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Unknown warrior - Onbekende Soldaat - Soldat Inconnu

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Nov 2007 22:54    Onderwerp: Unknown warrior - Onbekende Soldaat - Soldat Inconnu Reageer met quote

van een goed uitziende blog:

The British tomb of The Unknown Warrior holds an unidentified British soldier killed on a European battlefield during World War I. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, London on November 11, 1920, the earliest such tomb honouring the unknown dead of World War I. Even the battlefield the Warrior came from is not known, and has been kept secret so that the Unknown Warrior might serve as a symbol for all of the unknown dead wherever they fell. The Unknown Warrior is a recipient of the United States' Medal of Honor.

The idea of a Tomb of the Unknown Warrior was first conceived in 1916 by the Reverend David Railton, who while serving as an army chaplain on the Western Front, had seen a grave marked by a rough cross, which bore the pencil-written legend 'An Unknown British Soldier'. He wrote to the Dean of Westminster in 1920 proposing that an unidentified British soldier from the battlefields in France be buried with due ceremony in Westminster Abbey "amongst the kings" to represent the many thousands of Empire dead. The idea was strongly supported by the Dean and the then Prime Minister Lloyd George. There was initial opposition from King George V (who feared that such a ceremony would reopen the wounds of a recently concluded war) and others but a surge of emotional support from the great number of bereaved families ensured its adoption.

Arrangements were placed in the hands of Lord Curzon who prepared in committee the service and location. The body was chosen from four bodies draped with Union Flags at the chapel at St Pol near Arras, France on the night of 7 November 1920 by Brigadier General L.J. Wyatt and Lieutenant Colonel E.A.S. Gell. The remains were placed into a simple pine coffin. The coffin stayed at the chapel overnight and on the afternoon of November 8, it was transferred under guard to the castle library within the citadel at Boulogne.

Troops lined the route and a company of the French 8th Infantry regiment, recently awarded the Légion d'Honneur en masse, stood vigil over it overnight. The following morning, two undertakers entered the library and placed the coffin into a casket of the oak timbers of trees from Hampton Court Palace. The casket was banded with iron and a medieval crusader's sword, chosen by the king personally from the Royal Collection, was affixed to the top and surmounted by an iron shield bearing the inscription 'A British Warrior who fell in the Great War 1914-1918 for King and Country'.

The casket was then placed onto a French military wagon, drawn by six black horses. At 10:30 a.m., all church bells of Boulogne tolled; the massed trumpets of French cavalry and bugles of French infantry played the Aux Champs (the French "Last Post"). Then, the mile-long procession - led by one thousand French schoolchildren and with a division of French soldiers forming the guard of honour - made its way down to the harbour. At the quayside, Marshal Foch saluted the casket before it was carried up the gangway of the destroyer, HMS Verdun, and piped aboard with an admiral's call. The Verdun slipped anchor just before noon and was joined by an escort of six battleships. As the flotilla carrying the casket closed on Dover Castle it received a 19 gun Field Marshal's salute. It was landed at Dover Maritime Railway Station at the Western Docks on 10th November, from where it was taken to Victoria Station, where it arrived at platform 8 at 8.32pm that evening and remained for the night of the 10th - at both locations there is a plaque. Every year on November 11th there is a small Remembrance service at Victoria Station between platforms 8 and 9.

On the morning of the 11 November 1920 the casket was loaded onto a gun carriage of the Royal Horse Artillery and drawn by six horses through immense and silent crowds. The route followed was Hyde Park Corner, The Mall, and to Whitehall where the Cenotaph was unveiled by King George V. The cortège was then followed by the King, Royal Family and ministers of state to Westminster Abbey, where the casket was borne into the West Nave of the Abbey flanked by a guard of honour of one hundred recipients of the Victoria Cross. The guests of honour were a little group of about one hundred women. They had been chosen because they had each lost their husband and all their sons in the war. "Every woman so bereft who applied for a place got it". The coffin was then interred in the far western end of the nave, only a few feet from the entrance, with soil from each of the main battlefields and covered with a silk pall. The Armed Services then stood as honour guard as tens of thousands of mourners filed past. The ceremony appears to have served as a form of catharsis for collective mourning on a scale not previously known.

The grave was then capped with a black Belgium marble stone (the only tombstone in the Abbey on which it is forbidden to walk) featuring this inscription, composed by Dean Ryle, Dean of Westminster, engraved with brass from melted down wartime ammunition:

BENEATH THIS STONE RESTS THE BODY
OF A BRITISH WARRIOR
UNKNOWN BY NAME OR RANK
BROUGHT FROM FRANCE TO LIE AMONG
THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS OF THE LAND
AND BURIED HERE ON ARMISTICE DAY
11 NOV: 1920, IN THE PRESENCE OF
HIS MAJESTY KING GEORGE V
HIS MINISTERS OF STATE
THE CHIEFS OF HIS FORCES
AND A VAST CONCOURSE OF THE NATION
THUS ARE COMMEMORATED THE MANY
MULTITUDES WHO DURING THE GREAT
WAR OF 1914 - 1918 GAVE THE MOST THAT
MAN CAN GIVE LIFE ITSELF
FOR GOD
FOR KING AND COUNTRY
FOR LOVED ONES HOME AND EMPIRE
FOR THE SACRED CAUSE OF JUSTICE AND
THE FREEDOM OF THE WORLD
THEY BURIED HIM AMONG THE KINGS BECAUSE HE
HAD DONE GOOD TOWARD GOD AND TOWARD
HIS HOUSE


