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15 December

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2005 9:08    Onderwerp: 15 December Reageer met quote

December 15

1915 British begin evacuation of Gallipoli


On December 15, Allied forces begin a full retreat from the shores of the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey, ending a disastrous invasion of the Ottoman Empire. The Gallipoli campaign resulted in 250,000 Allied casualties and a greatly discredited Allied military command. Roughly an equal number of Turks were killed or wounded.

In early 1915, the British government resolved to ease Turkish pressure on the Russians on the Caucasus front by seizing control of the Dardanelles channel, the Gallipoli peninsula, and then Istanbul. From there, pressure could be brought on Austria-Hungary, forcing the Central Powers to divert troops from the Western Front. The first lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, strongly supported the plan, and in February 1915 French and British ships began bombarding the Turkish forts guarding the Dardanelles.

Bad weather interrupted the operation and on March 18 six English and four French warships moved into the Dardanelles. The Turks, however, had used the intervening time wisely, setting mines that sank three Allied ships and badly damaged three more. The naval attack was called off and a larger land invasion was planned.

Beginning April 25, British, Australian, and New Zealand troops landed on the Gallipoli peninsula, while the French pretended to land on the opposite coast to divert Ottoman forces. The Australians and New Zealanders were devastated by the Turkish defenders, who were led by Mustafa Kemal, the future President Ataturk of Turkey. Meanwhile, the British were also met with fierce resistance at their Cape Helles landing sites and suffered two-thirds casualties at some locations. During the next three months, the Allies made only slight gains off their landing sites and sustained terrible casualties.

To break the stalemate, a new British landing at Suvla Bay occurred on August 6, but the British failed to capitalize on their largely unopposed landing and waited too long to move against the heights. Ottoman reinforcements arrived and quickly halted their progress. Trenches were dug, and the British were able to advance only a few miles.

In September, Sir Ian Hamilton, the British commander, was replaced by Sir Charles Monro, who in December recommended an evacuation from Gallipoli. On January 8, 1916, the last of the Allied troops were withdrawn. As a result of the disastrous campaign, Churchill resigned as first lord of the Admiralty and accepted a commission to command an infantry battalion in France.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2005 9:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 15. Dezember

1914
31000 Russen in Westgalizien gefangengenommen
Räumung von Belgrad
Italienischer Senat
Die neue portugiesische Regierung
Zusammenkunft der nordischen Könige
Aus dem türkischen Parlament

1915
Erfolgreicher Kampf gegen französische Fluggeschwader
Vormarsch zur Taraschlucht in Montenegro
Eine neutrale Zone zwischen Bulgarien und Griechenland
Abberufung des Marschalls French

1916
Buzau genommen
Vergebliche französische Angriffe beiderseits der Maas
Schnelles Vordringen der Dobrudscha-Armee

1917
Die gescheiterte Offensive in Flandern
Erstürmung italienischer Bergstellungen auf dem Col Caprile

1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2005 10:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mark @ 15 Dec 2005 9:33 schreef:
15 december 1917

Wapenstilstand tussen Duitsland en Rusland getekend

On 15 December, an Armistice agreement was signed between Germany and Soviet Russia at Brest Litovsk. It was to commence at noon on the 17th and continue until noon on 14 January 1918. The Bolsheviks played a wait and see game, while the Germans exerted more and more pressure on them to sign a full Treaty.

Bron: WarChron


Ondertekening van de wapenstilstand. Foto van WeltChronik.de

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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2005 11:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15-12-1915 Generaal Sir Douglas Haig volgt veldmaarschalk Sir John French op als opperbevelhebber van de Britse troepen in Frankrijk.

15-12-1916 De Fransen heroveren de uitgangsposities bij Verdun.

Dit en nog meer interessante zaken op:
http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/chronologie/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Dec 2005 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 december 1914
Servië

Nadat een dag eerder terugtrekkende Oostenrijk-Hongaarse troepen de Sava overstaken bij Belgrado wordt de stad ingenomen door Servische troepen.

15 december 1915
Albanië

De grootste delen van zo ongeveer het halve Servische leger vlucht in de Skodar en andere steden. Enkele blijven in de bergen om weerstand te bieden en aansluiting te vinden met Sarrail's leger. Dan heeft het leger echter al 94.000 doden te betreuren. Tevens hebben ze 120.000 man verloren als krijgsgevangenen aan de Duitsers en Oostenrijkers en nog eens 50.000 aan de Bulgaren. De Serviërs voelen zich verraden door de geallieerden.

15 december 1916
Verdun

Nivelle houdt de druk op de Duitsers door het Franse tweede leger een klein offensief te laten beginnen waarbij ze Louvemont en Bezonvaux heroveren. De frontlijn komt nu twee mijl voor Douamont te liggen.
Mesopotamië
Terwijl de Britse vloot het garnizoen bij Sannaiyat bestookt trekt Maude op over de rivier en komt oog in oog met een sterk Turks garnizoen bij Hai sailient.

Bron:
The Almanac of World War I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2011 13:14    Onderwerp: Yorkshire Coast Raid, 15-16 December 1914 Reageer met quote

Yorkshire Coast Raid, 15-16 December 1914

The German raid on the Yorkshire coast of 15-16 December 1914 saw the first civilian casualties on British soil since the French Revolutionary Wars. It was the product of a failure of the German naval strategy at the start of the First World War. This had relied on the British coming into German home waters where they would have been vulnerable to attack by submarines. Meanwhile the High Seas Fleet would avoid taking risks that might expose the north German coast to invasion. Indeed, on 28 August 1914 elements of the British fleet had done just that (battle of Heligoland Bight), but the resulting battle had seen the Germans loose four ships without sinking a single British ship.

Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, the commander-in-chief of the High Seas Fleet, argued in favour of a more aggressive strategy, but he had to overcome resistance from the Kaiser, who ordered him not to take the High Seas Fleet to sea without his express permission. The battle of Coronel gave him his chance. The British were forced to dispatch three battlecruisers to find von Spee’s squadron, reducing the margin by which the Germans were outnumbered in the North Sea. A raid on Yarmouth on 3 November 1914 passed without incident, and Ingenohl began to plan for a more ambitious raid.

The Yorkshire coast was chosen at the target for the raid. It fell between the two nearest naval bases, on the Tyne and the Humber. In the early months of the war the Germans had laid minefields off both of those rivers, leaving a gap opposite Scarborough. The area was also due west of the German naval bases on the Elbe and the Jade. However, compared to Great Yarmouth the Yorkshire coast was much nearer the Grand Fleet’s Scottish bases. If secrecy was not observed there was a real danger that the British might catch the German raiding force. Accordingly, Ingenohl decided to take the High Seas Fleet out, to protect the battlecruisers if the British appeared.

In Britain the key concern was that the Germans might mount a small scale invasion of the east coast. The Navy had guarunteed to stop any invasion of over 70,000 men, but smaller forces would need less time to prepare and to cross the North Sea. The Army needed two regular divisions to guard against such a raid, but the regulars were all now in France. The navy was forced to distribute the Grand Fleet along the east coast, with a battle squadron at Rosyth, ships on the Tyne, the Humber and in the Wash, and a squadron of pre-Dreadnaught battleships at Sheerness (eventually to be joined by the Dreadnaught herself). It was believed that a small force would be able to inflict some damage on the German fleet if it came out, allowing the Grand Fleet to reach the scene. Coronel and the Falklands suggested that this was no longer the case, and that all the weaker forces on the east coast would actually do was provide the German battleships with target practice.

The British had a massive advantage in December 1914. Room 40 of Naval Intelligence had just broken the German naval codes, and give the Admiralty advance warning of the raid. The British squadrons despatched to deal with the raid were already well out to sea by the time the Germans began to cross the North Sea. The only weakness in the British position was that they did not know that the battleships of the High Seas Fleet was involved in the raid.

The raid falls into three separate phases. In the first, the German High Seas Fleet and the squadrons came close to a confrontation, before the Germans turned back. In the second the German battlecruisers reached the east coast, bombarded Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby, and then turned to make their escape. In the third the British squadrons came close to catching the German battlecruisers, but a combination of bad luck, poor signals and the low visibility helped the Germans escape.

The first phase of the raid began on 15 December. At noon that day the British 2nd Battle Squadron and the Battlecruisers met off the Scottish coast, and began their journey south. Later that afternoon the German High Sees Fleet made its first general rendezvous and began its journey west.

The German raiding force took the lead. Admiral Hipper had command of the 1st Scouting Squadron (the battlecruisers Seydlitz, Moltke, Von der Tann and Derfflinger and the cruiser Blücher.) and the 2nd Scouting Squadron, consisting of light cruisers. The main battlefleet, under Admiral von Ingenohl, followed on at a distance, aiming for a position south east of Dogger Bank from where they could defend the retreating striking force, or pounce on isolated elements of the Grand Fleet. The cruisers Prinz Heinrich and Roon sailed ahead of the main High Seas Fleet as a screen.

The British fleet was commanded by Admiral Warrender, commander of the Second Battle Squadron (the battleships King George V, Ajax, Centurion, Orion, Monarch and Conqueror and the cruiser Boadicea). The Battlecruisers were commandeered by Admiral Beatty, from his flagship HMS Lion. At 3 pm on 15 December they were joined by the Third Cruiser Squadron from Rosyth. The British fleet was accompanied by seven destroyers, used to screen the left hand side of the main fleet. The British intended to take up a position south of Dogger Bank, and close to the German High Seas Fleet.

The first contact between the two fleets was made at 5.20 a.m. by the destroyers, and a battle developed. This is the moment sometimes seen as German’s lost chance for a major naval victory. Six British battleships and four battlecruisers were within sticking distance of the entire High Seas Fleet. Ingenohl was later much criticised for what he did next, but in reality he had little choice. Both Ingenohl and Warrender assumed that the destroyers were screening larger forces. Ingenohl had no way to know that the entire Grand Fleet wasn’t about to appear out of the mist, and so at 5.45 a.m. he ordered the High Seas Fleet back to port. Even if the two forces had come into sight of each other, the British squadrons were faster than the High Seas Fleet. Beatty would hardly have stood and fought the entire German fleet, and so a chase would have developed. A clash between the fastest German battleships and the British battleships and battlecruisers is perhaps the best that could be expected.

The glancing blow with the High Seas Fleet did divert the British from there main job, to guard to gap in the German minefield off Whitby. Instead, they indulged in a pursuit of the German cruiser Roon, which continued until 9 a.m., but which time the German striking force had already left the east coast. Despite this diversion, by 11 a.m. on 16 December the British squadrons were back in place.

Meanwhile, Admiral Hipper’s striking force had passed through the gap in the minefields. Heavy seas forced his light cruisers to turn back, an apparent misfortune that would greatly assist the Germans escape a few hours later. At 8 a.m. German battlecruisers appeared off Hartlepool and Scarborough and began a short bombardment. Only at Hartlepool did they encounter any resistance, from three 6in guns ashore and from a small force of four destroyers, two cruisers and a submarine at sea. The force that attacked Scarborough then turned north to raid Whitby, before all six ships involved turned back east.

