Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

20 november

 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Emiel



Geregistreerd op: 22-7-2005
Berichten: 6229

BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2006 12:29    Onderwerp: 20 november Reageer met quote

1917 : British launch surprise tank attack at Cambrai

At dawn on the morning of November 20, 1917, six infantry and two cavalry divisions of the British Expeditionary Force--with additional support from 14 squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps--join the British Tank Corps in a surprise attack on the German lines near Cambrai, France.


After the British debuted the first armored tanks during the massive Somme offensive in September 1916, their effectiveness as a weapon--aside from the initial value of surprise--was quickly thrown into doubt. The early tanks were maddeningly slow and unwieldy; navigation and visibility from their controls were poor and though they were impervious to small arms fire, they could be destroyed easily by shellfire. Moreover, the tanks often bogged down in the muddy terrain of the Western Front in fall and winter, rendering them completely useless.


As a result, by the fall of 1917 many on the Allied side had come to doubt the viability of the tank as a major force on the battlefield. Commanders of the British Tank Corps nevertheless continued to press for a new offensive, including the large-scale use of tanks on a comparably dry stretch of battlefield in northern France, between the Canal du Nord and St. Quentin, towards the Belgian border. After initially vetoing the idea, British Commander in Chief Sir Douglas Haig changed his mind and authorized the operation, hoping to achieve at least one useful victory before the year was out. The attack, led by General Julian Byng of the British 3rd Army, went ahead on the morning of November 20, 1917, with all available tanks--some 476 of them--advancing on the German lines with infantry, cavalry and air support. Within hours, the British forced the German 2nd Army back to Cambrai, to the north, taking some 8,000 prisoners and 100 guns on their way.


The British lacked adequate support for their initial advance, however, and more gains were significantly harder to obtain. Though German Commander in Chief Erich Ludendorff briefly considered a general withdrawal of troops from the area, his commander in the region, Georg von der Marwitz, managed to muster a sharp German counterattack of nearly 20 divisions to regain nearly all the ground lost. Casualties were high on both sides, with German losses of 50,000 compared to 45,000 for the British. While the use of tanks at Cambrai failed to achieve the major breakthrough for which Byng had been hoping, the attack nonetheless boosted the tank’s reputation as a potentially effective weapon for targeted use during offensive operations.


www.history.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Emiel



Geregistreerd op: 22-7-2005
Berichten: 6229

BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2006 12:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote


Auf einer Nachschubstraße hinter der Sommefront
Aufnahme vom 20. November 1916


Der Westteil von Grandcourt zurückgewonnen
Großes Hauptquartier, 20. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Das englische Artilleriefeuer war gestern im ganzen geringer, stark nur auf beiden Ancre-Ufern. Zwischen Serre und Beaucourt sowie gegen unsere Stellungen südlich von Miraumont in den Abendstunden vorbrechende Angriffe scheiterten verlustreich. Im Handgranatenkampf warf unsere Infanterie die Engländer aus dem Westteil von Grandcourt hinaus. In den Gegenangriffen der letzten Wochen sind 22 Offiziere, 900 Mann gefangen, 34 Maschinengewehre erbeutet worden. Erneut versuchte der Franzose, von Nordwesten her in den St.-Pierre-Vaast-Wald einzudringen; er wurde zurückgeschlagen, obwohl starkes Feuer den mit frischen Kräften geführten Angriff vorbereitet hatte.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Bei starker Kälte war die Gefechtstätigkeit durchweg gering.
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Carl:
Unsere Operationen gegen die russisch-rumänische Front nehmen plangemäß ihren Fortgang. Nordöstlich von Campolung erschöpfen in täglichen vergeblichen Angriffen die Rumänen ihre durcheinandergeworfenen Verbände.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
In der Dobrudscha und längs der Donau bis zum Hafen von Oltina (östlich von Silistria) Artilleriefeuer.
Mazedonische Front:
Die Einnahme der neuen Stellungen nördlich von Monastir hat sich ohne Störung durch den Gegner vollzogen. Neue deutsche Kräfte haben die Kampfzone erreicht. An der Moglenafront sind serbische Vorstöße bei Bahovo und Tusin von den Bulgaren abgewiesen worden.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff.1)





Vormarsch auf Craiova
Berlin, 20. November, abends. (Amtlich.)
Artilleriekampf nördlich der Somme.
Unsere Truppen nähern sich Crajova, der Hauptstadt der westlichen Walachei.
An der unteren Donau und an der Struma lebhafteres Feuer. 1)





Die großen englischen Verluste an der Somme
Berlin, 20. November.
Von militärischer Seite wird geschrieben:
Die Teilangriffe der letzten Wochen hatten die anglo-französischen Heere nicht weiter gebracht. Nachdem die eigenen Blätter sich gegen diese Kampfart gewandt und erklärt hatten, daß Erfolge auf diese Weise nicht zu erreichen seien, versuchten es die Engländer neuerdings wieder unter reichlicher Beanspruchung ihrer Kolonialtruppen mit Massenstürmen. Es ist nicht anzunehmen, daß diese Methode lange beibehalten wird, denn die Angriffe am 18. und 19. kosteten den Engländern geradezu ungeheuerliche Verluste. Der schwedische Hauptmann Noerregaard bezifferte am 12. November in "Dagens Nyheter" den englischen Blutzoll für den Kilometer in den letzten Monaten auf sechsundvierzigtausend Mann, während er im Juli sechszehntausend für den Kilometer betrug. Der Monat November wird eine neue wesentliche Steigerung der bereits gebrachten Opfer bringen, die nach vorsichtiger Schätzung für den Zeitraum vom 1. Juli bis etwa 1. November mindestens sechshunderttausend Mann betragen. Die ersten Erfolge gegen Beaumont - Hamel und Beaucourt haben die Engländer in eine schwierige Lage versetzt, da die deutsche Artilleriebeobachtung über die Höhen von Serre verfügt und die in die genommenen Stellungen eingedrungenen Truppen von deutschem Artilleriefeuer gefaßt und zusammengeschossen wurden. Den Versuch, sich aus dieser schwierigen Situation zu befreien, haben die Engländer jedoch mit noch schwereren Verlusten bezahlen müssen, ohne irgendetwas zu erreichen. Die bei Sturm und Regen über das verschlammte Gelände vorgetriebenen Sturmtruppen werden, in Schlamm und Morast steckend, von dem deutschen Artillerie- und Maschinengewehrfeuer niedergemäht. In der Nacht vom 18. auf den 19. wurden die Angriffe auf der ganzen Front von Serre bis Warlencourt wiederholt. Es gelang lediglich, in einen Teil von Grandcourt einzudringen, doch schon am folgenden Vormittag wurden die Engländer im Handgranatenkampfe wieder hinausgeworfen. Die im Vorgelände für den Durchbrach bereitgestellte Kavallerie kam natürlich nicht zum Eingreifen. Ebenso versagte die Begleitung des Sturmangriffes durch Panzerautomobile, von denen eins durch Volltreffer südlich Grandcourt vernichtet wurde. Die Deutschen machten bei ihren Gegenangriffen in der letzten Woche 22 Offiziere und 900 Mann zu Gefangenen und erbeuteten 34 Maschinengewehre. Davon entfallen allein auf den 18. November 11 Offiziere, 370 Mann und 20 Maschinengewehre. Wie die Engländer, hatten auch die Franzosen keinerlei Erfolg. Ihre noch am Abend des 19. versuchten Angriffe gegen den St.-Pierre-Vaast-Wald wurden blutig abgewiesen. Die Entscheidung an der Somme ist längst gefallen. Jeder Durchbruchsversuch ist zum Scheitern verdammt. Allein angetrieben von der entflammten Volksstimmung und fortgerissen von der im Somme-Abschnitt aufgebauten und in Bewegung gesetzten Kriegsmaschine, treiben die englische und französische Heeresleitung ihre Truppen immer von neuem gegen den Feuergürtel der Verteidiger vor, mit dem einzigen Ergebnis, daß bei geringen örtlichen Fortschritten ihre Verluste immer grauenhaftere Ausmaße annehmen. 1)