Around the main inscription are four texts:
THE LORD KNOWETH THEM THAT ARE HIS (top)
GREATER LOVE HATH NO MAN THAN THIS (side)
UNKNOWN AND YET WELL KNOWN, DYING AND BEHOLD WE LIVE (side)
IN CHRIST SHALL ALL BE MADE ALIVE (base)

Later history:
A year later, the Warrior was conferred the US Medal of Honor on 17 October 1921, from the hand of General Pershing; it hangs on a pillar near to his burial site. (Later, on 11 November 1921, the U.S. Unknown Soldier was reciprocally awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest award for gallantry.) When Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon married the future King George VI on 26 April 1923, she laid her bouquet at the Tomb on her way into the Abbey, a gesture which every royal bride married at the abbey since has copied, though on the way back from the altar rather than to it. When Alfred Rosenberg, the Nazi ideologist, visited Britain on a diplomatic mission in 1933 he laid a wreath with a Swastika on it at the tomb. A British war veteran threw it into the Thames. On the death of Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother in 2002, the Queen Mother before she died expressed her wish for her wreath to be placed on the tomb of the Unknown Warrior in Westminster, the Queen laid the wreath.

©W. R. Logan at 06:30

Kijk eens verder op:
http://dissdetachment.blogspot.com/2007/11/unknown-warrior.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2007 16:05    Onderwerp: Re: The Unknown Warrior Reageer met quote

Fijn dat er hier op het forum ook af en toe iets over de herinnering van de oorlog te vinden is!

De Onbekende Soldaat (een ‘warrior’ in Groot-Brittannië, want de term moest bijvoorbeeld ook op de marine kunnen slaan) is zo één van die manieren van herinneren die tot de erfenis van de Eerste Wereldoorlog behoren en nog actueler zijn dan je zo op het eerste zicht zou denken.

Het idee om een onbekende soldaat te begraven ontstond ongeveer tegelijkertijd in Frankrijk en Groot-Brittannië, en op 11 november 1920 begroeven die hun Onbekende Soldaat, onder de Arc de Triomphe in Parijs, en in Westminster Abbey in Londen. Het monument was zo succesvol (in de eerste week na de begrafenis van de Onbekende Soldaat in Londen werd het graf bezocht door meer dan een miljoen Britten, vooral vrouwen) dat het in de volgende jaren navolging kreeg in bijna alle landen die aan de oorlog hadden deelgenomen. In 1921 bijvoorbeeld in België, Portugal, Italië en de V.S., en niet veel later ook aan de kant van de kant van de verliezers. In Duitsland werden wel een aantal voorstellen gedaan maar men kon het nooit eens worden over een ‘nationale’ site om de oorlog te herinneren; later wilden de nazi’s niet het risico lopen om een Duitse jood te begraven en stelden Hitler veeleer voor als ‘onbekende soldaat’.

Omdat de Onbekende Soldaat iedereen kon zijn, en alleen zijn nationaliteit vaststond, werd hij ook een nationaal symbool, dat ook na latere oorlogen werd gebruikt, bijvoorbeeld na de Tweede Wereldoorlog, de Korea-oorlog en de Vietnamoorlog in de Verenigde Staten, en door Saddam Hoessein zelfs al tijdens de oorlog met Iran, in 1982. En juist omwille van die nationale symboliek hebben drie landen die tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog deel waren van het Britse Rijk maar ondertussen veel ‘onafhankelijker’ zijn geworden, recent een eigen onbekende soldaat uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog begraven: Australië in 1993, Canada in 2000 en Nieuw-Zeeland in 2004. Dat zijn landen die voor 1914-1918 al wel een politieke eenheid waren maar eigenlijk pas een ‘natie’ werden tijdens de oorlog, mede door hun deelname eraan.

De Onbekende Soldaat kan (afgezien van zijn nationaliteit) iedereen zijn: daarom kan hij de vermiste doden vertegenwoordigen én zélf een van die doden zijn. Die symboliek staat of valt overigens met die anonimiteit. In de Verenigde Staten eisten enkele familieleden van vermiste Vietnam-soldaten in 1998 dat het in 1984 begraven lichaam van de Onbekende Soldaat van Vietnam zou worden onderzocht; zijn identiteit werd door DNA-onderzoek vastgesteld. De nu gekende Vietnam-soldaat werd ontgraven en kreeg geen vervanger. Toen Canada in 2000 haar eigen Onbekende Soldaat uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog begroef, moest de regering aan de Commonwealth War Graves Commisission, die de oorlogsgraven van het voormalige Britse Rijk onderhoudt, expliciet beloven nooit een DNA-test op het lichaam te zullen toestaan…
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Okt 2008 13:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het verhaal van de Belgische Onbekende Soldaat kan je hier lezen:
http://users.telenet.be/ABL1914/BWG/OnbSoldaat.htm

Enkele beelden van de Franse "Soldat Inconnu"








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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Okt 2008 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Griekse Onbekende Soldaat

http://www.athensinfoguide.com/nl/wtssyntagma.htm


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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Okt 2008 17:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In Engeland wordt er een nieuwe stoomlocomotief gebouwd dewelke als naam "The Unknown Warrior" gaat krijgen.