We now reach the third phase of the raid. At 11.00 a.m. Admiral Hipper, with his four battlecruisers, was at the western entrance to the gap in the minefield. At the far end of the gap was the south west corner of Dogger Bank, so Hipper had a choice of northern or southern routes. As Hipper entered the safe passage, Warrender was heading to block the southern route and Beatty the northern.

At 11.25 Beatty’s cruisers, north of his battlecruisers, found the German light cruisers, heading east well ahead of Hipper. The cruisers attempted to engage with the German cruisers. Beatty attempted to signal to two of the four cruisers that they should resume their scouting duties, but the signal was badly directed and the entire cruiser squadron broke off the engagement. The German light cruisers responded by turning south.

At noon, Hipper had reached the middle of the safe channel. Warrender and Beatty were now in the correct place to intercept him. Once again the German light cruisers intervened. At 12.15 Warrender sighted them through the mist, and turned north east in an attempt to intercept, once again assuming that the battlecruisers must be close. At the same time Hipper turned to the south east, in an attempt to draw the British away from the vulnerable cruisers.

When Beatty received this news from Warrender he made the same assumption, and at 12.30 p.m. turned east, thinking that he might have gone too far west and let the Germans get past him. This was the crucial moment in the hunt for Hipper.

At 12.40 Warrender lost the Germans in the mist, and turned back to the west. A gap had now opened to the north, and at 12.45 p.m. Hipper turned north, in the knowledge that the dangerous British battleships were guarding the southern passage.

Once Beatty learnt of Warrender’s move, he turned north (1.15 p.m.), on the correct assumption that Hipper would have done the same. At this point Hipper and Beatty were both sailing north, were roughly level with each other, and were on converging courses. If Beatty had continued on the same course, then he would have had a good chance of catching Hipper, although a direct clash between the two groups of four battlecruisers was not what the British wanted. Warrender did not turn north until 1.24 p.m., by which point Hipper was 20 miles to his north west, and heading north.

At 1.43 p.m. Beatty had a piece of bad luck. He received a signal from the shore reporting the course of the German battlecruisers as it had been between 12.15 and 12.45, when they were heading south east. If they had maintained this course, then they may well have already passed to his south. Beatty had no choice but to turn east, in an attempt to get between the German battlecruisers and their base. By 2.30 p.m. Beatty was east of the dangerous patch of Dogger Bank, and sailing East-South East. At this point Hipper was a safe distance to the north east of Beatty, with the two squadrons on battlecruisers slowly getting further apart.

The British continued to search for Hipper until 3.47 p.m., at which point Warrender called off the search. Once again misinformation played a part in this decision. At 1.50pm the Admiralty learnt that the German High Seas Fleet was at sea, seventy miles north west of Heligoland. Not having known that they had been out all day, the Admiralty assumed that the High Seas Fleet was coming out to sea to attack the British squadrons, when in fact they were sailing back to base. The entire Grand Fleet was already at sea. Now it came south hoping to find the High Seas Fleet. When it became obvious that the Germans were not present, the entire Grand Fleet came together, carried out some tactical exercises, then headed back to Scotland.

Hipper’s squadron had one more hurdle to cross before it could reach safety. Commodore R. J. B. Keyes had managed to gather together a force of four submarines, and by the early morning of 17 December they were off the German coast, in a line running north from the Weser River. That morning E 11 had a chance to fire a torpedo at Hipper’s ships, but missed, and was then forced to dive to avoid being rammed. The dive affected the submarines balance, and when her commander attempted to come back to attack height he broke the surface. The German squadron scattered, and made it to safety.

Despite the success of the raid itself, not all German opinion was happy. Admiral von Tirpitz felt that Ingenohl had had the chance to inflict a war-winning blow against the Grand Fleet. Scheer was a little less over the top, but even he felt that Ingenohl had thrown away a chance of a major triumph. Both Tirpitz and Scheer forgot that Ingenohl was under strict instructions not to engage with a superior force. On the morning of 16 December he had had no way to know force he was facing in the mist, and so he had little or no choice other than to turn back. At the time Ingenohl was actually strengthened in his desire to conduct more offensive operations, a result which led to the battle of Dogger Bank (24 January 1915).

In Britain anger was directly towards the Germans, for their breach of the rules of war in bombarding an undefended port, and to a certain extent towards the Navy that had let them get away with it. Fortunately the public did not know that the fleet had had advance warning of the German raid. The ease with which the Germans had reached the east coast did nothing to dispel concerns about a small scale invasion. As a result Beatty’s battlecruisers moved from Cromarty to Rosyth, a move that halved the distance they would have to travel to reach the Yorkshire coast.

The raid is sometimes described as the first attack on British soil since the Dutch attacked Sheerness in 1667, but this was not the case. It was not even the first attack on British soil of the First World War – that honour goes to the raid on Yarmouth of 3 November 1914, which caused no casualties. The most recent direct attack on Britain had been the French attack on Fishguard in 1797, repelled by the local militia. That attack had also seen civilian casualties, but no British soldiers had been killed. Nevertheless, the German raids on the British coast in 1914 did come as a real shock to a population that had been expected the war to begin with a “super-Trafalgar” – a massive clash between Dreadnaughts that would justify the expensive investment in the pre-war navy.