Die Folgen der siegreichen Schlacht von Targu Jiu
Von zuständiger Stelle erfährt das W. T. B.:
Mit der Niederlage der Rumänen in der Schlacht von Targu Jiu und dem Durchbruch der deutsch-österreichischen Truppen am 18. November bis zur Bahnlinie Orsova-Craiova sind die Kriegshandlungen gegen Rumänien in eine neue Phase eingetreten. Dieser rasch und energisch durchgeführte Vorstoß hat noch größere Bedeutung als der Durchbruch in der Dobrudscha, wodurch die Rumänen im Osten gefesselt und vom Osten her bedroht wurden. Mit dem Vorstoß zur Bahnlinie Orsova-Craiova wurde die Tür zur walachischen Ebene eingedrückt. Nachdem im Oktober noch um die Schlüsselpunkte im Norden Rumäniens in den siebenbürgischen Gebirgen erbittert gerungen wurde, wuchs nach der Bezwingung der Pässe der Druck der Mittelmächte entsprechend ihrem Raumgewinne nach Süden von Tag zu Tag. Im Gleichmaß mit diesem Druck dehnte sich auch die Kampffront beiderseits der hauptsächlich bedrohten Mittelpunkte bei Predeal und nördlich Campolung aus, so dass schließlich in den Gebirgen der Moldau und in den Walacheikarpathen auf allen Punkten bis hinunter nach Orsova gerungen wurde. Im Raume des Predeal-Passes wurden vom 5. bis 11. November die Höhen westlich von Busteni erstürmt, im Ausgange des Törzburger Passes drangen die Angreifer nördlich Campolung vom 12. bis 17. November bis in die Linie Candesti-Namaesti vor. 25 km südlich des Roten-Turm-Passes besetzten sie am 9. November Sardoni und am 12. den Fruntu-Berg. Die Rumänen wehrten sich an der ausgedehnten Kampffront mit großer Zähigkeit und machten erbitterte Gegenstöße, besonders im Predeal-Paß nördlich Campolung, sowie im Auslauf des Gebietes des Roten-Turm-Passes und im Jiul-Tal.
Alle diese verzweifelten Angriffe, mit denen die Rumänen das Vordringen der Mittelmächte aufzuhalten und dem wachsenden Druck bei Predeal und Campolung zu begegnen suchten, brachten ihnen trotz sehr hoher Blutopfer nicht nur an den Angriffsstellen keine örtlichen Gewinne, sondern sie vermochten auch nicht, den täglich stürmischer vordringenden Österreich-Ungarn und Deutschen Halt zu gebieten. Am 18. November wurde dieser Druck derartig stark, daß der Verteidigungsgürtel im Jiul-Tal nicht mehr standhalten konnte und zersprang. In heißer Schlacht wurden die Rumänen trotz zähesten Widerstandes bei Targu Jiu unter außerordentlich schweren blutigen Verlusten entscheidend geschlagen. Wie die Schlacht im Raume Constanza-Cernavoda, stellt die Schlacht bei Targu Jiu einen der Marksteine in der Geschichte des rumänischen Feldzuges dar. Die siegreichen Truppen der Zentralmächte nützten augenblicklich ihren Erfolg aus und brachen trotz ungeheurer Hindernisse, verschneiter Wege und kaum gangbarer, geschweige denn fahrbarer Straßen in die walachische Ebene durch. Ein vom Osten gegen die durchbrechenden Truppen geführter rumänischer Gegenstoß konnte das Schicksal der Entscheidungsschlacht nicht mehr wenden. Die Kolonnen sind im Vormarsch.
Die Schlacht bei Targu Jiu ist ein neuer Beweis für das exakte Zusammenarbeiten und die innige Waffenbrüderschaft der österreichisch-ungarischen und deutschen Truppen unter weitschauender Führung. Auffallend ist, daß die rumänische Zivilbevölkerung, durch die schwere Niederlage aufgestachelt, sich am Kampfe beteiligt. Auf Kolonnen und Truppen wird häufig aus dem Hinterhalt geschossen. Mit dem Abschneiden der Eisenbahnlinie Orsova - Craiova haben die bei Orsova kämpfenden rumänischen Verbände ihre einzige Rückzugslinie verloren. Die deutsche Heeresleitung meldet für den Zeitraum vom 1. bis 18. November eine Gesamtbeute von 189 Offizieren, 19388 Mann, 26 Geschützen und 72 Maschinengewehren. Nach den riesigen Verlusten der Rumänen in der Dobrudscha und in Siebenbürgen trifft sie der neue Schlag sehr schwer. Gegen den Einbruch in die Walachei erblaßt der rein lokale Erfolg Sarrails bei Monastir vollkommen. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Die vergeblichen rumänischen Angriffe bei Campolung
Wien, 20. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Carl:
Die Operationen gegen Rumänien verlaufen planmäßig. Nördlich von Campolung wurden wieder heftige Angriffe abgeschlagen.
Italienischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Keinerlei Ereignisse von Bedeutung.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Die Kämpfe bei Monastir (Bitolia)
Sofia, 20. November.
Bericht des Generalstabes vom 19. November. (Verspätet eingetroffen.)
Mazedonische Front:
Zwischen Prespa-See und Cerna schwache Artillerietätigkeit. Im Cerna-Bogen gelang es dem Feinde nach schweren und blutigen Kämpfen während der beiden letzten Tage, sich auf der Höhe 1212 nördlich des Dorfes Cegel festzusetzen. Diese neugeschaffene taktische Lage zwang zur Zurücknahme der verbündeten Truppen auf dem rechten Flügel nördlich von Bitolia. An der Moglena-Front und auf beiden Seiten des Wardar schwaches Artilleriefeuer. In der Nacht vom 18. auf den 19. November griff ein feindliches Bataillon unseren Beobachtungsposten bei dem Dorfe Doldzeli an und besetzte ihn. Infolge heftigen Artilleriefeuers und eines Gegenangriffes mußte sich der Feind jedoch zurückziehen, wobei er schwere Verluste erlitt. Am Fuße der Belasica Planina und an der Struma-Front schwache Artillerietätigkeit. Feindliche Abteilungen, die am 17. November unter dem Schutze von Nebel vorzurücken versuchten, erlitten durch unser Feuer schwere Verluste. Allein westlich von Tschiflik und Evsikbey fanden wir 40 feindliche Leichen, zahlreiche zerstreute Gewehre und militärische Gegenstände und ungefähr 100 frische Gräber. In der Umgegend von Drama schoß bei dem Dorfe Boiran Leutnant v. Eschwege nach Luftkampf seinen dritten Gegner, den englischen Nieuport- Doppeldecker Nr. 3979 ab. Der feindliche Flieger wurde getötet. An der Küste des Ägäischen Meeres Ruhe.
Rumänische Front:
Längs der Donau in einigen Abschnitten nur Artillerie- und Infanteriefeuer. In der Dobrudscha Patrouillengefechte und schwaches Artilleriefeuer.