Quote:
The new 'Patriot' will be named 'The Unknown Warrior' in keeping with the tradition of war memorial engines. The Patriot Project aims to continue this tradition in memory of all those brave men and women who courageously served their country.


Link naar de website: http://www.lms-patriot.org.uk/warrior.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Okt 2008 19:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Unknown Warrior, Westminster Abbey, London








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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Okt 2008 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Journey Home...at last. 11 November 1918 to 11 November 2004.
The journey home for this New Zealand Digger started in order to serve as a focus of remembrance for the sacrifice made by all New Zealand servicemen and women. The Ministry for Culture and Heritage led the project to repatriate the body of an unknown warrior for burial in the new Tomb of the Unknown Warrior at the National War Memorial in Buckle Street, Wellington. The ceremonial programme was probably the largest commemorative programme ever undertaken in New Zealand.

The Unknown Warrior is one of over 250,000 New Zealanders who served in overseas wars. He is one of 30,000 who died in service. He is one of over 9000 who have no known grave or whose remains could never be recovered. The remains were chosen by the Commission from the First World War Caterpillar Valley Cemetery in the Somme region of France as this was an area where the greatest number of the various New Zealand regiments and battalions are known to have fought. As the soldier's name, rank, regiment, race, religion and other details are unknown, he represents and honours all New Zealanders who became lost to their families in war.

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-tributes/nz-tomb.htm


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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Okt 2008 14:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canada
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier


On May 23rd, 2000, a Canadian Forces aircraft flew to France to bring the Unknown Soldier back to Canada. On board was a delegation consisting of a Canadian Forces contingent including a 45-person guard, a bearer party, and a chaplain. The Veterans Affairs contingent contained veterans and civilians, including two representatives of Canadian youth.

In the meantime, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (which duties include the care of graves of members of the forces of the British Commonwealth who died in the First and Second World Wars) selected an unidentified soldier from a cemetery in the vicinity of Vimy Ridge, the site of a famous Canadian battle of the First World War.

On May 25th, at a ceremony at the Canadian Memorial on Vimy Ridge, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission turned over the remains to Canada. At that point the Canadian Forces took over responsibility for the safekeeping and transport of the soldier's remains. Immediately after the ceremony, the Canadian delegation returned to Ottawa with a casket containing the soldier's remains on board the aircraft.

On the evening of May 25th, the casket carrying the remains of the Unknown Soldier was transported to Parliament Buildings, where it was placed in the Hall of Honour in the Centre Block. The remains lay in state there for three days, until the morning of May 28th, so that Canadians could view the casket and pay their respects.

In the afternoon of May 28th, the Unknown Soldier was transported from Parliament Hill to the National War Memorial on a horse-drawn gun carriage provided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The funeral cortege included Their Excellencies, the Right Honourable Adrienne Clarkson, Governor General of Canada and John Ralston Saul, the Right Honourable Jean Chrétien, Prime Minister of Canada, veterans, Canadian Forces personnel and members of the RCMP. In a ceremony which aired on national television, the Unknown Soldier was laid to rest in a specially-designed sarcophagus directly in front of the War Memorial.

From that point on, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier became a focal point of commemoration for all memorial events at the National War Memorial. It is a memorial in Canada for Canadians. The Tomb is a fitting way to honour the sacrifices on which our freedoms were built.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=Memorials/tomb/thetomb

When and where were the remains exhumed?

Remains were exhumed on Tuesday morning 16 May 2000 from Cabaret-Rouge British Cemetery, Souchez, Plot 8, Row E, Grave 7.

What's the significance of Cabaret-Rouge British Cemetery, Souchez?

The cemetery was established by British troops in March 1916 then used until August 1917 largely by the Canadian Corps and the UK's 47th (London) Division. It was then used sparingly until September 1918 and after the Armistice was greatly enlarged by the concentration of over 7,000 graves from battlefields around Arras and other burial grounds located in the French Administrative Regions of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. "Cabaret-Rouge" refers to a house located approximately one kilometre south of Souchez. In turn this name was given to a communications trench which ended just east of the cemetery location. The cemetery is approximately 3.5 km north of Arras, just west of the Vimy Memorial.

There are approximately 8,000 burials in this cemetery amongst which are 325 identified and 425 unidentified Canadians.

Was a complete set of remains recovered?

Yes, bearing in mind that 80 plus years have passed since the death of the casualty.

Is anything known about the remains of this particular soldier?

No. The Commission took extra care in its research prior to exhumation to involve only those graves where nothing was known about the casualty.

Why was Cabaret-Rouge Cemetery chosen?

Canada (Veterans Affairs) asked the Commission to specially consider the Vimy area when investigating suitable remains for repatriation. The Vimy area was defined as a strip of land approximately 25 km in length running from Loos-en-Gohelle in the north and Neuville-Vitasse in the south, an area of concentrated Canadian achievement. Cabaret-Rouge met the criteria and offered a group of unknown Canadian casualties which gave an improved chance of finding remains.

Is there anything now marking the original burial site?

