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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2006 1:59    Onderwerp: 1 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 1. Februar

1914

1915
Die Russen bei Mlawa zurückgedrängt
Maßnahmen gegen die englischen Truppentransporte
Russische Angriffe in den Karpathen abgewiesen

1916
"Zeppelin"-Angriff auf den Hafen von Saloniki
Bombardement englischer Industriestädte durch "Zeppelin"-Geschwader
Ruhige Lage in Montenegro
Der Dampfer "Appam" durch die "Möwe" aufgebracht

1917
Erfolg sächsischer Truppen an der Narajowka
Tagesbefehl des Kaisers an die Marine
Besondere Zugeständnisse Deutschlands an den holländisch-englischen Verkehr
Kampfruhe an der k. u. k. Ostfront
England droht mit Vergeltungsmaßregeln in Sachen der Lazarettschiffe

1918
Neue italienische Angriffe bei Asiago gescheitert
Der vergebliche Ansturm der Italiener
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2006 2:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 1

1917 Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare

On this day in 1917, the lethal threat of the German U-boat submarine raises its head again, as Germany returns to the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare it had previously suspended in response to pressure from the United States and other neutral countries.

Unrestricted submarine warfare was first introduced in World War I in early 1915, when Germany declared the area around the British Isles a war zone, in which all merchant ships, including those from neutral countries, would be attacked by the German navy. A string of attacks on merchant ships followed, culminating in the sinking of the British ship Lusitania by a German U-boat on May 7, 1915. Although the Lusitania was a British ship and it was carrying a supply of munitions—Germany used these two facts to justify the attack—it was principally a passenger ship, and the 1,201 people who drowned in its sinking included 128 Americans. The incident prompted U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to send a strongly worded note to the German government demanding an end to German attacks against unarmed merchant ships. By September 1915, the German government had imposed such strict constraints on the operation of the nation’s submarines that the German navy was persuaded to suspend U-boat warfare altogether.

German navy commanders, however, were ultimately not prepared to accept this degree of passivity, and continued to push for a more aggressive use of the submarine, convincing first the army and eventually the government, most importantly Kaiser Wilhelm, that the U-boat was an essential component of German war strategy. Planning to remain on the defensive on the Western Front in 1917, the supreme army command endorsed the navy’s opinion that unrestricted U-boat warfare against the British at sea could result in a German victory by the fall of 1917. In a joint audience with the kaiser on January 8, 1917, army and naval leaders presented their arguments to Wilhelm, who supported them in spite of the opposition of the German chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, who was not at the meeting. Though he feared antagonizing the U.S., Bethmann Hollweg accepted the kaiser’s decision, pressured as he was by the armed forces and the hungry and frustrated German public, which was angered by the continuing Allied naval blockade and which supported aggressive action towards Germany’s enemies.

On January 31, 1917, Bethmann Hollweg went before the German Reichstag government and made the announcement that unrestricted submarine warfare would resume the next day, February 1. “The destructive designs of our opponents cannot be expressed more strongly. We have been challenged to fight to the end. We accept the challenge. We stake everything, and we shall be victorious.”
www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2006 6:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
French Lieutenant Roland Garros mounts a machine gun on his aircraft, shot down first the German aircraft.
Anthony H. G. Fokker perfects his design for a synchronizing gear to allow machinegun fire through a rotating propeller.
1917
1. Germany resumes unrestricted U-boat warfare

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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2006 12:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1 februari 1916 (nacht van 31 jan op 1 feb)

Zeppelin-aanval op Salonika:

http://www.tughranet.f2s.com/postcard/robertso/zeppelin.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2006 12:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1 februari 1917

Het Nederlandse stoomschip "Gamma" wordt slachtoffer van een Duitse U-boot.