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 20. November.
Amtlicher Heeresbericht (verspätet eingetroffen):
Kaukasusfront: Am rechten Flügel schoben wir, abgesehen von unserem gestrigen Erfolge, noch an einer anderen Stelle unsere Front um 20 Kilometer vor.
Ägyptische Front: Wir warfen den Feind, der sich am 15. November unter dem Schutz von Maschinengewehren und Artillerie der Verteidigungslinie von Ebu-Djerad zu nähern versuchte, zurück.





Kronrat in Athen
Athen, 20. November. (Meldung des Reuterschen Bureaus.)
Die Alliierten verlangten, daß dem deutschen, dem österreichisch-ungarischen, dem türkischen und dem bulgarischen Gesandten ihre Pässe ausgehändigt werden. Die Regierung betrachtet diese Forderung als unannehmbar. Es wurde ein Kabinettsrat unter dem Vorsitz des Königs abgehalten, um die Angelegenheit zu besprechen. Der König hat für morgen früh 10 Uhr einen Kronrat einberufen. Es herrscht große Beunruhigung, da die Alliierten verlangt haben, daß die feindlichen Gesandten am Mittwoch abreisen. 1)





Ausweisung der Gesandten der Mittelmächte aus Athen
Athen, 20. November. (Meldung des Reuterschen Bureaus.)
Der deutsche, der österreichisch-ungarische, der bulgarische und der türkische Gesandte müssen sich auf einem Dampfer einschiffen, der zu ihrer Verfügung gestellt worden ist. Anderenfalls würden sie mit Gewalt entfernt werden. 1)

www.stahlgewitter.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The “Old Contemptibles” in the trenches
Date: 5 – 20 November 1914
Regiment: 1st Battalion, Cheshire Regiment


The "Old Contemptibles" were the original members of the British Expeditionary Force and saw service before 22 November 1914. The term derives from the German Kaiser's Order of the Day on 19 August when he commanded his troops to "walk all over General French's contemptible little army". They were all regular soldiers or ex-regulars who had been recalled from the reserve when War was declared.

Later in the War, it was usual for troops to spend only two or three days in the front line trench, They would then spend a similar period in the support trenches, a little way to the rear, then a further period away from the immediate combat zone. But, in the early months of the War, the small British Army was hard pressed and much longer periods were spent in the firing line. The Cheshires went into the front line on 5 November and stayed there until the 20th.

The Regimental History records "Although the actual fighting was not as severe as later on, this tour of the trenches was as unpleasant as any of the first two years. It was the beginning of trench warfare, without any of the amenities which were afterwards introduced. There were no sandbags, no communication trenches, no shelters of any kind, no cooking, though Sproule managed to get tea to the trenches every day. The rum ration, two or three times a week, was the only solace the men had. It was most uncomfortable." During the tour, 66 men would be killed and a further 99 wounded. There would only be one day when someone was not killed.

During 5 November, the Battalion took over front line positions near the "6 kilometre stone" south of Ypres (now Ieper), Belgium, along the Menin Road. The next day, the Cheshires were subjected to heavy enemy artillery fire. On the 7th, the Battalion War Diary records "Very heavy shelling in morning, enemy's infantry attacked at 2.30pm. "C" Company went to re-enforce Regiment on our left. Enemy repulsed. 25 captured." The day had seen 2 officers and 4 other ranks killed, 22 wounded and 8 missing. One of those missing was John Thompson. His body was never found and identified.

The History continues "At 5.30 on the 10th, the most terrific fire that the British had yet experienced broke out. The First Battalion diary records the bare fact and goes on to say that "the enemy appeared to be massing in a wood south of our position, but our shells scattered them and they were easily repulsed by our rifle fire, with heavy casualties to them. Other troops had more severe fighting and the breakthrough of the Prussian Guard was only checked by the gallantry of three weak Scots Battalions called 1st (Guards) Brigade and the King's Regiment and the Duke of Wellington Regiment.

By 14 November, the Germans were pressing the British position heavily. The Cheshires had been shelled every day and they were now ordered to withdraw their line approximately 150 yards. This withdrawal started at midday and was completed by 4pm. The Diary notes "The enemy were pressing on all the time and consequently our casualties were rather heavy. Two German patrols of 15 and 7 men were shot down just outside our trenches". John Burkill and Joseph McGarry were amongst the 11 fatal casualties.

On the 16th, George Allman was killed. The Diary records only that "Our guns kept up a heavy shellfire. Some sniping". The next day, there was "exceptionally heavy shellfire followed by an infantry attack which however was easily repulsed", but Walter Lally died.

On the 19th, it started to snow. The Battle of Ypres was coming to an end and there was only "a little shellfire and sniping". At 8pm, the Battalion started to be relieved by the Worcestershire Regiment and they went into reserve dugouts. Joseph Owen had been killed. Luke Hopwood was probably wounded during the relief, or shortly after occupation of the dugouts. He died on 24 November from wounds received.

http://www.stockport1914-1918.co.uk/battle_report.php?name=theoldcontemptibles
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Kämpfe in Ostafrika


Lord Crewe

London, 20. November (W B.) - Im Oberhause sprach Lord Crewe am 18. November über die Kämpfe in Ostafrika. Er sagte: Es war im Anfang des Krieges deutlich, daß die britische Regierung dort nicht völlig sicher war und daß es frühzeitig notwendig wurde, Verstärkungen zu senden. Der Kampf begann im Westen und dauerte an verschiedenen Punkten mit wechselndem Ergebnis an. Als man Genaueres über die deutschen Vorbereitungen wusste, wurde es notwendig, Verstärkungen aus Indien zu senden. Nicht weniger als sieben kleine Aktionen fanden auf dem britischen Gebiet mit wechselndem Ergebnis statt. Die Operationen waren mit beträchtlichen Verlusten verbunden. In einem Falle wurde ein Angriff auf eine wichtige, von dem Feinde mit einer Anzahl Leute und Maschinengewehren gehaltene Stellung gemacht, bei dem unsere Truppen schwere Verluste erlitten haben, ohne ihr Ziel zu erreichen. Die Gesamtverluste in Ostafrika betrugen in zwei Monaten etwa 900 Mann. Obwohl das Schicksal des Krieges vom Endergebnis abhängt, ist es doch notwendig, die britische Stellung als Vormacht in Süd- und Zentralafrika zu erhalten, und in Ostafrika ist es notwendig, die deutschen Angriffe mit allen verfügbaren Mitteln abzuwenden und bei günstiger Gelegenheit zu erwidern.