==> historyofwar.org
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2012 21:05    Onderwerp: Nederlandse duikboot onder vuur 15 december 1916 Reageer met quote

Nederlandse duikboot onder vuur 15 december 1916

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=4365
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2012 21:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 december 1916: French launch last counter offensive at Verdun

The First World War Battle of Verdun (February to December 1916) is as famous to the French for its carnage as the Battle of the Somme is to the British. Here, starting in February 1916, the Germans made a determined effort to crush the French Army in a series of attacks against the forts and trenches of the hills to the north of Verdun, an area they knew the French could not afford to lose. For months the French hung on, being pushed back but exacting a terrible cost on both sides, until the opening of the Battle of the Somme to the north in July forced the Germans to withdraw troops from the Verdun sector. The battle was not over, though, for in the autumn the French launched a series of counter-offensives which retook the forts the Germans had captured and most of the ground lost.

The last of those French counter-offensives was launched on 15th December 1916, hence my choice of this action for today’s ‘This Day in the First World War’ post. The French had recaptured Fort Douaumont in late October and Fort Vaux in early November, but the front lines were still perilously close to these key positions. After a pause to consolidate their gains they were ready to push the Germans back further.

In the morning of 15th December, the French attacked with four divisions on an 11km front. They were successful and after a couple of days had taken over 11,000 Germans prisoner along with capturing 115 artillery pieces. By the time the counter-offensive was called off on 18th December 1916, the villages of Vacherauville and Louvement (by now almost completely obliterated) had been recaptured, along with the Hardaumont and Pepper Hills pushing the front further north 3km from Fort Douaumont.

The 11 months of battle at Verdun had been appallingly costly for both sides. The French had suffered around 550,000 men killed and wounded, the Germans over 430,000

Bron: http://expertscolumn.com/content/day-first-world-war-15-december-1916-french-launch-last-counter-offensive-verdun
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2012 21:11    Onderwerp: Diary of EW Manifold - WWI Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Diary Entry - 15th December, 1917


A sunny day. Major goes up to the OP after breakfast to join Barrett, who had gone up early in the morning. The OP was just north of Flesquiere and meant that we had to maintain about four miles of wire. The Hun seemed to choose the country the line went over to fire on and consequently we were only through for a few minutes during the day - he broke it as soon as we mended it. Major came back about one forty-five p.m. and sent me up to the rear crest to register the guns on zero and calibrate on a house on the Cambrai road, he coming up to join me a few minutes later. It was a perfect light and we just finished No.6 as it grew dusk.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.be/2012/12/diary-entry-15th-december-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2017 10:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DECEMBER 15, 1914: NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE SHUT DOWN, 1914

On July 31, 1914, the New York Stock Exchange closed its doors for the longest period in exchange history. It stayed closed until Nov. 28, 1914, when bonds began trading again. Stock trading re-opened Dec. 15, 1914, but shares were not allowed to trade below closing prices of July 30, 1914. By April 1, 1915, all trading was re-established without price limits. Most would dismiss the closing as a natural response to the beginning of World War I. But no war before or after (including the Civil War), or even the devastating attack on the World Trade Center less than one-half mile from the NYSE in 2001, has shuttered the exchange for more than 10 days in its 222-year history.

Lees verder op http://delong.typepad.com/sdj/2014/12/liveblogging-world-war-i-december-15-1914-new-york-stock-exchange-shut-down-1914-business-insider.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2017 10:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914: Regiment Mixte de Tirailleurs decimated

On this date in 1914, the French army decimated a regiment of its Tunisian soldiers for retreating.

Seriously, decimation? In the 20th century?

Even the most jaded navigator of World War I’s extensive stock of horror may be gobsmacked to find that military executions in this conflict extended to the Roman-pioneered practice of imposing collective punishment on a unit by killing a random tenth of it. Little more is evidently available about this situation online, but the idea of the French military selecting randomly for salutary executions is used in Stanley Kubrick’s Paths of Glory where one officer, charged with providing an enlisted man for trial, simply has them all draw lots.

And according to Gilbert Meynier’s L’Algérie Révélée: La guerre de. 1914–1918 et le premier quart du XX sie`cle (French review), African soldiers’ experience in the Great War with incidents like this tended to underscore France’s colonial domination … and helped contribute to the national identity-forming that would break the French grip on North Africa as the century unfolded.

http://www.executedtoday.com/2008/12/15/1914-regiment-mixte-de-tirailleurs-decimated/
Zie trouwens ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=24828&highlight=mixte
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2017 10:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles E. Burchfield in his own words

Head high, and delight in feeling my feet gripped the earth, and the firm shock to my thighs, the wind at my side; deep icy breaths -winter is for walking!

(Charles Burchfield, December 15, 1914;
From Charles E. Burchfield, Journals, Vol. 22, December 15, 1914)


https://www.burchfieldpenney.org/general/ceb-in-his-own-words/article:12-28-2012-5-30am-from-charles-e-burchfield-em-journals-em-vol-22-december-15-1914/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2017 10:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vogue, December 15, 1915

I love vintage fashion magazines, and one of the things I love the most is the cover art. From the 1910 and into the 1930s, covers were illustrations instead of photographs, with some of the best commercial artists of the times working for Harper’s Bazar, Vogue, and other fashion and women’s magazines.

The illustration above is by artist Helen Dryden who did many covers and inside illustrations for Vogue during the 1910s and early 1920s. Dryden had been trained as a landscape artist, but gave it up for fashion and Conde Nast. Later in life she turned to industrial design and worked designing decorative objects for the home, as well as car interiors.