A marker, resembling the other Commission headstones in the cemetery, sits on the now empty grave. It is inscribed as follows:

ANCIENNE SÉPULTURE D'UN
SOLDAT CANADIEN INCONNU
MORT AU COURS DE LA
PREMIÈRE GUERRE MONDIALE.
IL A ÉTÉ EXHUMÉ
LE 25 MAI 2000
ET IL REPOSE MAINTENANT AU
MONUMENTCOMMÉMORATIF
DE GUERRE DU CANADA
À OTTAWA

THE FORMER GRAVE OF AN
UNKNOWN CANADIAN SOLDIER
OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR.
HIS REMAINS WERE REMOVED
ON 25 MAY 2000 AND NOW
LIE INTERRED AT THE
NATIONAL WAR MEMORIAL
IN OTTAWA CANADA.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=memorials/tomb/thetomb/tombqanda







http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_War_Memorial_(Canada)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Okt 2008 14:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Poolse Onbekende Soldaat

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Polish: Grób Nieznanego Żołnierza) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland, dedicated to the unknown soldiers who have given their lives for Poland. It is one of many such national tombs of unknowns that were erected after World War I.

In 1923, a group of unknown Varsovians placed, before Warsaw's Saxon Palace and the adjacent Saxon Garden, a stone tablet commemorating all the unknown Polish soldiers who had fallen in World War I and the subsequent Polish-Soviet War. This initiative was taken up by several Warsaw newspapers and by General Władysław Sikorski. On April 4, 1925, the Polish Ministry of War selected a battlefield from which the ashes of an unknown soldier would be brought to Warsaw. Of some 40 battles, that for Lwów was chosen. In October 1925, at Lwów's Łyczakowski Cemetery, three coffins were exhumed: those of an unknown sergeant, corporal and private. The coffin that was to be transported to Warsaw was chosen by Jadwiga Zarugiewiczowa, mother of a soldier who had fallen at Zadwórze and whose body had never been found.

On November 2, 1925, the coffin was brought to Warsaw's St. John's Cathedral, where a mass was held. Afterwards eight recipients of the order of Virtuti Militari bore the coffin to its final resting place beneath the colonnade joining the two wings of the Saxon Palace. The coffin was buried together with 14 urns containing soil from as many battlegrounds, a Virtuti Militari medal, and an erection act. Since then, except under German occupation in World War II, an honor guard has continuously been held before the Tomb.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomb_of_the_Unknown_Soldier,_Warsaw



http://www.militaryimages.net/photopost/showphoto.php/photo/11599
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Okt 2008 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Perhaps the first memorial of this kind in the world is the 1858 Landsoldaten ("The Foot Soldier") monument of the First War of Schleswig in Fredericia, Denmark. Another early memorial of this kind is the 1866 memorial to the unknown dead of the American Civil War.

The modern trend was started by the United Kingdom in 1920 when she buried an Unknown Warrior on behalf of all First World War British Empire forces in Westminster Abbey. The coffin was followed into the abbey by the King-Emperor, George V and escorted by a guard of honour formed of one hundred recipients of the Victoria Cross[1]. Part of the inscription on the stone reads:

They buried him among the kings Because he Had done good toward God and Toward His house[2]

Other nations followed this example. A famous tomb is the one in France under the Arc de Triomphe that was installed in 1921 honouring the unknown dead of the First World War, or the one in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada shadowed by the Canadian War Memorial.

These tombs are also used to commemorate the unidentified fallen of later wars. Monuments have been built as recently as 1982 in the case of Iraq, 1993 in the case of Australia, and 2004 in the case of New Zealand.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomb_of_the_Unknown_Soldier


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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2010 15:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Who was the Unknown Warrior?

This article, by the Special Correspondent on the Western Front from 1914-18, appeared in The Times on November 11, 1920, the day when the Unknown Warrior was brought in procession to the Cenotaph:

The Unknown Warrior? Unknown? His name, indeed, and where he comes from now: such things, perhaps, we do not know, nor do we need to inquire. But him we know, and did know well through four long, terrible, and splendid years.

We knew him as he came home on leave, arriving tired and hump-backed with the burden which he bore, the stains of trench mud still upon his clothes,and the shadow of new and dreadful experience on his simple, wholesome face; rough he was and abrupt of speech, but with a curious gentleness that we had not known in him before, and inarticulately glad to be for a breathing space among his own again.

We knew him, too, as the leave-train left, drawing away from the packed platform which was a sea of tear-stained faces and waving handkerchiefs while he leaned from his carriage window, radiant, cheering, lest those he left behind should be too sad for him.

And we knew him over there, in his billets, grousing, but wonderfully tender and helpful to the peasants whom he incommoded, to the little children and the patient, hard-worked French "mother," who grew to love her clumsy, kindly English boys.

We knew him at his sports, and on the road "going up" - tramp, tramp! tramp! tramp!- through squelching mud or the thick dust of passing traffic, along the long straight roads with their uneven, exasperating pavé between the rows of splintered trees, whistling perhaps or singing jerkily - "Tipperary" or a hymn tune - or halted for rest by the wayside, leaning his heavy pack against a tree-trunk or hump of earth, grousing still, and breaking off with a laugh to help his mate.

And beyond, where the roads ceased and not even splintered stumps of trees remained, we knew him, only vaguely visible in the dusk or dark, going, scattered in twos and threes to minimize the cost of an exploding shell, across the pitted ground or plodding in single file along the oozing duckboards to the communication trench.