"Frankfurter Zeitung" (1914), http://www.stahlgewitter.com/14_11_20.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Roger Casement and the German connection



Sir Roger Casement (left) and Clan na Gael leader John Devoy in America, 1914 ©

Traditionally, Irish revolutionary nationalists have looked to England’s enemies for aid. So when a number of them met in Dublin on 9th September 1914 to discuss the circumstances arising from the outbreak of war, they agreed to appeal to Germany for its support in an insurrection. Clan na Gael, a republican organisation of Irish-Americans in the United States, was to provide the rebels with their main channel of communication with Germany. Already on 24th August 1914 its leader, John Devoy, had met the German ambassador in New York, stressed to him the opportunities for an Irish rising and requested arms and military personnel for this purpose.

Roger Casement was the central figure in developing the rebels` relations with Germany. He had been born in Sandycove, near Dublin, in 1864, the son of a British army officer, and for 20 years had served in the British consular service. He had then gained an international reputation for exposing European colonial exploitation of native peoples in Africa and South America. He had meanwhile become increasingly absorbed in militant Irish nationalist politics and attracted by the potential of an Irish-German alliance as a means of securing full Irish independence. He was in the US when the war began and at once submitted a plan to German officials there, outlining how Britain’s power could be broken by exploiting unrest in its vulnerable possessions, especially Ireland. The Berlin government suggested that he travel to Germany for negotiations.

On first arrival, Casement met with some success. On 20th November 1914, the German government declared its support for Irish independence, and soon after agreed to him raising an Irish Brigade from among Irish prisoners captured on the western front; its members were to be transported to Ireland to help in the fight for freedom. However, despite his efforts, recruitment to it was poor. Most of the prisoners were politically moderate and regarded Casement as a traitor.

German government hesitation ended when it received confirmation in mid-February 1916 that the date for an Irish rising had been set for the coming Easter. It agreed to ship 25,000 captured Russian rifles and one million rounds, hoping thereby to divert some British troops from the western front. The consignment was despatched aboard the ‘Aud’ on 9th April. Casement considered its size to be wholly inadequate, and that any rising was therefore doomed. He persuaded the German authorities to transport him to Ireland by submarine. His purpose was ostensibly to rendezvous with the ‘Aud’ and supervise the landing of the arms. His actual intention was to prevent an insurrection.


Sir Roger Casement's 'Irish Brigade' drawn from prisoners-of-war in Germany, 1915 ©

The whole enterprise ended in fiasco. Casement was arrested on 21st April, hours after landing on the Kerry coast. The Royal Navy captured the arms ship on the same day. Owing to navigational error, it failed to appear at its agreed rendezvous point. Due to inept planning by the rebel leadership, local volunteers had not been expecting it to arrive when it did. In any case, British intelligence had intercepted messages between the insurrectionists and the German Embassy in New York and was anticipating its arrival. Fearing leaks, full knowledge of such sensitive information was not communicated to the authorities in Dublin, who remained in ignorance of the plans for a rising.

The rebels’ failure to receive the arms had a major impact on the Rising. Had they arrived safely, MacNeill would probably have supported the outbreak, and its scale, especially in the provinces, would have been infinitely greater.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/insurrection/in02.shtml
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 21:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Red Cross Egg with Imperial Portraits

(...) Meanwhile, the Czar spent more and more time at the front with his armies. Alexandra wrote daily to her husband:

20 November 1914. "This morning we were present (I help as always giving the instruments and Olga threaded the needles) at our first big amputation. Whole leg was cut off. I washed and cleaned and bandaged all up."

http://andrejkoymasky.com/liv/fab/54/fab54.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly: "The Manchester Martyrs" (1915)
From Workers’ Republic, 20 November 1915.

This week we are celebrating another anniversary. But it is of a different order to the anniversary of which we spoke of in our last number. That anniversary was of one of Ireland’s thinkers – a defiant rebel and preacher of rebellion but one whose rebellion never got further than the spoken or written word. A thinker and initiator amidst mindless slaves – a scorner and hater of orthodox formulae amidst men who could not think even of rebellion except according to formula, and who refused to rebel because some of the ingredients of their formula were lacking.

This week our Anniversary is not of thinkers, but of doers, of men who when a duty was to be done did not stop to think, but acted, and by their action violated every rule of prudence, sanity, and caution, and in violating them all obeyed the highest dictates of wisdom and achieved immortality.

THE MANCHESTER MARTYRS! Who were they? A few words will tell.

Two members of the Fenian organisation – Kelly and Deasy – were trapped in Manchester, and lay awaiting trial in an English prison. The Fenians in that city resolved to rescue them. This they did by stopping the prison van upon the road between Manchester and Salford, breaking open the van, shooting a policeman in the act, and carrying off their comrades under the very eyes of the English authorities,

Out of a number of men arrested for complicity in the deed, three were hanged. These three were ALLEN, LARKIN and O’BRIEN – the three Manchester Martyrs whose memory we honour today. Why do we honour them?

We honour them because of their heroic souls. Let us remember that by every test by which parties in Ireland to-day measure political wisdom, or personal prudence, the act of these men ought to be condemned. They were in a hostile city, surrounded by a hostile population; they were playing into the hands of the Government by bringing all the Fenians out in broad daylight to be spotted and remembered; they were discouraging the Irish people by giving them another failure to record; they had no hopes of foreign help even if their brothers in Ireland took the field spurred by their action; at the most their action would only be an Irish riot in an English city; and finally, they were imperilling the whole organisation for the sake of two men. These were all the sound sensible arguments of the prudent, practical politicians and theoretical revolutionists. But “how beggarly appear words before a defiant deed!”

The Fenians of Manchester rose superior to all the whines about prudence, caution and restraint, and saw only two of their countrymen struck at for loyalty to freedom, and seeing this, struck back at the enemy with blows that are still resounding through the heart of the world. The echo of those blows has for a generation been as a baptismal dedication to the soul and life of thousands of Irish men and women, consecrating them to the service of freedom.

Had Kelly and Deasy been struck at in our time, we would not have startled the world by the vehemence of our blow in return; we would not have sent out the call for a muster of our hosts to peril all in their rescue. No, we would simply have instructed our typist to look up the office files and see if they had paid up their subscription in the Cumann Cosanta, and were entitled to their insurance benefit.

Thus we have progressed in the path of civilised methods, far, far away from the undisciplined hatred and reckless fighting of the ’67 men. MORYAH!

ALLEN, LARKIN and O’BRIEN died that the right of their small nationality to independence might be attested by their blood – died that some day an Irish Republic might live. The song of their martyrdom was written by a man who had laboured hard to prevent the fruition of their hopes; the prayer of their last moments has become the hackneyed catch word of every political Judas seeking to betray their cause. Everything associated with them has been stolen or corrupted, except the imperishable example of their ‘defiant deed.’ Of that neither men, devils, nor doubters can deprive us.

Oh, the British Empire is great and strong and powerful compared with Ireland. ’Tis true that compared with Germany the Empire is a doddering old miser confronted with a lusty youth, a miser whose only hope is to purchase the limbs and bodies of others to protect her stolen properties. ’Tis true that the Empire cannot stand up alone to any European power, that she must have allies or perish. ’Tis true that even with allies her military and financial system is cracking at every point, sweating blood in fear at every pore. But still all the stolen property that England possesses our Irish forefathers have helped to steal, and we are helping to defend.