Quote:
s.s. "Gamma" (2115 Br. T. -1900). Reederij Mij. "Bothnia". Gezagv. J.R. Bossinga. – Met een lading lijnkoeken geconsigneerd aan de Nederlandsche Regeering, van New York naar Amsterdam, 29 Januari op order van een Britsch patrouille-vaartuig Falmouth aangedaan voor onderzoek, vandaar volgens instructie van de reederij 31 Jan. de reis vervolgd, waarbij de kapitein de meer en meer gebruikelijke route om Schotland koos. Op 1 Febr. werd het schip aangehouden bezuiden Ierland bij de Fastnet Roçks door een Duitsche duikboot, wier commandant zijne verwondering uitsprak waarom niet de kortere route door het Kanaal was genomen. Ondanks de plaats van aanhouding en hoewel de lading geconsigneerd was aan de Nederlandsche Regeering, heeft de commandant de mogelijkheid aangenomen, dat het schip op weg was naar een Oostelijke Engelsche haven om daar de lading te lossen. Met één Duitsch officier en twee matrozen moest een der sloepen naar boord worden geroeid. B,randbommen werden geplaatst, die spoedig Iontploften, waarna het schip binnen 5 minuten zonk. De Duitschers lieten beide booten met bemanning aan hun lot over. Zij werden door de "Vondel" van de S. M. "Nederland" opgepikt en 2 Febr. te Brixham geland. – Daar de gezagvoerder op 31 Jan. van Falmouth was verItrokken, kon hij niet bekend zijn met de mededeelingen van de Duitsche Regeering omtrent de door haar met 1 Februari als gevaarlijk voor het verkeer aangeduide gebieden, evenmin met de clausule, dat neutrale schepen, welke in de havens van die verboden gebieden waren, onder een betrekkelijken factor van veiligheid die gebieden zouden kunnen verlaten, mits zij vóór 5. Febr. den kortsten weg naar het vrije gebied namen. De reederij heeft 18 Maart 1918, Mark 1,318,800 en op 4 Jan. '19 nog ƒ 105.198 schadevergoeding van Duitschland gekregen. Hiermede werd vergoed: het schip berekend tegen 600 Mark per Br. T, de vracht en de onkosten ontstaan door het langdurig verblijf van bemanning en die van den kapitein te Dartmouth en te Londen. Alle andere claims van reederij en gezagvoerder werden afgewezen. (Zie verhaal nr. 23)


bron: J.H. Hoogendijk, De Nederlandsche koopvaardij in den oorlogstijd (1914-1918) (Amsterdam 1930), p. 454.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 22:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting - 1 February 1918

VENEREAL DISEASE.


HC Deb 01 February 1918 vol 101 cc1934-5 1934/1935

§ 21. Mr. PETO asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether his attention has been called to the War Office letter to General Officers Commanding, dated 18th March, 1916, which states that the Army Council cannot accept suggestions, made with regard to prevention, which would imply the adoption of any system of prophylaxis which might be said to afford opportunities for unrestrained vice; whether this deters Army medical officers from taking steps to prevent the spread of venereal disease in the Army; and whether the Army Council will now withdraw any restriction which prevents effective measures being taken to avoid the waste of man-power in the Army from this cause?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON I regret that I can add nothing at present to the answers which I gave my hon. Friend on the 22nd January last.

§ Mr. PETO May I ask is the Army Council letter correctly stated in the question, and does it not tend, at any rate, to prevent medical officers taking the necessary steps to stop this scourge in the Army?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON I think I communicated by letter yesterday with my hon. Friend, enclosing a copy of the letter to which he refers, and which he will probably get to-day.

§ Mr. PETO Can the hon. Gentleman give any idea, if not accurate figures, of the number of men who pass through hospital suffering from venereal diseases in a single year and who are at any one time incapacitated from that cause?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON I am afraid I cannot give those figures definitely.

§ Mr. OUTHWAITE Are we to infer that medical officers are prevented from taking every possible step to cure this hideous disease?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON My hon. Friend cannot infer that from the reply given today or from the reply given previously.

§ Sir J. D. REES is not that the result?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON No; I do not think so.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/feb/01/venereal-disease
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 22:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Christchurch Press, 1918, February

Friday 1 February 1918

Roll of Honour
DALTON - killed in action in France, January 13th or 18th John Michael (Jack) ---son of Francis Patrick and late Eda Elizabeth Dalton aged 27 years
DALTON - John Michael (Jack) ---- brother of Mrs Dugald McLaren (Cheviot) and Mrs Alex Forbes (Opawa) ---

http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~ashleigh/1870-1908/1918.February.PRESS.BMD.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 22:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Memoranda Enclosed with Count Bernstorff's Note

From February 1, 1917, sea traffic will be stopped with every available weapon and without further notice in the following blockade zones around Great Britain, France, Italy and in the Eastern Mediterranean:

In the North: The zone is confined by a line at a distance of twenty sea miles along the Dutch coast to Terschelling Lightship, the meridian of longitude from Terschelling Lightship to Udsire; a line from there across the point 62 degrees north, 0 degrees longitude, to 62 degrees north, 5 degrees west; further to a point three sea miles south of the southern point of the Faroe Islands; from there across a point 62 degrees north, 10 degrees west, to 61 degrees north, 15 degrees west; then 57 degrees north, 20 degrees west, to 47 degrees north, 20 degrees west; further, to 43 degrees north, 15 degrees west; then along the parallel of latitude 43 degrees north to twenty sea miles from Cape Finisterre, and at a distance of twenty sea miles along the north coast of Spain to the French boundary.

In the South - The Mediterranean: For neutral ships, remains open the sea west of the line Pt. Des Espiquettes to 38 degrees 20 minutes north and 6 degrees east; also north and west of a zone sixty sea miles wide along the North African coast, beginning at 2 degrees longitude west. For the connection of this sea zone with Greece there is provided a zone of a width of twenty sea miles north and east of the following line: 38 degrees north and 6 degrees east to 38 degrees north and 10 degrees west, to 37 degrees north and 11 degrees 30 minutes east, to 34 degrees north and 22 degrees 30 minutes east. From there leads a zone twenty sea miles wide, west of 22 degrees 30 minutes eastern longitude, into Greek territorial waters.

Neutral ships navigating these blockade zones do so at their own risk. Although care has been taken that neutral ships which are on their way toward ports of the blockade zones on February 1, 1917, and have come in the vicinity of the latter, will be spared during a sufficiently long period, it is strongly advised to warn them with all available means in order to cause their return.

Neutral ships which on February 1st are in ports of the blockade zones can with the same safety leave them.

The instructions given to the commanders of German submarines provide for a sufficiently long period during which the safety of passengers on unarmed enemy passenger ships is guaranteed.

Americans en route to the blockade zone on enemy freight steamers are not endangered, as the enemy shipping firms can prevent such ships in time from entering the zone.

Sailing of regular American passenger steamers may continue undisturbed after February 1, 1917, if:

(A) The port of destination is Falmouth.

(B) Sailing to or coming from that port course is taken via the Scilly Islands and a point 50 degrees north, 20 degrees west.

(C) The steamers are marked in the following way, which must not be allowed to other vessels in American ports: On ship's hull and superstructure three vertical stripes one metre wide, each to be painted alternately white and red. Each mast should show a large flag checkered white and red, and the stern the American national flag. Care should be taken that, during dark, national flag and painted marks are easily recognizable from a distance, and that the boats are well lighted throughout.

(D) One steamer a week sails in each direction with arrival at Falmouth on Sunday and departure from Falmouth on Wednesday.

(E) United States Government guarantees that no contraband (according to German contraband list) is carried by those steamers.

Lees verder op http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uboat_bernstorff.htm


The United States entered the war in 1917

On 1 February 1917 Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany, hoping that would be enough to make Berlin abandon its plans. But nothing of the sort happened.

http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichepage.php?idLang=en&idPage=9546
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Jan 2010 22:49, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Bernard James Glynn

Thursday, February 1, 1917 - Rose 8:00 Breakfast 8:30 Parade 9:00 Flying 1 ½ hrs now snowing. 3 Beatty machines crashed none injured. My machine crashed to kindling wood.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/REMEMBERS/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/glynn/feb1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 22:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Twee etiketten: Een mislukt experiment

door Daan Koelewijn & Janneke Mens

Op 1 februari 1916 werden de groene etiketten door de Interneeringsdienst van het Ministerie van Oorlog afgeleverd aan de kampen met Belgische geïnterneerden. Het Kamp bij Zeist ontving de meeste namelijk 23.252 zegels.

Zoals gezegd konden de militairen er twee per persoon kopen voor 1 cent. Let wel dat dit geen portikosten waren. Geïnterneerde militairen konden hun post immers portvrij verzenden. Er werd onmiddellijk gebruik gemaakt van deze plakzegels, want de eerste afstempelingen dateren van 3 februari 1916. De bruine etiketten werden gedistribueerd half februari 1916. En waren bestemd voor de maand maart. Deze mochten dus nog niet worden verkocht in februari.