We knew him in the trenches, in the slime and mud and ankle deep in ice-cold water, or in the stewing heat, with the smell and the flies; less inclined to grouse now, but even more helpful to his mate, uncommunicative except in whimsical phrases, and incomparably competent.

We knew him when he was wounded - one of his many wounds - and he came back, limping and blood- stained, roughly tied up with his own emergency bandage, in pain and shaken, but helping over the shell-pitted ground another more seriously wounded than himself.

And he died in many places. Bravery was his as a matter of course, as much a part of him as his humour, his tenderness, or his discontent. But to be "unknown" is almost an extra, superfluous patent of gallantry.

Not often was he unidentified who fell behind our lines. The unknown were those who died far out, holding some desperate outpost against hopeless odds, clinging to a fragment of trench, surrounded before being overwhelmed, pushing their way ahead through some bullet-swept wood - somewhere where no comrades or stretcher-bearers could reach them nor burial parties do their work.

THE DEATHLESS STORY.

What matters it from which of his many graves they have brought him now? There was that small but matchless Army, the outlying rock-reef of our island strength, on which the enemy waves broke, whelming but never finally submerging it - was he of that, and does he come to us now perhaps from somewhere on the Yser or out beyond Ypres, where he has lain for six whole years, from Landrecies or Le Cateau? Or from Loos or Neuve Chapelle?

Our commanders then were but learning how to make attacks - they had neither the experience nor the tools - and often he pushed forward and held on where supports never got to him. So, also, on the terrible but triumphant First of July, 1916, upon the Somme: is this who comes to us perhaps one of the Ulstermen who pierced incredibly to the brow of Thiepval slope?

Or perhaps it was farther to the left - before Serre or Gommecourt or Beaumont Hamel; a Newfoundlander perhaps, or a man from Middlesex itself, for they it was, from the fringe and the very heart of the Empire, who shared the grim honour of the heaviest fatalities that day.

Up that long hideous slope to Pozières, where the church and the windmill were already crumbling to the mere hummocks that they came to be, how many Australians did not, in the splendour of their recklessness, die in the tangled maze of trench and broken masonry where none could see or know?

And farther south, where the Scotsmen and South Africans captured and held impossible positions by Longueval and in Delville Wood, how many lay Unknown, unreachable! Oh, those woods: Delville and Trônes and High Wood! It may be that he is a Welshman from Mametz Wood; or one from the South of Ireland, perchance, who fell doing his best to redeem the honour of his land by Guillemont or Guinchy; or a New Zealander, who had come far to die in the network of trenches up above Contalmaison.

Or was he of one of those silent home battalions - men of the North or South-country, Londoners, or from the Midlands - on whom as always the main burden fell (four years ago now) of the hard continuous fighting which broke the German strength from Grandecourt to Combles, from Fricourt to the Butte?

In 1917, again, after the first onset of our attack at Arras had spent itself, how ungrudgingly he gave himself through the spring and summer months and how often he had to be left "unknown".

Was he one of those who lay out on that long death-swept dip and rise between Monchy and the Bois Vert? Was it the ruins of the chemical works at Roeux that hid him? Was it Oppy Wood? Or the angle of the great trench line towards Fontaine les-Croisilles? Or the tumbled heaps of Bullecourt outside the area which the Australians held so marvellously?

Messines left few "unknown." The victory was too clean for that; but in the months between spring and autumn how many Canadians did not make the last great sacrifice, having pushed some few yards farther than their nearest comrades, dying to lie beyond reach of succour among the broken outskirts of Lens?

Then in the awful fighting of that autumn, when almost yard by yard we widened out the circle of beleaguered Ypres, along the shuddering Menin Road, in Glencorse Wood or Highland Copse, by Polderhoek or Poelcapelle; and beyond, where the duckboards, daily shot away and every night renewed, ceased in the wilderness of slime and shellholes whence he pushed forward, wading through the quagmire whipped with machine-gun bullets, to the final triumph and agony of Passchendaele; how could anyone mark where he fell or bring him back to lie with his fellows?

Or who, again, could mark, three years ago this November, towards Cambrai, whether he died by Bourlon or Meuvres, beyond the outskirts of our advance, or, in the German counter-attack on November 30, in the splendid resistance, as fine as anything in the war, which held the enemy on the Marcoing-Masniere front, or whether he was in some outpost on the right when the enemy surged through our broken Divisions?

Last came the great German push of 1918, when our thin line wavered and bent and parted, and joined again and bent but never altogether broke; and everywhere it left him, the Unknown Dead, behind; from the first outposts through and around which the enemy crept in the morning mist, back to and across the river, by Peronne and Frise and Chipilly to Marcelcave and Villers Bretonneux.

"HE WAS ALL."

Cavalry, Infantry, Artillery, Engineers: he was all.

He it was who held to the last, his comrades dropping round him, the bit of trench or angle of wood, until the enemy swept on because there was none to stay them.

He it was who fought his gun, firing with open sights, single-handed at the last, until the tide surged over him.

He it was, with the blue and white band of "Signals" on his arm, who mended the telephone wires, broken by falling shells as often as he mended them, striving desperately to keep connexion between the solitary stronghold, already submerged, and Headquarters in the rear, till the end came and he dropped with the broken end of wire in his hand.

