbala, for whom I have a deep affection and esteem. He wears a very large white turban among other items, and looks what he is, a perfect gentleman. The fact is I love them all; they're so delightful to work with. But a medley, isn't it! And though I'm accustomed to it, I never quite get over the amusement and interest of it. I spend an entertaining hour every morning learning Persian which I've almost forgotten. But it comes back quickly and during the first week I've already begun to chatter an amazing jargon, 3 parts Arabic I'm afraid. I have the complete illusion of speaking Persian for my teacher (one of our vernacular clerks) instructs me in Arabic and understands what I'm trying to say, but I fear the natives of Persia won't. However it's great fun. Richard P.H. [Pope-Hennessy] has come back to Baghdad. It's very nice to have him, but I fear he'll be off soon. Ever dearest family, your very affectionate Gertrude

http://gertrudebell.ncl.ac.uk/letter_details.php?letter_id=309
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2018 9:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 May 1917 | T. E. Lawrence Society

Just before noon, on the fifth day of their crossing of El Houl, one of the Arabs was found to be missing, his riderless camel led by one of the Howeitat. Surly and ill-natured, Gasim was unpopular with the other Arabs, and …

“… they did not greatly care …

“I looked weakly at my trudging men, and wondered for a moment if I could change with one, sending him back on my camel to the rescue. My shirking the duty would be understood, because I was a foreigner: but that was precisely the plea I did not dare set up, while I yet presumed to help these Arabs in their own revolt …

“So, without saying anything, I turned my unwilling camel round, and forced her, grunting and moaning for her camel friends, back past the long line of men, and past the baggage into the emptiness behind. My temper was very unheroic, for I was furious with my other servants, with my own play-acting as a Beduin, and most of all with Gasim … It seemed absurd that I should peril my weight in the Arab adventure for a single worthless man.”


Lawrence found Gasim, “nearly blinded and silly”, an hour and a half later. On the way back, they were met by Auda.

“Auda pointed to the wretched hunched-up figure and denounced me, ‘For that thing, not worth a camel’s price . . .’ I interrupted him with ‘Not worth a half-crown, Auda’, and he, delighted in his simple mind, rode near Gasim, and struck him sharply, trying to make him repeat, like a parrot, his price.”

That night, after five days crossing El Houl, the Arabs arrived in Wadi Sirhan. But another of their party was missing – a slave. Months later, Lawrence would learn that his dried-up body had been found, next to his camel, far out in the wilderness, having succumbed to heat and thirst.

Events of 24 May 1917 as recounted by T. E. Lawrence in Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1926).

http://www.telsociety.org.uk/24-may-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Mei 2018 9:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24th May 1917 | Roxburgh Diaries

At Sea. 4 a.m. preparations were made for sea and we left Hampton Rds at 6 a.m. One steamer (Leeds City) was left behind because she was too slow. A notice was placed on the board stating “Roxburgh is escorting convoy of 12 ships. No other orders have been received yet, but a W/T signal is expected giving full orders”. Destroyers are expected to meet us on June 6th. So that is 13 days to go ere we meet the destroyers and as that generally meet ships well outside the danger zone it is safe to say that it will be all June 8th ere we see harbour wherever it is on the West or South coast.

These cargo boats are all slow vessels and so the journey so far as the danger zone is being done at 8 knots per hour. “Some” steaming. We have been steaming in a north-easterly direction all day. The air is cold and the temp. of sea at 4 p.m. was only 50°.

We only had one bed case yesterday but two more men were put in bed today. One of them is suffering from severe abdominal pain and as he seems distressed and only eased by repeated fomentations we have to keep watches on him tonight.

Our mails were left with the Vice-Consul at Norfolk, Virginia, and should go via New York in such a manner as to arrive in England ere we do.

http://www.leiermann.co.uk/archives/2218
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