Lees beslist verder op http://www.postzegelblog.nl/2009/03/24/twee-etiketten-een-mislukt-experiment-1/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 23:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE NEW YORK TIMES

Free Articles from February 1916

http://spiderbites.nytimes.com/free_1916/articles_1916_02_00000.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2010 23:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paul van Ostaijen. Een documentatie

Gerrit Borgers

Uit hoofdstuk 4, De Vlaamse Beweging in 1915

In de zomer en het najaar van 1915 kwam een eind aan de onzekerheid over de officiële houding van de Belgische regering in Le Havre en daarmee werd ook de meerderheid der Vlaamsgezinden voor de keus gesteld van aktivisme of passivisme. Deze ontwikkeling speelde zich overigens niet in België, maar in Nederland af. Op 1 februari 1915 hadden een aantal uitgeweken Vlaamsgezinden in Nederland het dagblad De Vlaamsche Stem opgericht. De redactie bestond uit de socialistische afgevaardigde Mr. A. Deswarte, de schrijvers Cyriel Buysse, René de Clercq en André de Ridder en sedert 1 juli ook de neerlandicus Dr. Antoon Jacob. Verder hebben Mr. Lodewijk Dosfel en Mr. Jan Eggen slechts kort deel uitgemaakt van de redactie. De ‘kraaiende haan’ Frans van Cauwelaert en de liberaal Julius Hoste behoorden tot de medewerkers. Aanvankelijk was het blad anti-Duits en beslist niet anti-Belgisch. Onder invloed van de ontwikkeling in Vlaanderen werd in juni door Deswarte de eis van een zelfstandig Vlaanderen binnen de Belgische staat gesteld. Op het Guldensporenfeest van 11 juli 1915 te Bussum stuurden Deswarte en De Clercq een telegram aan de koning, waarin ze hun vertrouwen uitspraken in diens ‘haute sagesse pour garantir la Flandre autonome dans la Belgique indépendante.’ Het antwoord was ‘un pressant appel à tous les Belges pour que, devant l'ennemi, ils n'aient d'autre souci que la libération du territoire.’

Lees verder: http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/borg006paul01_01/borg006paul01_01_0023.htm

HET MOEILIJKE JAAR 1915 IN NEDERLAND
Achtergronden bij de toenadering tussen René De Clercq en Jan Derek Domela Nieuwenhuis Nyegaard


De Vlaamsche Stem verscheen op 1 februari. De redactie kon trots meedelen dat veel gedich-ten, ja zelfs een ‘mengelwerk’ van René De Clercq zouden opgenomen worden. De gedichten die in de volgende dagen reeds aan bod kwamen zijn belgicistisch, royalistisch, strijdvaardig, maar meestal teksten die uit de vooroorlogse tijd stamden of enigszins aan de nieuwe omstan-digheden werden aangepast.

Lees alweer verder: http://www.renedeclercq.be/Het%20moeilijke%20jaar%201915%20in%20Nederland.pdf

Zie ook http://users.telenet.be/frankie.schram/tijd/feit/tekst/19/1/5/1915.02.01.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het weer van zondag 1 februari 1914

Gemiddelde windrichting in graden 205°
Etmaalgemiddelde windsnelheid 8.2m/s
Hoogste/laagste uurgemiddelde windsnelheid 9.8m/s / 6.7m/s
Hardste windstoot 0m/s
Gemiddelde temperatuur 6.3°C
Minimum/maximum temperatuur 2.7°C / 10.6°C
Minimum temperatuur op 10cm hoogte 0°C
Zonneschijnduur 3.2 uur
Percentage van de langst mogelijke zonneschijnduur 35%
Globale straling 0J/cm2
Duur neerslag 0 uur
Som neerslag 0.7mm
Gemiddelde luchtdruk 1024.1hPa
Minimum/maximum zicht 0 km / 0 km
Gemiddelde bewolking onbewolkt
Gemiddelde relatieve vochtigheid 77%
Maximale/minimale relatieve vochtigheid 0% / 0%

http://weerverleden.nl/19140201&all
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Essad Pasha Toptani