But it is for images like the one here that Dryden is best remembered. I love how the focus is on the lighting of the tree, even though there is a nod to the more commercial aspect of Christmas as you can see in the gifts scattered on the floor, in the background really. But my favorite part is the dog, a feature that is not immediately noticed, but which adds so much to the feeling of the picture.

Contrast this 1915 cover with that of the 2014 December Vogue. It is a photograph of the celebrity of the month, Amy Adams, wearing a sheer Valentino couture dress. Out of the five headlines on the cover, three of them are about celebrities, including Kendell Jenner of the family formerly scorned by Anna Wintour (the Kardashian/Jenners), but now being praised to the hilt for their selling power.

To some degree Vogue has been about celebrity since it was first published in 1892. This 1915 issue has article on the Ballet Russes, a feature on the latest stars in the theater, and photos of the latest society brides. But the great majority of the editorial pages are all about fashion, exactly what one might hope to find in a fashion magazine.

Klik even door... https://thevintagetraveler.wordpress.com/2014/12/20/vogue-december-15-1915-2/
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A Century Ago at Old Mackinac Point – December 15, 1915

Mooie foto... http://www.mackinacparks.com/a-century-ago-at-old-mackinac-point-december-15-1915/
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PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1915, SUPPLEMENT, THE WORLD WAR: The Austro-Hungarian note of December 15, 1915, regarding the “Ancona”—German note of November 29, 1915, proposing arbitration compromise in the “Frye” case

The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary ( Penfleld ) to the Secretary of State [Telegram]

Vienna , December 15, 1915, 5 p. m.
[Received December 16, 10.28 p. m.]
Department’s 1011, December 6, 6 p. m.1

Following note received from Minister for Foreign Affairs noon to-day:

In reply to the much-esteemed note No. 4167, which his excellency Mr. Frederic Courtland Penfield, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, directed to him in the name of the American Government under date of the 9th instant in the matter of the sinking of the Italian steamer Ancona, the undersigned, preliminary to a thorough, meritorious treatment of the demand, has the honor to observe that the sharpness with which the Government of the United States considers it necessary to blame the commanding officer of the submarine concerned in the affair and the firmness in which the demands addressed to the Imperial and Royal Government appear to be expressed might well have warranted the expectation that the Government of the United States should precisely specify the actual circumstances of the affair upon which it bases its case. As is not difficult to perceive, the presentation of the facts in the case in the aforesaid note leaves room for many doubts; and even if this presentation were correct in all points and the most rigorous legal conception were applied to the judgment of the case, it does not in any way sufficiently warrant attaching blame to the commanding officer of the war vessel or to the Imperial and Royal Government.

The Government of the United States has also failed to designate the persons upon whose testimony it relies and to whom it apparently believes it may attribute a higher degree of credibility than to the commander of the Imperial and Royal Fleet. The note also fails to give any information whatsoever as to the number, names, and more precise fate of the American citizens who were on board of the said steamer at the critical moment.

However, in view of the fact that the Washington Cabinet has now made a positive statement to the effect that citizens of the United States of America came to grief in the incident in question, the Imperial and Royal Government is in principle ready to enter into an exchange of views in the affair with the Government of the United States. It must, however, in the first place, raise the question why that Government failed to give juridical reasons for the demands set forth in its note with reference to the special circumstances of the incriminating events upon which it itself lays stress, and why, in lieu thereof, it referred to an exchange of correspondence which it has conducted with another government in other cases. The Imperial and Royal Government is the less able to follow the Washington Cabinet on this unusual path, since it by no means possesses authentic knowledge of all of the pertinent correspondence of the Government of the United States, nor is it of the opinion that such knowledge might be sufficient for it in the present case, which, in so far as it is informed, is in essential points of another nature than the case or cases to which the Government of the United States seems to allude. The Imperial and Royal Government may therefore leave it to the Washington Cabinet to formulate the particular points of law against which the commanding officer of the submarine is alleged to have offended on the occasion of the sinking of the Ancona.

The Government of the United States has also seen fit to refer to the attitude which the Berlin Cabinet assumed in the above-mentioned correspondence. The Imperial and Royal Government finds in the much-esteemed note no indication whatever of the intent with which this reference was made. Should, however, the Government of the United States thereby have intended to express an opinion to the effect that a precedent of whatever nature existed for the Imperial and Royal Government with respect to the juridical consideration of the affair in question this Government must, in order to preclude possible misunderstandings, declare that as a matter of course it reserves to itself full freedom of maintaining its own legal views in the discussion of the case of the Ancona.

In having the honor to have recourse to the kindness of his excellency the Ambassador of the United States of America, with the most respectful request to be good enough to communicate the foregoing to the American Government, and on this occasion to state that the Imperial and Royal Government, in no less degree than the American Government and under all circumstances, most sincerely deplores the fate of the innocent victims of the incident in question, the undersigned at the same time avails himself [etc.]

Burian

https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1915Supp/d885
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December 15, 1916 - Goddard Rocket Apparatus Patent

CLARK COLLEGE, WORCESTER, MASS.

December 15, 1916.

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Dear Sir;

I am sending a copy of a patent just issued, which it might be well to put with the other copies that I sent with the manuscript.

This patent was taken out chiefly with the idea of covering a magazine of the cartridge-belt type; and is of importance in that it describes a device for making the loading of the cartridge perfectly positive.

Very truly yours,
[signed]Robert H. Goddard

Lees verder op https://siarchives.si.edu/history/featured-topics/stories/december-15-1916-goddard-rocket-apparatus-patent
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Keith Jack diary, Dec 15, 1916, pp 44-6

Jack makes preparations for a journey by Joyce, Wild and Gaze to the Barrier (the Ross Ice Shelf) to retrieve rock specimens and place a cross on Spencer Smith’s grave...