Was it wise then, or commendable, for the men of ’67 to rebel against the Empire that their and our fathers have helped to build or steal? There are thousands of answers to that question, but let the European battlefields of today provide the one all-sufficient answer.

All these mountains of Irish dead, all these corpses mangled beyond recognition, all these arms, legs, eyes, ears, fingers, toes, hands, all these shivering putrefying bodies and portions of bodies – once warm living and tender parts of Irish men and youths – all these horrors buried in Flanders or the Gallipoli Peninsula, are all items in the price Ireland pays for being part of the British Empire. All these widows whose husbands were torn from their sides and forced to go to war, their prayers and tears for the ones who will return no more, are another part of the price of Empire. All those fatherless orphans, who for the last time have heard the cheery laugh of an affectionate father, and who must for years suffer all the bitter hardships of a childhood poorly provided for against want and hunger – all those and their misery are part of the price Ireland pays for Empire. All those shattered, maimed and diseased wrecks of humanity who for years will crowd our poorhouses and asylums, or crawl along our roads and streets affronting our health by their wounds, and our comfort by their appeals for charity – all, all are part of the price Ireland pays for the glory of being an integral part of the British Empire.

And for what do we pay this price? Answer, ye practical ones! Ye men of sense, of prudence, of moderation, of business capacity!

Ireland is rotten with slums, a legacy of Empire. The debt of this war will prevent us from getting money to replace them with sound clean, healthy homes. Every big gun fired in the Dardanelles fired away at every shot the cost of building a home for a working class family. Ireland has the most inefficient educational system, and the poorest schools in Europe. Empire compels us to pay pounds for blowing out the brains of others for every farthing it allows us with which to train our own.

An Empire on which the sun never sets cannot guarantee its men and women as much comfort as is enjoyed by the every-day citizen of the smallest, least military nation in Europe. Nations that know not the power and possessions of Empire have happier, better educated, better housed, better equipped men and women than Ireland has ever known, or can ever know as an integral part of the British Empire.

The British Empire is a piratical enterprise in which the velour of slaves fights for the glory and profit of their masters. The Home Rule Party aspire to be trusted accomplices of that conspiracy, the Manchester Martyrs were its unyielding foes even to the dungeon and the scaffold. Therefore we honour the memory of the Manchester Martyrs. As future generations shall honour them.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1915/11/manmrtyr.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Domenik Ruconich



Domenik (aka Domenico) Ruconich was born on the 2nd October 1893 in Ossero, Neresine, Istria (now town of Osor, Cres Island, Croatia). He was a farmer and in 1914, when World War I broke out, he was enlisted in the Austro-Hungarian Army and did his military training in the Istrian city-port of Pola (now Pula). He was assigned to the 37th Infantry Regiment (Dalmatian), 3rd Company ("Infanterist des kuk. Landwehrinfanterieregiments N° 37, 3 Feldkompagnie"), 58th Division.

With his Regiment he was sent against Serbia, still I don't know yet how many campaigns he fought there and where exactly in Serbia. His Regiment was then moved to the Italian Isonzo front in 1915, where his unit was directly involved in the first 4 Italian Isonzo River front offensives. During the 4th Italian offensive an Austro-Hungarian night counter-attack to recover a hill nearby the city of Gorizia was fatal for Him. He died on 20 November 1915 in Oslavia, near Gorizia, and, according to my information, he was buried there on the very same day.

http://www.worldwar1.com/itafront/rocconi.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First battle of El Alamein, 1915

On 20 November 1915 General Sir John Maxwell, GoC British Troops in Egypt, order the formation of the Western Frontier Force, under Major General A Wallace, and for thein to assemble at Matruh. The force comprised a Composite Yeomanry Brigade, a Composite Infantry Brigade, a detachment of Egyptian Engineers and the Divisional Train of the 1st Australian Div. Further troops were provided to guard the railway line from Alexandria to Daaba and to patrol the gap between the railway and the Quattara Depression ‑ i.e. the area of the Battle of El Alamein in Nov 1942. From Nov 1915 to Spring 1916 actions in this area convinced the Senussi not to take part in any further actions including raiding against the supply depots of the Allied Forces in Egypt.

http://www.sherwood-rangers.org/news/april02/el%20alamain.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE VERDUN MEDALS

The Verdun City Council, in refuge in Paris, created the medal on 20 November 1916 with the following text:

"Aux Grands Chefs, aux Officiers, aux Soldats, à tous, héros connus et anonymes, vivants et morts, qui ont triomphé de l'avalanche des barbares et immortalisé son nom à travers le monde et pour les siècles futurs, la Ville de Verdun, inviolée et debout sur ses ruines, dédie cette médaille, en témoignage de sa reconnaissance.

Paris, le 20 novembre 1916
L'Adjoint faisant fonction de Maire
Signé : BEYLIER"

"To the Great Leaders, to the Officers, to the soldiers, to all heroes known or anonymous, living or dead, that have triumphed over the barbarous avalanche and immortalised its name over the entire world for centuries to come, the City of Verdun, unsacked and upstanding on its ruins, dedicated this medal, as token of its gratitude.

Paris, 20 November 1916
The temporary Mayor,
signed: BEYLIER"


Entitled to the medal will be veterans of the French or Allied armies that were serving, between 31 July 1914 and 11 November 1918 in the Verdun sector, between the Argonne and Saint-Mihiel, in the area that was under artillery bombardment.

A committee was founded to examine all applications and the medal's awards were entered in a "Golden Book" started on 27 August 1922.

http://hendrik.atspace.com/eng/Verdun.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Cambrai, 20 November- 7 December 1917

The Battle of Cambrai, 20 November-7 December 1917, was the first large scale tank battle in history. It was launched after the general failure of the main British autumn offensive of 1917, the Third Battle of Ypres, famous for the Passchendaele mud. Ironically the poor weather at Ypres had preserved the Tank Corps, which by November could field over 300 tanks.

The idea for an attack at Cambrai had been developed by Brigadier General H. Elles, the commander of the Tank Corps. He wanted to launch a mass attack with his tanks across the dry chalky ground at Cambrai, where his tanks wouldn’t run the risk of bogging down in the mud. His plans were received with some enthusiasm by General Sir Julian Byng, commander of the Third Army.

His own artillerymen had also come up with a plan that combined a tank attack with a new type of artillery bombardment that did not require lengthy preparation. Earlier bombardments had required a preliminary period of “registration” in which each gun battery had fired practise rounds to determine where their shots were landing. This alerted the defenders to the possibility of an assault and allowed them to gather reserves. Brigadier General H.H. Tudor had devised a system to register guns electronically, thus avoiding the need for a long period of preparation.

The attack at Cambrai was to be launched by just over 300 tanks spread out along a 10,000 yard front and supported by eight infantry divisions. The infantry were to advance close behind the tanks to provide close support. The artillery bombardment would start on the day of the attack, giving no warning of the upcoming assault.