He it was who started, as a runner, to cross the ground where bullets sang like bees, in the hopeless effort to take one last message back from the brave handful who somehow still hung on when everything round them had gone.

He it was who, plodding with his stretcher, sank smothered by the mud of the bursting shell on ground which an hour later the enemy was to cross.

He it was who, running forward with his Lewis gun, alone and with no scrap of cover, succeeded by some miracle in holding up the enemy advance for those 10 precious minutes before he fell.

When he was shot down in an aeroplane behind the German lines the enemy wrote upon his grave, "Here lies a brave English Flying Man."

When he climbed from the crippled tank and dragged a machine-gun with him and fought it, lying in the open, until he fell dead beside it, again they marked upon his grave, "Here lies an Unknown English Soldier."

He who comes today was, and is, one and all of these. And he was more; for it was not only on land that he fought. But where he died at sea he lies too deep to be brought home, even by a nation's longing.

So - for it is understood that this coffin of his comes from France - when he died far off, in Gallipoli, in Mesopotamia, in Africa, or wherever the outermost wash of the Great War broke on the margins of the world, whether he lies in a grave scraped in the dry sand among sun-baked rocks or in the dank tangle of forest undergrowth. Everywhere it is he, the Unknown Dead, who marks the farthest outposts of the Empire that he saved.

A CONQUEROR.

Perhaps, too, he knows. Let us dream and believe that he knows, whether he lies alone and far away or nearer in the crowded, orderly burial fields in France.

Surely, if one was there, one might almost see the shadowy ranks; brown-clad in their old khaki against the brown November earth, dim shapes, each with his trench helmet on, platoon after platoon, brigade beyond brigade, whole army corps and armies, leaning motionless on their reversed arms and all gazing this way, out of deep eyes which see more than we can see, watching as the coffin that comes to us today passes homeward.

All the honour that we can pay him is little for what he did for us. He earned more Victoria Crosses than ever were given to the living. He goes through the streets this morning not as a lowly one uplifted, but as a conqueror and of right.

With the grief with which we bow our heads in silence there are mingled rejoicing and gratitude and pride. To future generations the grave to which he is borne will be not a monument of sorrow or the mere tomb of one unfortunate, but the very symbol of the strength and gentleness and love of Justice of the Empire.

http://timesonline.typepad.com/timesarchive/2009/11/who-was-the-unknown-warrior.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2010 17:12    Onderwerp: De Roemeense Onbekende Soldaat Reageer met quote

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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 22:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2010 Washington DC Field Trip
By Neal Putnam - The Alpine Sun

The following is John Sjoquist’s winning essay regarding the Washington DC Trip’s the Wreath Laying ceremony:

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

When people think of the greatest memorials, they often think of the Vietnam Wall, the WW1-2 memorials and the President’s Memorials. However, not too often do they think of what is probably the most tribunal memorial in existence. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a captivating memorial dedicated to preserve and remember the souls of the soldiers who died in the Two World Wars, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War without a name.

This memorial was built in 1931 by Thomas Hudson Jones and Lorimer Rich as a replacement for the original tomb, which was just a small plinth. It was opened in Arlington National Cemetery on April 9, 1932 without any ceremonies. In 1926, an armed military guard was assigned to the original crypt because too many people were defacing it. Since then, there has been a continuous guard 24/7.

The tomb itself has a special meaning not only in the tribute it produces, but in the symbols inscribed on it. On the sides of the tomb, there are Greek figures to represent one of the many values of a valorous warrior. In the center there is a female figure that represents Victory. On the right side, a male figure symbolizes Valor. On the left side is Peace, with a palm branch to reward the soldiers’ devotion and sacrifice. The sides are divided into three panels. In each panel is an inverted wreath. On the rear panel, this quote is inscribed, HERE RESTS IN HONORED GLORY AN AMERICAN SOLDIER KNOWN BUT TO GOD. The tomb is arranged with one raised tomb and three flush slab tombs in the front of it. In order to maintain this beautiful sight, a dedicated guard is required.

The honor guards of the tomb are rigorously trained in order to give the unknowns the service they deserve. The meticulous ceremony of “Walking the Mat” has a very important meaning. The number 21 is very important because it alludes to the 21 gun salute, which is the highest honor given in a military setting. For thirty minutes a day, the guard walks 21 steps across the tomb, turns to face the tomb for 21 seconds, then turns to face across the tomb, waits 21 more seconds, then repeats until the Changing of the Guard. The guards are hand picked and highly trained to do their duty.

There are many reasons why I would like to be a part of the wreath laying ceremony. First, it is a memorable experience that would be very meaningful to me. It would allow me to be a part of history and I would gain a much deeper appreciation of what our country stand for. I am currently very interested in past wars such as the two World Wars. It would be a national achievement as I am a Boy Scout. Not only would this be an accomplishment as a Boy Scout, but as a citizen of this country.