December 14 1916: “Afternoon occupied cutting inscription on Smith’s cross which to be placed on his grave on Barrier – party leaving tomorrow…..Party has been pretty well occupied getting ready for trip to C[ape] Crozier and to recover rocks from Beardmore left on Barrier last March. Think greatest importance these specimens should be obtained."

15 December 1916: "Beginning now to have more frequently the ship to mind and wonder if relief will be sent this year. Hope so but at same time hope to get a complete set of tide charts before we have to depart, also should like to get as much information from anemometer as possibly can. "

https://cv.vic.gov.au/stories/a-diverse-state/the-ross-sea-party/keith-jack-diary-dec-15-1916-pp-44-6/diaries-1914-1917-jack-andrew-keith-dec-15-1916-pp44-6-1/
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The French victory at Verdun - Franse legerfilm, december 1916

Titel : The French Victory at Verdun. December 15th,
1916. (noot 1)
Tekst : Opnamen gemaakt, goedgekeurd en gecensureerd
door de Franse militaire autoriteiten (noot 2)
Boodschap van generaal Mangin aan de soldaten waarin
hij hen dankt voor hun plichtsbetrachting
Beeld : Oprukkende colonne met paardentractie gefilmd
van boven uit een ruine
Troepenbeweging voorafgaand aan Frans offensief
bestaande uit opmars van colonne met paardentractie en
trucks over overspoelde straat
Doorkijkje op halt gehouden colonne
Colonne van pakezels trekt langs ruines
Militaire begeleider voert een aantal onbeladen ezels
Shot van het voeren
Colonne zwaar met voorraden en ammunitie in zakken
beladen pakezels gaat heuvelopwaarts
Opvoeren van zware mitrailleur en munitie op lorries
over smalspoor
Lijk van gesneuvelde soldaat half in het water van
ondergelopen granaattrechter gelegen
Artilleristen halen met handkracht, een als hevel
dienende paal, rijplanken en paardentractie een kanon
van 7.5 cm uit de modder
Houwitser onder camouflagezeil vuurt schoten af tijdens
inleidende barrage
Stuk in camouflage geschilderd spoorweggeschut lost
een salvo
Lange colonne infanterie trekt op door straat in Verdun
met aan beide zijden bergen ruines
Infanteristen klimmen heuvelopwaarts langs met water
gevulde kraters
Franse infanteristen ingegraven op heuvelrug
Poilu (Franse soldaat) probeert zich uit de zuigende
modder in een loopgraaf te bevrijden terwijl andere
infanteristen langs lopen
Groep soldaten beschutting zoekend tegen heuvelkam
wachten op het sein tot de aanval. In de verte rook van
exploderende granaten
Franse infanterie opeengepakt in een loopgraaf vlak
vlak voor de aanval
Witte en zwarte rookwolken veroorzaakt door
granaatinslagen stijgen op van tegenovergelegen met
Duitse loopgraven doorsneden heuvels en vanachter het
met prikkeldraad begrensde voorterrein waarheen Franse
zig-zag loopgraven leiden
Franse infanterie trekt moeizaam heuvelopwaarts over
het omwoelde terrein
Witte rookwolken in het voorterrein waar Duitse
granaten inslaan in een zwak antwoord op de Franse
artilleriebarrage
Eerste groep Duitse krijgsgevangenen met gewonde op
brancard loopt begeleid door Franse soldaten over het
pokdalige terrein
Duitse brancardploeg klimt gevolgd door gevangen
genomen Duitsers uit een granaattrechter
Terwijl Franse infanterie gedekt lopend in loopgraaf
frontwaarts trekt, zwermen Duitse krijgsgevangen
onbeschut naast de loopgraaf heuvelopwaarts
Bloothoofdse Duitse krijgsgevangene klimt omhoog
langs de loopgraaf
Tekst van Franse legerorder van 17 december 1916,
uitgegeven door generaal Nivelle
Tekst : The End
EINDE

Rechten schenking collectie Van Nelle fabrieken ; Beeld en Geluid
Overige opmerkingen

Noot 1: Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog vond van februari tot december 1916 (10 maanden) de Slag bij Verdun plaats. De Duitse troepen begonnen met een offensief waarbij de stad grotendeels omsingeld werd. Slechts de weg naar Bar-le-Duc bleef vrij, waarover de belegerden zich konden bevoorraden en gewonden en burgers konden afvoeren. De route werd later Voie Sacree genoemd en is kenbaar door km-paaltjes waarop een Franse soldatenhelm met lauwertak is gelegd. Het op heuvelruggen boven het omringende land uitstekende gelegen Verdun werd verdedigd door Franse troepen onder bevel van generaal Petain, die later in WO II hoofd was van met de Duitsers collaborerende Franse regering in Vichy. De Slag bij Verdun waarbij over en weer elk offensief met een tegenoffensief beantwoord werd, bracht een onvoorstelbare slachting teweeg, waarbij aan Franse zijde 360.000, aan Duitse zijde 335.000 man sneuvelden. De in het fragment gefilmde aanval was het Franse slotoffensief waarmee aan de belegering van Verdun een eind gemaakt werd. Petain verwierf zich onsterfelijke roem en werd tot maarschalk bevorderd
Noot 2: De talloze in het fragment voorkomende Engelse tussentitels zijn niet afzonderlijk vermeld maar in een vrije vertaling in de beschrijvingstekst verwerkt.