Essad Pasha Toptani (1863-1920) stemmed from a wealthy landowning family from the Tirana region. He was early to gain a reputation as an unscrupulous opportunist. In 1908, he joined the Young Turks and became a member of the Turkish parliament. He is accused, in April 1913, of having assassinated Hasan Riza Pasha, commander of Shkodra, and of turning the fortress of Shkodra over to Montenegro, in order to gain Montenegrin support for his rule in central Albania, his traditional power base. This was in contradiction to the decision of the Conference of Ambassadors in London which had assigned Shkodra to Albania. On 16 October 1913, to frustrate Ismail Qemal bey Vlora, the power-hungry Toptani set up a rival government based in Durrës, called the Republic of Central Albania. He reluctantly stepped down when forced to by the Great Powers on 1 February 1914, being given as a consolation the right to lead the Albanian delegation which travelled to Germany to offer the Albanian throne to Prince Wilhelm zu Wied. Relations between the prince and the scheming Toptani, now minister of war and minister of the interior, soon soured and he was banned from the country in May 1914 when armed nationalists under a Dutch officer arrested him for conspiracy. From exile in Rome, he maintained close links with the Serb and Montenegrin governments. In October 1914, Toptani returned to Durrës via Serbia. When Austria-Hungary occupied much of central and northern Albania, Toptani fled to France and later to London, where he presented himself as the national representative of Albania. He was assassinated in Paris on 13 June 1920 by Avni Rustemi as he was leaving the Hotel Continental in the rue de Castiglione and is said to be buried at a Serbian military cemetery there.

http://www.albanianhistory.net/texts20_1/AH1919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Luke O'Connor


Sergeant Luke O'Conner Winning the Victoria Cross at the Battle of Alma (1854).
Oil by Louis William Desanges.


Major General Sir Luke O'Connor VC, KCB (20 February 1831 - 1 February 1915) was a British soldier. He was the first soldier to receive the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy, and was one of the most decorated servicemen ever to have served in the British Army.

He was born in Elphin, County Roscommon in Ireland, and enlisted in the British Army as a young man. At the age of 23, he was a sergeant in the 23rd Regiment of Foot (later The Royal Welch Fusiliers).

During the Crimean War, the 23rd Foot were part of the British force sent to the Crimea. On 20 September 1854, at the Battle of the Alma, Sergeant O'Connor was advancing between two officers, carrying the Colour, when one of them was mortally wounded. Sergeant O'Connor was also shot at the same time, but recovering himself, he snatched up the Colour from the ground and continued to carry it until the end of the action, although urged to retire to the rear on account of his wounds. He also acted with great gallantry at the assault on the Redan (8 September 1855) where he was shot through both thighs.

The Victoria Cross did not exist at that time, but when it was created in 1856, O'Connor was one of the 62 Crimean veterans invested with it. He was the first recipient from the Army, as opposed to the Royal Navy.

He later achieved the rank of Major General. He died in Clarges Street, London, on 1 February 1915. He is buried at St Mary's Roman Catholic church in Kensal Rise, London.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum in Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luke_O'Connor
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Michael John O'Leary



Major Michael John O'Leary VC (29 September 1890 – 2 August 1961) was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. O'Leary achieved his award for single-handedly charging and destroying two German barricades defended by machine gun positions near the French village of Cuinchy, in a localised operation on the Western Front during the First World War.

(...) During December 1914, O'Leary saw heavy fighting with the Irish Guards and was Mentioned in Despatches and subsequently promoted to Lance Corporal on 5 January 1915. Three weeks later, on 30 January, the Irish Guards were ordered to prepare for an attack on German positions near Cuinchy on the La Bassée Canal, a response to a successful German operation in the area five days before. The Germans attacked first however, and on the morning of 1 February seized a stretch of canal embankment on the western end of the 2nd Brigade line from a company of Coldstream Guards. This section, known as the Hollow, was tactically important as it defended a culvert that passed underneath a railway embankment. 4 Company of Irish Guards, originally in reserve, were tasked with joining the Coldstream Guards in retaking the position at 04:00, but the attack was met with heavy machine gun fire and most of the assault party, including all of the Irish Guards officers, were killed or wounded.