The artillery bombardment began at 6.20 am on 20 November 1917. The two German divisions at Cambrai, the 20th Landwehr and 54th Reserve divisions, were caught entirely by surprise. Along most of the line the British tanks crawled their way through the German wire, across the trenches, and with close infantry support reached as far as four miles into the German lines.

The position was not so promising in the centre of the British line. The commander of the German 54th Reserve division had prepared anti-tank tactics, based around the use of artillery against slowly moving targets. The infantry of the 51st Highland Division was too far behind the tanks, leaving them vulnerable. Eleven were destroyed in front of the advancing Highlanders. At the end of the first day the British had created a six mile wide gap in the German lines, but with a salient at its centre.

The success at Cambrai on 20 November was treated as a great victory in Britain, where the church bells rang out for the first time since 1914. However, after the great successes of 20 November the advance slowed down. The tanks of 1917 were still not mechanically reliable and many had broken down under the stresses of the advance. Some limited progress was made over the next week, but the defences of the Siegfried line held.

While the British were inching their way forward, the Germans were preparing for a counterattack. On 30 November 20 German divisions under the command of Crown Prince Rupprecht and General von Marwitz launched a massive counterattack that forced the British out of many of the areas they had captured on 20 November and even captured some areas held by the British before the start of the battle. On 4 December Haig ordered a withdrawal from much of the remaining salient to shorten the lines. The battle which had started with such a dramatic breakthrough ended with the restoration of the status quo.

Loses were roughly equivalent on both sides. The British lost 43,000 men, many during the German counterattack. Germans losses were similar, between 40,000 and 50,000 men. The main achievement of the British Tank Corps at Cambrai was to demonstrate all too clearly the potential of the tank. The German tank programme was perhaps their biggest failure of the war. In the crucial battles of 1918 the Germans would have to rely on captured British and French tanks and a very small number of their own dreadful A7V tank.

Rickard, J (21 August 2007), Battle of Cambrai, 20 November- 7 December 1917 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_cambrai.html
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/cambrai.htm
Zie ook http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRaDUsd4JFs
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British infantry, having moved up into captured German trenches at Havrincourt on 20 November 1917.



http://www.1914-1918.net/bat21.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fort Garry Horse - The Canadian Cavalry Brigade

In 1915 Canada's two regular Cavalry regiments and single Horse Artillery Regiment were brigaded together to form the Canadian Cavalry Brigade. Initially they were supplemented by the 2nd King Edward's Horse from the UK. In 1916 the King Edward's Horse were replaced by a Canadian Militia Unity from Winnepeg: The Fort Garry Horse.

The three Cavalry Regiments were therefore: the Royal Canadian Dragoons, Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians), and the Garrys.

All were placed under the command of Brigadier General J Seely.

20 November 1917 - During the Battle of Cambrai the Canadians were attached to the 5th Cavalry Division which together with the remainder of the Cavalry Corps were supposed to have rushed through the gaps created by the tanks and infantry and thus isolated Cambrai.

One of their other tasks was to:

...take early steps to round up or dislodge the Headquarters of the Cambrai Group at Escadoeuvres, the two divisional headquarters in Cambrai, and the headquarters of other smaller units in the area.

The task of attacking the HQ at Escadoeuvres (to the north east of Cambrai and a good distance from the start line) fell to B Squadron of the Fort Garry Horse.

Crossing the canal - By 1130 hours Brigadier General Seely had arrived at Les Rues Vertes on the southern side of the St Quentin Canal from Masnières and following consultation with his infantry counterpart ordered up the Garry's to press on with the attack.

Discovering the main road bridge to have been damaged by a tank Lt Col R W Paterson ordered B Squadron to search for a suitable crossing point to the east of the town.

At the lock, a kilometre to the east, they found that a reconstructed bridge being used by the infantry was usable by horses and at 1530 hours they started crossing to the far side.

Within 30 minutes B Squadron was safely across and had commenced their drive for the ridge, east of Rumilly, a couple of kilometres away.

Rain stops play - About this time it began to rain, and taking into account the marshy land on the far side of the canal, commanders of both cavalry and infantry in the area deemed it unwise - with the imminent fall of night - to continue with a cavalry advance.

Despite the fact that it was marked on maps and aerial photographs, none of them seem to have noticed that there was another bridge more than suitable for cavalry, less than a kilometre further down the canal from where Captain Campbell and B Squadron had crossed.

The order was sent out to Lt Colonel Paterson to halt his advance and retire to the southern side of the canal. Unfortunately B Squadron were already out of communication riding at the gallop towards the enemy lines.

The cavalry charge - Thus commenced one of the famous cavalry charges of the war. Captain Campbell was hit by machine gun fire almost immediately after crossing the canal and it fell to Lieutenant Harcus Strachan to continue the advance.

Despite the machine gun fire the squadron continued their charge silencing a German Field Battery on their way. A number of German infantry raised their hands in surrender but the cavalrymen had no means of dealing with prisoners and simply rode past.

At this the luck Germans re-manned their machine guns and open fire again on the disappearing cavalry.

Strachan realised that something had gone wrong and that he and his men were quite alone on the German side of the canal. They took shelter in a sunken road to the east of Rumilly. There they found that they could continue no further and were already having to fend off counter-attacks. Having stampeded the horses the party split into two groups to try and make their way back to the Canal.

Lieutenant William Cowen was awarded the Military Cross for bringing his party safely home and Lieutenant Strachan received the Victoria Cross for his leadership. Of the 133 cavalrymen who had started out only 46 managed to return but they brought with them a number of prisoners as well as valuable information about the German dispositions.

Lieutenant Harcus Strachan VC MC - For his courage and leadership Lt Strachan was awarded the Victoria Cross.

On 20 November 1917 at Masnières, France, Lieutenant Strachan took command of a squadron of his regiment when the squadron leader, approaching the German front line at a gallop, was killed. Lieutenant Strachan led the squadron through the enemy line of machine-gun posts and then, with the surviving men, led the charge on the German battery, killing seven of the gunners with his sword. When all the gunners were killed and the battery silenced, he rallied his men and fought his way back at night through the enemy's lines, bringing all unwounded men safely in, together with 15 prisoners.

Born in Scotland in 1887, he emigrated to Alberta in 1910. Five years later he found himself in England and joined the Garrys as a private. Commissioned from the ranks he had already been decorated with the Military Cross for his part in a trench raid earlier in 1917. He survived the war becoming a successful banker back home in Canada.

He served his country as a Lt Colonel during the Second World War and lived to the ripe old age of 94.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_cambrai_fgh.htm



Harcus Strachan

Harcus Strachan VC MC (November 7, 1884 - May 1, 1982) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Strachan was 33 years of age, and serving in the First World War with the Canadian Expeditionary Force as a lieutenant in The Fort Garry Horse, when he performed the action for which he was awarded the VC. It has become traditional for the Garrys to hold a parade every year on the anniversary of Strachan's unlikely cavalry exploit.

During the Battle of Cambrai on 20 November 1917 at Masnières, France, Lieutenant Strachan took command of a mounted squadron of Garrys when the squadron leader, approaching the German front line at a gallop, was killed. Lieutenant Strachan led the squadron through the enemy line of machine-gun posts and then, with the surviving men, led the charge on the German battery, killing seven of the gunners with his sword. When all the gunners were killed and the battery silenced, he rallied his men and fought his way back at night on foot through the enemy's lines, bringing all unwounded men safely in, together with 15 prisoners.