“My experience at the laying of the wreath ceremony was unforgettable. Although I was nervous knowing 2000 or more people were watching as we walked towards the tomb, I had a strong feeling inside that I was actually a part of something much bigger in life and it would be a once in a lifetime experience.” by John Sjoquist

The following is Ryan Ramos’ winning essay about the Wreath Laying ceremony:

Arlington National Cemetery Wreath Laying Ceremony

I am writing this essay in the hopes that I will be selected to represent my school, my family, and my country in the once in a lifetime opportunity of participating in the Wreath Laying Ceremony at the Arlington National Cemetery. I have a family history that includes four generations of men who have served for our country’s armed forces. Both my great grandfathers were in the U. S. Navy for over thirty years, fighting in World War II and the Korean War. My great uncle, who served in the Marines, lost his leg during the Korean War. Another great uncle served in the National Guard while going to college during the Vietnam War. My grandfather served in the Navy during the Korean War. My father was in the Army in the early 1980’s and was stationed in Korea on the Demilitarized Zone. And my brother, Petty Officer 1st Class Brandon Ramos, has served in the U.S. Navy for the last ten years and is currently at sea on the USS Jefferson City Submarine fighting in the Afghanistan War. It would be an honor to represent the courage and sacrifice of these family members, as well as all of the other men and women who serve or have served in America’s Armed Forces, during this ceremony.

As you may know, the Arlington National Cemetery honors American servicemen who died at war with no identification. What you may not know is that it was founded on March 4, 1921 when U.S. Congress approved the burial of an unidentified American soldier from WWI. It was designed by Lorimer Rich and was sculpted out of white marble by Thomas Hudson Jones. Sculpted in the east panel, which faces Washington D.C., are three Greek figures that represent peace, victory, and valor. Inscribed in the western panel is a quote “HERE RESTS IN HONORED GLORY AN AMERICAN SOLDIER KNOWN BUT TO GOD.” The six wreaths carved into the north and south panels of the tomb represent the six major battles of WWI. In the pavement west of the WWI Unknown tomb are the crypts of the Unknowns from WWII (south), the Korean War (north), and the Vietnam War (middle). The original inscription of the Vietnam crypt was changed to “Honoring and Keeping Faith with America’s Missing Servicemen” after the remains of the Vietnam Unknown were identified in 1998. Each of the Unknowns received the “Medal of Honor,” which reminds us of the heroism of all who have served with unknown acts of courage and sacrifice.

It is considered a high honor to serve as a ceremonial guard of the tomb. The guards have a ritual where they walk 21 steps across the tomb, turn and face the tomb for 21 seconds, turn back to the direction they came from and switch their weapon to the outside shoulder, wait 21 seconds, and walk 21 steps back. They repeat this ritual over and over until relieved of their duty (an hour in the fall and winter, and a half hour in the spring and summer). Their 21 steps and waiting time represent the 21 Gun Salute, which is the highest honor given to any military serviceman in America. The tomb has been guarded 24/7 since July 2, 1937, in all weather.

I’m really looking forward to watching the 21 step ritual of the guards, hearing the tapping of their metal plated shoes, and seeing the tomb and the crypts of the Unknown Soldiers. It would be a privilege to be a part of the wreath laying ceremony. I would like to participate in honoring the men and women who have defended and still defend today our freedom in America.

"I thought that being in the wreath laying ceremony was very memorable. It was something I will never take part in again. Writing the essay about the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier really helped me to understand what the ritual was all about. I'm glad that they picked me to represent Joan MacQueen Middle School in the ceremony." — Ryan Ramos

http://www.thealpinesun.com/May%206/as%20inside%203.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mei 2010 16:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Five Victorians buried in Arlington National Cemetery
May 19, 2010

Everyone should have the opportunity to visit the most hallowed ground of our country. I am referring to the Arlington National Cemetery located on the fringe of Washington, D.C. I make a pilgrimage to that special place with every opportunity I have. My American College of Radiology has had its annual meeting in Washington, D.C., for the past several years. I will have the privilege of making this trip again this week.

Of course, I will visit Arlington again on Monday. The sight of this site always overwhelms me. As you read each etched statement on each tombstone, it brings one to earth in a hurry when you see the sacrifice of so many at such an early age.

This place has operated as a national cemetery since May of 1864. Veterans and other important persons are buried here, from the Revolutionary War, to the present military action in Iraq and Afghanistan. About 28 burials are conducted every day and the cemetery now contains about 300,000 individuals.

This cemetery is administered by the Department of the Army while most other national cemeteries come under the Department of Veterans Affairs.

A special place within the cemetery holds the Tombs of the Unknowns. The WWI tomb was filled on Nov. 11, 1921. The WWII tomb was filled on May 30, 1958. The Korean Conflict tomb was filled on May 30, 1958. The Vietnam Conflict tomb was filled on May 28, 1984. That body was later correctly identified and removed for burial near his home. That tomb remains empty to this day.

The tombs have been guarded by members of the 3rd U.S. Infantry (The Old Guard) since April 6, 1948. This special unit is the oldest active-duty infantry unit in the Army. It is a very impressive sight to see them guard and change the guard at that site. They do this 24 hours a day for 365 days a year. I hope all will have the experience of this moving ceremony at some time in their lives. There you will learn the meaning to our military of the special number 21. You will learn that 21 gun salutes are only sounded for our presidents. At funerals, the rifle squad sounds three volleys in honor of the deceased, not a 21 gun salute.

Eligibility for burial is open to all who have served their country and who were honorably discharged. Special restrictions apply for ground burial because of a limitation of space but any veteran can be buried, after cremation, in any of the many columbarium sites. An escort to the burial site can be arranged by contacting the cemetery headquarters.