To replace these officers, Second Lieutenant Innes of 1 Company was ordered forward to gather the survivors and withdraw, forming up at a barricade on the edge of the Hollow. Innes regrouped the survivors and, following a heavy bombardment from supporting artillery and with his own company providing covering fire, assisted the Coldstream Guards in a second attack at 10:15. Weighed down with entrenching equipment, the attacking Coldstream Guardsmen faltered and began to suffer heavy casualties. Innes too came under heavy fire from a German barricade to their front equipped with a machine gun.

Michael O'Leary had been serving as Innes's orderly, and had joined him in the operations earlier in the morning and again in the second attack. Charging past the rest of the assault party, O'Leary closed with the first German barricade at the top of the railway embankment and fired five shots, killing the gun's crew. Continuing forward, O'Leary confronted a second barricade, also armed with a machine gun 60 yards (55 m) further on and again mounted the railway embankment, to avoid the marshy ground on either side. The Germans spotted his approach, but could not bring their gun to bear on him before he opened fire, killing three soldiers and capturing two others after he ran out of ammunition. Reportedly, O'Leary had made his advance on the second barricade "intent upon killing another German to whom he had taken a dislike".

Having disabled both guns and enabled the recapture of the British position, O'Leary then returned to his unit with his prisoners, apparently "as cool as if he had been for a walk in the park." For his actions, O'Leary received a battlefield promotion to sergeant on 4 February and was recommended for the Victoria Cross, which was gazetted on the 18 February:

No. 3556 Lance-Corporal Michael O'Leary, 1st Battalion, Irish Guards

For conspicuous bravery at Cuinchy on the 1st February, 1915. When forming one of the storming party which advanced against the enemy's barricades he rushed to the front and himself killed five Germans who were holding the first barricade, after which he attacked a second barricade, about 60 yards further on, which he captured, after killing three of the enemy and making prisoners of two more. Lance-Corporal O'Leary thus practically captured the enemy's position by himself and prevented the attacking party from being fired upon
.
- The London Gazette, 16 February 1915


Army recruiting poster, 1915, featuring Michael O'Leary VC

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_John_O'Leary
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Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | February 1915

Monday 1st February 1915 - Clear sky, frosty.

Digging connecting trenches on Roper’s Hill, 5’ 6” deep, 2’ 6” wide top, 1’ 6” bottom, zigzag side 6 paces. Draycott partner. Did about 4’ 6” in 3 hrs. Hard work, especially when deep down.

Afternoon route march carrying equipment, coat in haversack and entrenching tool on. Went via Ringinglow and back, practising fixing bayonets on road. Nicols[Nichols?] hit brewery man with snowball. Very amusing.

6-9pm more trench digging. Stables as partner. Very fatigued, hands sore. Teased Foster and Clark.

Soup for supper.

Hear a cook going to Aldershot April 2nd for course in field cooking. Looks as if we shan’t leave until April. Piano arrived, 5d each per month.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm
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1 Feb 1915: "His New Job" (film) is Released

His New Job is a short 1915 film written by, directed by, and starring Charlie Chaplin. Gloria Swanson appears as an uncredited extra. The title is an inside reference to this being Chaplin's first film after leaving Keystone Studios for Essanay Studios.

http://timelines.com/1915/2/1/his-new-job-film-is-released
Zie ook http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6UwKSIbb7us
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1 Feb 1915 to 31 Dec 1915: Armenian Genocide - 1,000,000 Massacred by the Turks and Kurds

Russian Forces, 180,000
General Yuclenitch, Commander-in-Chief
General Woronozov, Erzerum Army

Turkish Forces, 200,000
General Enver Pasha, Commander
General Djevet Pasha
General Haul Bey
General Sary Kamish
General Talaat Bey
Ahmed Fevsi



Following up their crushing defeat of the Turkish Army at Sarikamish on New Year's Day, when they captured an entire army corps, the Russians advanced through Turkish Armenia, and in a surprise attack on the Turks near Erzerum, about the first of February, captured a commanding general and the staff of the Thirtieth Turkish Division, besides a large quantity of war material.

In order to deliver their surprise attack, the Russians had crossed a mountain two miles in height during a raging blizzard which served to conceal their movements and the noise of the army. Coincident with this battle, a Russian squadron in the Black Sea bombarded the Turkish transports. Meanwhile, another Russian Army had encountered a Turkish force at Maraud, in the Turkish province of Azerbaijan, commanded by General Djevet Pasha. The Turks fled in disorder, abandoning their cannon, standards, dead and wounded.