Strachan, having been promoted to captain, received his VC from King George V on January 6, 1918. After the war, he farmed in Edmonton before going into banking.

Strachan later commanded the 1st Battalion, Edmonton Fusiliers during the Second World War. After the war he retired and moved to Vancouver.

He is also enumerated amongst Scottish VC winners since he was born in Bo'ness, Scotland and attended the Royal High School, Edinburgh. Strachan eventually attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.

Strachan's ashes were scattered near the Rose Garden Columbarium at Boal Chapel Memorial Gardens in North Vancouver B.C. on 5 May 1982.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harcus_Strachan
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9th Essex Regiment attack Cambrai, 20th November 1917

"At zero- 10 the tanks started and a heavy barrage was put down on all the enemy trenches and batteries.

All "A" coy tanks, one of "C" and two of "B" coys stuck in either our own front line or a sunken road and only the coolness of the commanders of these companies, viz Captains CAPPER, BARLTROP and WHALLEY saved the situation.

These officers kept their Coys in hand and led them through other gaps.

All Coys after this delay reached and consolidated their objectives. Many Boches were killed or captured and in addition a vast supply of all kinds of munitions and stores included one heavy mortar, two medium, three heavy MG's and two light ones and several grenadewerfers.

The Boche made no immediate counter attack.

"A" Coy under Capt. CAPPER had the more difficult consolidation but this was well carried out by this officer."

http://alihollington.typepad.com/historic_battlefields/2007/07/9th-essex-regim.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Douglas Haig's Cambrai Despatch

The fifth Despatch of Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, Commander in Chief of the British Armies in France and Flanders. It covered the Cambrai operations in November-December 1917.

Lees verder op http://www.1914-1918.net/haigs_cambrai_despatch.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Cambrai, France, 20th November 1917





Detail:


http://www.military-art.com/mall/more.php?ProdID=13744
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Nov 2010 23:01, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 22:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ukrainian Proclamation on Independence, 20 November 1917

Reproduced below is the text of the proclamation issued by Ukrainian President Vinichenko on 20 November 1917.

With the disintegration of the Russian monarchy in February 1917 nationalist Ukrainian leaders moved swiftly to seek a form of independence within the Russian union, a desire granted by the Provisional Government in July 1917. With the success of the Bolshevik October Revolution of the same year however, the Ukrainians found themselves accused of essentially aiding and abetting anti-Bolshevik forces within Russia.

Ukrainian President Vinichenko consequently issued the proclamation of autonomy below in response to the unrest within Russia. He reiterated the Ukraine's desire to remain autonomous within a wider Russian union - to no avail. The following month, December 1917, brought the Ukraine into civil war against Bolshevik forces.

Ukraine President Vinichenko's Proclamation on Independence, 20 November 1917 (Issued by Ukrainian National Socialistic Council)

Ukrainian people and all peoples of the Ukraine!

An hour of trials and difficulties has come for the land of the Russian Republic. In the north in the capitals (Petrograd and Moscow) a bloody internecine struggle is in progress. A Central Government no longer exists, and anarchy, disorder, and ruin are spreading throughout the State.

Our country also is in danger. Without a strong, united, and popular Government, Ukrainia also may fall into the abyss of civil war, slaughter, and destruction.

People of Ukrainia, you, together with the brother peoples of Ukrainia, have entrusted us with the task of protecting rights won by struggle, of creating order and of building up a new life in our land. And we, the Ukrainian Central Rada, by your will, for the sake of creating order in our country and for the sake of saving the whole of Russia, announce that henceforth Ukrainia becomes the Ukrainian National Republic.

Without separating from the Russian Republic, and preserving its unity, we take up our stand firmly on our lands that with our strength we may help the whole of Russia, and that the whole Russian Republic may become a federation of free and equal peoples.

Until the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly meets, the whole power of creating order in our lands, of issuing laws, and of ruling, belongs to us, the Ukrainian Central Rada, and to our Government - the General Secretariat of Ukrainia.

Having strength and power in our native land, we shall defend the rights of the revolution, not only in our own lands, but in all Russia as well.

Therefore we announce: To the territory of the National Ukrainian Republic belong the lands where the majority of the population is Ukrainian: Kiev, Podolia, Volhynia, Tchernigov, Poltava, Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav, Kherson, Tauris (without the Crimea).

The further delimitation of the frontiers of the Ukrainian National Republic, viz., the addition of part of Kursk, Kholm, Voronez, and the neighbouring provinces and districts, where the majority of the population is Ukrainian, is to be settled according to the organized wishes of the peoples.

To all the citizens of these lands we announce: Henceforth in the territory of the Ukrainian National Republic the existing rights of ownership to the lands of large proprietors and other lands not worked by the owners which are fit for farming, and also to lands belonging to the royal family, to monasteries, to the Crown and to the Church, are abolished.

Recognizing that these lands are the property of the whole working people, and must pass to the people without compensation, the Ukrainian Central Rada instructs the General Secretary for Land Questions to work out immediately a law for the administration of these lands by Land Committees, chosen by the people, until the meeting of the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly.

The labour question in the Ukrainian National Republic must immediately be regulated. For the present we announce: In the territory of the National Ukrainian Republic henceforth an eight hours' day is ordained in the factories and workshops.

The hour of trial and danger which all Russia and our Ukrainia is now experiencing necessitates the proper regulation of labour, and a fair distribution of food supplies and a better organization of work. Therefore, we instruct the General Secretary for Labour, together with representatives of labour, to establish from today State control over production in Ukrainia, respecting the interests both of Ukrainia and also the whole of Russia.

For four years on the front blood has been shed, and the strength of all the peoples of the world has been wasting away. By the wishes and in the name of the Ukrainian Republic we, the Ukrainian Central Rada, firmly insist on the establishment of peace as soon as possible. For this end we make resolute efforts to compel, through the Central Government, both allies and enemies to enter immediately upon peace negotiations.

Likewise we shall insist that at the Peace Congress the rights of the Ukrainian people in Russia and outside Russia shall not be infringed in the treaty of peace. But until peace conies, every citizen of the Republic of Ukrainia, together with the citizens of all the peoples of the Russian Republic, must stand firmly in their positions both at the front and in the rear.

Recently the shining conquests of the revolution have been clouded by the reestablishment of the death penalty. We announce: Henceforth in the lands of the Republic of Ukrainia the death penalty is abolished. To all who are imprisoned and arrested for political offences hitherto committed, as well as those already condemned or awaiting sentence, and also those who have not yet been tried, full amnesty is given. A law will immediately be passed to this effect.

The courts in Ukrainia must be just and in accordance with the spirit of the people.

With this aim we order the General Secretary for Judicial Affairs to make every attempt to establish justice and to execute it according to rules understood by the people.

We instruct the General Secretary for Internal Affairs as follows: To make every effort to strengthen and extend the rights of local self-government, which shall be the organs of the highest local administrative authority, and until the establishment of the closest connection with the organs of revolutionary democracy, which are to be the best foundation of a free democratic life.