Five Victorians who died while on active duty during WWI are buried in Arlington National Cemetery. I have visited and photographed the site of three of them. Jacob Bernhart Dentler died on Nov. 13, 1918 from wounds he received at Verdun, France. He was wounded on Nov. 4 but didn't die until after the armistice of November 11. He is buried in Section 18, Grave 1440. Clarence Elton Smith was killed in action on November 2, 1918 in France. He was buried in France in the Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery but was re-buried in Arlington in Section 18, Grave 2456. Leon Alva Zear was killed in action on Oct. 4, 1918, at Montfaucon, France. He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Victoria until he was re-buried in Arlington on Oct. 16, 1921 in Section 18, Grave 3313. The local American Legion Post No. 166 carries his name.

Graves I will visit on Monday include that of Joseph C. Dunn. He was killed in action on Oct. 18, 1918, near St. Etienne, France. He is reported buried in Section Eur, grave 3480. William J. Rawlins died from Spanish Flu on Nov. 20, 1917, while training at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio. He is buried in Section 17, grave 19067.

I look forward to honoring them all during my visit.

This column is a research project of Dr. Peter B. Riesz and the Victoria County Veterans Council. Anyone who has information about veterans is asked to contact Riesz at pbriesz@sudden link.net or 361-575-4600.

http://www.victoriaadvocate.com/news/2010/may/19/yl_peter_riesz_052310_96858/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Nov 2010 14:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commemoration to the Unknown Warrior – Victoria Station, Platform 8

Wed, 10 November 2010 08:15PM - 08:35PM

London

This is the annual commemoration to the Unknown Warrior who arrived at Victoria Station on Platform 8 on 10 November 1920.

Please arrive for 8:15pm for 8:30pm commencement by the remembrance plaque between platforms 8 and 9.
http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/london/details/1306-commemoration-to-the-unknown-warrior--victoria-station-platform-8.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 26 Nov 2010 15:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The "Internationale" for the unknown soldiers (1916-2004)

With its millions of dead and missing, the Great War placed a burden of grief on the population that overshadowed the victory with sorrow. In France from 1918 until the mid 1920's, these deaths invaded the nation's symbolic and emotional space, as they witnessed the numerous ceremonies, the erection in towns of monuments to the dead and the decision to honour the unknown soldier. A tribute paid by the whole country to the servicemen who died in the field of honour and a factor in national unity, the unknown soldier became a symbol that was adopted by many of the allied nations.

Lees verder op http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichepage.php?idLang=en&idPage=16426
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Nov 2012 13:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Quote:
Victoria Station, 10 November 1920: the arrival of the unknown warrior

The Unknown Warrior is part of the UK’s national remembrance of the Great War. A single, unidentified serviceman, he represents all those whose bodies were missing, while the Cenotaph represents all those who did not return. On 10 November 1920, the warrior arrived at Victoria station en route to Westminster Abbey.

The idea was that an unidentified body would be repatriated from the battlefields in France and Flanders to lie in the heart of London (and thus of the nation and empire) to represent the British Empire’s one million dead, and especially those whose bodies were not located or identified. The warrior’s journey is depicted in this five-minute Pathe film: http://www.britishpathe.com/video/armistice-day-1920-aka-armistice-day-in-london .

Four bodies were disinterred in from the battlefields of the Aisne, the Somme, Arras and Ypres. They were taken to St Pol and one was blindly selected to return to Britain. This warrior was transported across France to Boulogne and onto the – significantly named – HMS Verdun. The ship landed at Dover and the coffin was tranferred to a train.


The train arrived at platform 8 in Victoria Station at 8.32 on the 10th of November, the coffin being borne in the same carriage that had returned the bodies of Nurse Edith Cavell and Captain Fryatt to the UK.

A plaque next to platform 8 now marks the occasion and the Western Front Association meet there at 8pm each year to pay their respects.

On 11 November, the warrior was transported on a gun carriage to Westminster Abbey. The procession left Victoria at 9.40am and travelled via Hyde Park Corner and the Mall to Whitehall, passing the Cenotaph before arriving at the Abbey.

A guard of honour of a hundred Victoria Cross holders welcomed the coffin, accompanied by the King, Field Marshals Haig and French and many other luminaries of the Great War era.

After a shortened version of the burial service, the King dropped a handful of French soil onto the coffin as it was lowered into the grave. After thousands of mourners had passed the spot, the grave was filled with 100 barrels of French soil.


The Unknown Warrior’s grave being filled with French soil
So, by the evening of 11 November 1920, the key pieces of the landscape of British national (and imperial) remembrance were in place. The Unknown Warrior and the Cenotaph (used in temporary form in 1919 but replaced in stone in 1920) are central to remembrance in London. The warrior also plays a part in other events in the Abbey, such as the recent royal wedding, when the new Duke and Duchess of Cambridge paid their respects.

_______________________________________________________________

Sources and further reading:

Adrian Gregory – the Silence of Memory

Neil Hanson – the Unknown Warrior

Westminster Abbey website: http://www.westminster-abbey.org/our-history/people/unknown-warrior

BBC picture gallery of the Unknown Warrior’s final journey: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-11713676



http://greatwarlondon.wordpress.com/2012/11/10/10-nov-arrival-of-unknown-warrior/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Nov 2013 16:27    Onderwerp: Zelden geziene beelden van begrafenis onbekende soldaat Reageer met quote

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