Massacre of Armenians Begins at Ardanutem

Early in February 1915, after the Turks had been driven out of Ardahan, they retired to Ardanutem, a town near the Armenian frontier. Here they began those systematic massacres of Armenians which have made their name execrated everywhere. Of the 200 victims of Turkish vengeance in this town, 150 were dragged from their homes and killed in the streets, while 50 Armenians were taken from the local jail, stripped naked and compelled to leap to death into the frightful abyss of Jenemdere, also called "The Devil's Gap." At Tamvot the Turks killed 250 Armenians, leaving their bodies to be devoured by the scavenger dogs. The women residents of this town were taken into captivity.

600 Butchered in Antreat

All the male inhabitants of Antreat, 600 in number, were put to death and the women were divided into parties and sent to various interior towns. An Armenian physician, Dr. Derderian, reported to the Red Cross of London that the whole plain of Alashgerd was dotted with the bodies of men, women and children who had been slaughtered by Kurds after the Russians had retreated from this district The Armenian women were carried away to the mountains." At this time, the Armenian Red Cross reported that 120,000 destitute Armenians were imploring aid in the Caucasus region alone.

Turks, Defeated in Persia, Massacre 800

Continuing the advance into Northwestern Persia, the Russians defeated the Turks in a furious battle at Atkutur, the Turks losing 12,000 in casualties. The Turks cruelly massacred 800 Christians in this region, dragging many of them out from the homes of friendly Mahometans, who had sheltered them. Some of the victims were shot ; others were bound to ladders and their heads chopped off where they protruded from the rungs ; eyes were gouged out and limbs chopped off. Several hundred other Armenians were thrown into deep wells and drowned.

Inhabitants of Ten Villages Massacred

Refugees reaching the Russian lines on April 24, 1915, reported that all the inhabitants of ten villages near Van had been killed by the Turks and Kurds. Following this massacre, the head of the Armenian church at Etchmiadzia cabled President Wilson an appeal addressed to the people of the United States, to act on behalf of the Armenians.

6,000 Massacred at Van as Russians Appear

On May 15, 1915, the Russian consul at Van reported the massacre of 6,000 Armenians by the Turks and Kurds. One week later a column of Russian troops entered Van, the murderous Turks retreating toward Bitlis after setting fire to half the town. By June 6, 1915, the Russians had cleared the whole region of Turks, practically annihilating General Halil Bey's original corps.

Typhus Epidemic Among Russians in Caucasia

Along the Caucasian front, the campaign had been halted by a typhus epidemic among the Russians, which claimed 150 victims daily. Hostilities were resumed about May 1st, and the Turks were driven back to the southwest, with heavy losses on both sides.

12,000 Killed at Bitlis and Mush

In June 1915, it was reported that 12,000 Armenians had been killed at Bitlis and Mush, and that several villages in the Lake Van region were entirely wiped out. At Marsovan, where an American college is located, the Armenians were driven out to the suburbs. Twelve hundred were put to death and thousands of other Armenians managed to escape into Northern Mesopotamia.

Armenians Hold Two Towns

In some towns the Armenians endeavored to defend themselves against Turkish attacks. At Shaben Karshissar, in the province of Anatolia, the citizens held the town for a short time against Turkish troops, but were finally overcome. Four thousand were put to death. The people of Kharput also held out a week against the attacks of the Turks before surrendering.

American Ambassador Aids the Armenians

The United States Department of State, in reply to a universal appeal for action on behalf of the Armenians, instructed the American Ambassador at Constantinople, Mr. Henry Morgenthau, to make representations to the Turkish Government. While disclaiming responsibility for the massacres, the Turkish Government affirmed that the Kurds were the guilty parties. However, upon Mr. Morgenthau's request, Turkish regular troops were sent to Persia to keep order. Yet it is known that the massacres in the Lake Van region were instigated by the Turkish Minister of the Interior, Talaat Bey, in reprisal for the act of the populace in resisting an order of banishment directed against them.

1,000,000 Massacred in Armenia

The districts covered by the Armenian massacres were Eastern Anatolia, Cilicia and the Taurus region. The British and Russian official reports agree that in 1915 fully 1,000,000 Armenians out of a population of 4,000,000 were killed by the Turks and Kurds. It was estimated that 250,000 Armenians escaped into Russia after suffering untold privations.