Filmpje... https://www.vpro.nl/speel~WO_VPRO_3365293~franse-legerfilm-december-1916~.html

Zie ook: 1916 : The Blood Letting

December 15, 1916 - The last offensive in the Battle of Verdun begins as the French push the Germans out of Louvemont and Bezonvaux on the east bank of the Meuse River. Combined with other ground losses, the German withdrawal ends the immediate threat to Verdun and both sides now focus their efforts on battles elsewhere along the Western Front. Overall, the French and Germans suffered nearly a million casualties combined during the ten month battle in which the Germans failed to capture the city of Verdun.

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1916.html

Zie ook https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/15/dec-15-1916-frances-decisive-attack-in-battle-of-verdun/
Zie ook https://ww2-weapons.com/diary-december-15-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2017 10:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN - December 15, 1917

Cover Image: Crushing a path to victory through a tangle of barbed steel
[A tank resembling a British Mark IV attacking through barbed wire]

Plaatje kijken! https://www.scientificamerican.com/magazine/sa/1917/12-15/
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December 15, 1917 Gilbert Clayton, Britain’s chief representative to Mark Sykes in Cairo
December 15, 1917 India, Muslims, and Oil

Gilbert Clayton, Britain’s chief representative to Mark Sykes in Cairo:

“We have to consider whether the situation demands out-and-out support of Zionism at the risk of alienating the Arabs. By pushing them as hard as we appear to be doing, we are risking the possibility of Arab unity becoming something like an accomplished fact and being ranged against us.”

Source: The Wall Street Journal February 27, 2001

http://cojs.org/december-15-1917-gilbert-clayton-britains-chief-representative-to-mark-sykes-in-cairo/
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Telegram from Harry S. Truman to Bess Wallace, December 15, 1917

[Telegram, Lawton, Okla., Dec. 15, 1917]
Hope you have my letters by this time. Mail somewhat delayed down here. Mary and Mamma arrived today. Mary tells me you are sick. Wire me how seriously. No Christmas leave. Hope to see you. That would be the best Christmas present. Harry S. Truman

https://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/trumanpapers/fbpa/index.php?documentid=HST-FBP_4-71_01&documentVersion=both

Letter from Harry S. Truman to Bess Wallace, December 15, 1913

Grandview Dec. 15, 1913

Dear Bess:
This letter or attempt at one will not amount to much this morning because Papa is in a hurry to go to Grandview and my thought factory is empty. I very nearly missed the limited last night. Kansas City was in the clutches of another fog. It was impossible to see six feet. The cars just had to creep. It didn't extend only to about Woodland. At Troost it was so thick you could cut it with a knife. The K.C.S. just barely moved until it got past 15th Street. Then it whooped up and arrived at Grandview exactly on the tick. There was a new engine on, and it sure did ramble. There wasn't any fog here last night but there's a humdinger on this morning. It was almost equal to a plunge to feed fodder this morning. I have one disagreeable job ahead of me today. We killed hogs Thursday, and it is necessary to put the sausage into sacks and hang it this morning. That is always my job. Mamma always wants to do it but when she does, it makes her sick. Mary and Papa won't, so it falls to me. I usually get sausage in my shoes, on my clothes, and in my hair, and over the kitchen floor. It isn't an agreeable job at all. But the sausage is worth the trouble later when it comes time to eat it. Then I am absolutely sure there's nothing in it but hog and the dirt off my own hands. It sure is fine for making hands clean and bright. Also I usually have some blisters from squeezing the sacks so hard. There'll only be about a dozen sacks not blisters I hope. I sold fifty pounds and Papa sold seventy-five. That leaves us fifty still, and I don't suppose we'll more than use it up before it ought to be, especially if it turns a little bit warm.
I hope your show is one grand success. I don't want any seat if you're not going to have one. You let me hang around and help at your job if you want me to boost the show. I'm sure it'll be fine if I can have you to make comments to otherwise it'll not. Ethel was kind enough to make some suggestions yesterday as to what I ought to buy you for Christmas. I was awfully glad she did because one of the things she thought would be extra nice is what I got. I never told her I'd already got it though. I hope you'll like it. I'm going to put Fred in charge of it on Thursday and I'm dead sure you won't get it until the proper day. You really owe me two letters now and you said you'd send them. Remember you said you were a woman of your word. You've no idea how blank a week is without a letter so you'd better make this one extra bright.
Most sincerely, Harry

https://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/trumanpapers/fbpa/index.php?documentVersion=transcript&documentid=HST-FBP_3-17_01
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 15 Dec 2017 11:28, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Lowell in World War One: Dec 10 to Dec 15, 1917

This is the 35th weekly installment of my Lowell in World War One series which commemorates the centennial of the entry of the United States into World War One. Here are the headlines from one hundred years ago this week: (...)

December 15, 1917 – Saturday – Report Germany to make another peace offer at the Christmas season. Kaiser to declare “responsibility for bloodshed in coming year will lie with Entente if it rejects the proffer.” Meanwhile, Teutonic drive goes on. Complete collapse of counter revolution in Russia. Coal famine due to shortage of rail cars, not due to a shortage of coal.

http://richardhowe.com/2017/12/14/lowell-in-world-war-one-dec-10-to-dec-15-1917/
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PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1917, SUPPLEMENT 2, THE WORLD WAR, VOLUME I: The Minister in the Netherlands ( Garrett ) to the Secretary of State

[Telegram]
The Hague , December 15, 1917, 7 p.m.
[Received 10.21 p.m.]
Von der Heydt, attached to the German Legation here, is endeavoring through a neutral to send me a written statement for [Page 474]transmission to you. Heydt is said to be an intimate of Kühlmann and to be his special man in the German Legation here. He sends word through the neutral that the statement is in connection with the German desire to have a preliminary and confidential decision of a possible basis for peace. Do you wish me to receive this statement? I respectfully request your answer by Monday morning if possible so that the fact that I have cabled you may not be apparent as that would make the matter undesirably official on our part.