Also in the Ukrainian National Republic all the liberties won by the Russian revolution are to be guaranteed, namely, freedom of the press, of speech, of religion, of assembly, of union, of strikes, of inviolability of person and of habitation, the right and the possibility of using local dialects in dealing with all authorities.

The Ukrainian people, which has fought for many years for its national freedom and now has won it, will firmly protect the freedom of national development of all nationalities existing in Ukrainia.

Therefore, we announce that to the Great Russian, Jewish, Polish, and other peoples of Ukrainia we recognize national personal autonomy for the security of their rights and freedom of self-government in questions of their national life, and we instruct our General Secretary for Nationality Questions to draw up in the near future a measure for national personal autonomy.

The food question is the foundation of the power of the State at this difficult and responsible moment. The Ukrainian National Republic must make every effort to save itself both at the front and in those parts of the Russian Republic which need our help.

Citizens! In the name of the National Ukrainian Republic in federal Russia, we, the Ukrainian Central Rada, call upon all to struggle resolutely with all forms of anarchy and disorder, and to help in the great work of building up new State forms, which will give the great and powerful Russian Republic health, strength, and a new future.

The working out of these forms must be carried out at the Ukrainian and all-Russian Constituent Assemblies.

The date for the election of the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly is fixed for January 9, 1918, and the date for its summoning January 22, 1918.

A law will be immediately published regulating the summoning of the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/ukraine_vinichenko1.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 23:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aboriginals in WWI

Although people of aboriginal ancestry from Newfoundland and Labrador fought and sometimes died during the First World War, their histories remain largely unknown. Few documents and little research exist to describe their wartime experiences and motivations for enlisting. Because the country’s military records did not identify all aboriginal recruits, it is unknown exactly how many enlisted. It is also unknown how many died overseas due to enemy attack or illness.

Lance Corporal John Shiwak


Image courtesy of the Labrador Virtual War Memorial

John Shiwak, a hunter and trapper of Inuit descent from Labrador, served as a sniper and scout in the First World War. He died on 20 November 1917 after an exploding shell killed him and six other soldiers during the battle of Cambrai in northern France. He was 28 years old. (...)

The traditional skills of many Inuit and Métis recruits made them proficient snipers and scouts. John Shiwak, a hunter and trapper of Inuit descent from Rigolet, attributed his sniping prowess to his experience ‘swatching’ seals – a Newfoundland and Labrador term for watching the water and shooting seals as they quickly resurfaced to breathe. Shiwak, who sailed to England aboard the Calgarian, distinguished himself as an expert sniper while serving on the front lines in France; an unidentified officer reportedly called him “the best sniper in the British Army.” On 16 April 1917, Shiwak’s skills earned him a promotion to lance-corporal.

Although an expert and respected sniper, Shiwak quickly became depressed by the violence of war. In letters to his friend, Lacey Amy, Shiwak wrote of a desire to return home to his friends and family. Unfortunately, Shiwak died on the battlefield on 20 November 1917 after an exploding shell killed him and six other soldiers during the battle of Cambrai in northern France. He was 28 years old. Captain R.H. Tait of the Newfoundland Regiment called Shiwak a “great favourite with all ranks, an excellent scout and observer, and a thoroughly good and reliable fellow in every way.” Alongside praise from his fellow soldiers, Shiwak’s bravery and skill also earned him the British War Medal and Victory Medal.

http://www.heritage.nf.ca/law/aboriginals_gw.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 23:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 20 November 1918, Page 3





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19181120.2.59
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 23:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Berlin: November-December 1918

20 November 1918: Funeral of the revolution victims of November 1918



Nog meer foto's... http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/revolution(1).html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 23:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

20 November 1918 → Commons Sitting → BRITISH PRISONERS OF WAR IN GERMANY.

STATEMENT BY MR. BONAR LAW.


HC Deb 20 November 1918 vol 110 cc3433-4 3433

Mr. CROOKS (by Private Notice) asked the hon. Member for Central Sheffield whether he has any statement to make with regard to British prisoners in Germany; whether food and adequate comforts are being provided, and can he state what steps the Government propose to take in the matter?

Mr. HOPE I understand that a similar question will be addressed to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who will reply.

Colonel YATE (by Private Notice) asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer what action is being taken by the Government to put an end to the suffering being endured by our released prisoners in Germany?

Mr. BONAR LAW The following message has been sent by wireless to the German Government and to Sir Douglas Haig for communication to German Headquarters: ‘Information reaches His Majesty's Government of shocking lack of organisation in release of British prisoners in German territory, and of their return 3434 march on foot, miserably clothed, without food or transport, and with no escort or guides, to the Allied lines, with the result of lamentable suffering and heavy mortality. His Majesty's Government cannot tolerate continuation of this cruel treatment and must insist on adequate arrangements being made, in all above respects, by German authorities with whom responsibility lies. Otherwise we shall be compelled to take this into account in any question of re-victualling Germany or satisfying requirements of German population. His Majesty's Government are ready to lend all available assistance by forwarding food, clothing, and transport to prisoners' camps, where they are not otherwise forthcoming, and are addressing Allied Commanders in this sense.’ In addition, Sir Douglas Haig has been instructed to take every possible step to forward with the utmost rapidity, food, clothing, and means of conveyance for the use of our prisoners in Germany. Our Allies are being asked to co-operate in this action.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/nov/20/statement-by-mr-bonar-law
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 23:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DEPLOYMENT OF THE ARMY 1918 and 1945 - Reported Actual Strengths In Principal Theaters

http://www.history.army.mil/books/agf/agf004/table2.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Nov 2010 23:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

20 November 1919 → Commons Sitting → CHANNEL TUNNEL

PROMOTION OF PRIVATE BILL
.

HC Deb 20 November 1919 vol 121 c1123 1123

Sir A. FELL asked the Prime Minister if he can arrange for the Government to receive the advice of the War Office and Admiralty on the question of the Channel Tunnel in time to render the deposit of the Bill in Parliament this December possible, so that it may, if the Standing Orders are dispensed with, proceed next Session, and, if passed, save a whole year's time in the construction of the tunnel?

The PRIME MINISTER The War Office and Admiralty are examining this question as quickly as possible, and I shall let my hon. Friend know when I am in a position to answer his question.

Sir A. FELL May we have some hope that this will be done in time to enable the Bill to be deposited in December this year?

The PRIME MINISTER I can quite see the force of my hon. Friend's appeal, and I will certainly do what I can to have a decision in time to enable the promoters to give the necessary notice this year.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/nov/20/promotion-of-private-bill
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15250
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Nov 2017 12:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poor little Belgium

(...) Op 20 november 1918, tien dagen na de ondertekening van de Wapenstilstand, wordt het toneelwerk vertoond aan het Londense publiek in het Swansea Grand Theatre en bevestigt er helemaal het beeld van ‘poor little Belgium’. De toen beroemde John Martin Harvey oogst triomf in de hoofdrol en constateert ‘Maeterlincks strikte onpartijdigheid, verbazend in het besef van de kwelling die zijn land door de Duitsers is aangedaan.’ (...)

Leuk artikel! https://g-geschiedenis.eu/2017/07/25/maeterlincks-oorlogsdrama/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Pagina 1 van 1

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group