Garrett

https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1917Supp02v01/d398
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Good-Bye, Bill

Good-Bye, Bill is a lost 1918 American comedy silent film directed by John Emerson and written by John Emerson and Anita Loos. The film stars Shirley Mason, Ernest Truex, Joseph Allen Sr., Joseph Burke, Carl De Planta, and Henry S. Koser. The film was released on December 15, 1918, by Paramount Pictures.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Good-Bye,_Bill

Mirandy Smiles

Mirandy Smiles is a 1918 American silent drama film directed by William C. deMille and written by Edith M. Kennedy based upon a short story by Belle K. Maniates. The film stars Vivian Martin, Douglas MacLean, William Freeman, and Frances Beech. The film was released on December 15, 1918, by Paramount Pictures. It is not known whether the film currently survives, which suggests that it is a lost film.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirandy_Smiles
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American Jewish Congress

On this day 97 years ago (December 15, 1918) , the first meeting of the American Jewish Congress convened in Philadelphia's historic Independence Hall. Jewish leaders and Zionists came together to lay the groundwork for a populist counterbalance to the American Jewish Committee, which, at the time, was dominated by the wealthy and conservative German-Jewish establishment. Great American Jewish thinkers Stephen S. Wise, Felix Frankfurter, and U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis gathered to lay the groundwork for a national democratic organization of Jewish leaders, and to discuss Jewish concerns post-World War I; those same men would go on to present a unified American Jewish position at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, and would continue to defend the rights of American Jews and all Americans for the rest of their lives.

Lees verder op https://ajcongress.org/content/december-15-1918
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Comic strip by Walt McDougall, 15 December 1918

The Washington herald. (Washington, D.C.), 15 Dec. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hank_-_Walt_McDougall,_December_15,_1918.jpg
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100 JAAR FINLAND: DE ONAFHANKELIJKHEIDSVERKLARING VAN 1917

De erkenning van de Finse onafhankelijkheid door de Bolsjewistische regering, 15 december 1918.

https://isgeschiedenis.nl/nieuws/100-jaar-finland-de-onafhankelijkheidsverklaring-van-1917
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Mary Young Moore letter to Mary J. Workman, 1919 December 15

A letter from Mary Young Moore to Mary J. Workman typed on the letterhead of the National Catholic War Council, dated Dec 15, 1919 in regards to consultation for dress-making for the Brownson House.

https://calisphere.org/item/954d2fbd6060de9cbad3ab139d0e4a97/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2017 11:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'What they had hoped'.

From La Feuille, December 15, 1919. The victors of the World War cannot afford to station a large occupation army in Germany, but how they would have wanted to!

Spotprent. http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/art/indexmaser2.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Dec 2017 11:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the archive, 15 December 1913: Mona Lisa's return: Theft from Louvre explained
(Originally published in the Manchester Guardian on 15 December 1913)

The report that Leonardo da Vinci's famous portrait of "Mona Lisa" has been found in Florence seems amply confirmed.

What is known of the theft from the Paris Louvre in August, 1911, and the discovery in Florence last week, is that an Italian named Perugia a few days ago attempted to sell the picture to a Florentine dealer. When arrested he said he had been employed for several years at the Louvre. One day when alone in the room where the "Mona Lisa" hung he broke up the frame and hid the panel under his blouse. By that means he was able to remove it unobserved. Recently he wrote to the dealer in Florence and with him opened the negotiations which led to his arrest.

When the news reached Paris, where Perugia had once been sentenced for some petty offence, the police searched their records and found that the markings of the man's thumb corresponded exactly with an impression made by the thief on the broken frame which he left behind.

The "Giornale d'Italia" has received an interview with Signor Geri, who is director of an "Ancient and Modern Art Gallery" there. Signor Geri states that in a letter from Paris, Perugia, who signed himself "Leonard," gave him the fullest assurances regarding the authenticity of the picture and promised to allow him a reduction of 25 per cent on the price for the benefit of the public galleries of Italy. Signor Geri and Professor Poggi, to whom the letter was shown, thought it was a joke.

On December 10 "Leonard" called on Signor Geri. He at once asked Signor Geri to come to his hotel, and, showing him the picture, asked 500,000 francs for it. Signor Geri agreed, and asked him to come next day to the Uffizi Gallery to verify the picture. "Leonard" arrived a little late, and the three repaired to his hotel, where he showed them the picture. After examining it Professor Poggi said that it must be conveyed to the Uffizi for identification. "Leonard" consented, and took the "Gioconda", wrapped in red cloth, under his arm. They drove to the Uffizi, where the work's authenticity was established.

Perugia was arrested in an hotel just as he was coming downstairs. Signor Tarantelli, chief of police, said he had interrogated Perugia at length. He was convinced that the statements made by Perugia were sincere. In his opinion Perugia is not abnormal, but a simple fellow who did not altogether understand the importance of his action.

[Vincenzo Perugia was hailed a national hero by the Italian press. He served seven months in jail.]

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2011/dec/15/archive-leonardo-da-vinci-mona-lisa-1913
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