The slaughter of the Armenians is said to have been instigated by Enver Pasha and Talaat Pasha, who charged the Armenians collectively with "treason." These acts of unspeakable savagery, at which the whole world shuddered, were defended by certain German publicists as justifiable.

King’s Complete History of the World War, W.C. King, published 1922. pages 168 - 169, http://timelines.com/perspectives/d3744d253106e7777648cea04b5cb947
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Jan 2011 20:44, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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1 Feb 1917 to 6 Apr 1917: German Armies Retreat 25 Miles to New Hindenberg Line

As They Withdraw, German Army Destroys 2,000 Villages, Towns and Cities

Allied Forces, 2,500,000
General Robert Nivelle, Commander-in-Chief
British Armies—General Sir Douglas Haig, Commander
French Armies—General d'Esperey, Commander

German Forces, 2,500,000
General von Hindenberg, Commander
General von Ludendorff, Chief of Staff

Germany was compelled to relax her grip on the throat of France, in the spring of 1917, only to acquire a fresh and firmer hold. It was in March, just on the eve of a formidable offensive planned by the French and British forces, when the German armies suddenly evacuated their ghastly, crumbling trench positions on the Ancre-Somme front and retreated eastward, at depths varying from five to twenty-five miles, until they had gained the security of the new fortified zone, known variously as the Siegfried or Hindenberg line, which curved southeast from Arras 100 miles to Soissons.

As they retreated, the vandals wantonly destroyed everything in their path, reducing to ashes 2,000 villages, towns, and cities in Central France, and leaving in their wake no roof, or tree, or shrub. This evacuation restored to France 1,000 square miles of territory, once rich in verdure and teeming with life, but now a blackened desolate waste, with only the myriad pillars of smoke to indicate where populous and prosperous towns once had stood. Its immediate military effect was to shorten the Western battle line by 40 miles. Inasmuch as 300,000 cover troops were thus released from the old sectors, the striking force of both armies in the restricted area of battle was by so much improved.

Ever since the Battle of the Somme was brought to its indecisive close by the torrential floods of November, the Allies had been planning on a colossal scale for the resumption of their offensive in the spring. Throughout the winter, a million soldier-artisans had been employed in laying the groundwork for the coming assault, which it was confidently believed would result in the dispersion of the Kaiser's armies. Hundreds of miles of railroad extension had been laid to facilitate the movement of troops and supplies behind the line. Immense munitions depots had been erected. Plank roads had been laid across the muddied terrain. The assemblage of artillery was greater than had been attempted hitherto on the Western front, the British alone having 4,000 field guns in position along their frontier.

A Garrison of Gibbering Lunatics

These elaborate preparations were destined to come to naught. The Germans, well aware of the magnitude of the Allied offensive, and realizing that their own line could not long withstand the pounding of the Allied guns, decided to forestall the Allied attack by adroitly retreating to the Hindenberg line, where they expected to "regain the aggressive initiative." With characteristic egotism, they described their retirement as a "Retreat to Victory." It was, nevertheless, a compulsory retreat and in effect an acknowledgement of defeat in the Somme Battle.

The Germans were compelled, for other than strategic reasons, to vacate the position in the Somme-Ancre sectors which they had held for three years. Their whole battle front was become a charnel house too horrible for human nerves to withstand. The ceaseless pounding of the British guns had churned up the ground in the German defense zone from five to sixty feet in depth. These pits were now filled with mud, and in the bottomless depths of these mud holes, hundreds of German soldiers had been swallowed alive. Wherever the eye could reach throughout that devastated region, no sprig of grass, no sign of tree, no weed even, met the vision.

Toward the butte of Warlencourt, one reached "Hell's own acres," where the water covering the slime in the crater beds had become reddened with blood. Bodies littered the region for miles around in all imaginable conditions and position; arms sticking full length out of mud; terrible faces grimacing at the trenches; legs, feet, and half bodies protruding everywhere. Day after day, the dead had been simply tossed out of the German trenches into the open and as often blown back again in fragments by the explosion of the British shells.

All the German communication trenches had been smashed by the British guns as fast as dug. Food and ammunition supplies had to be carried at night in the open across the shell-swept, pitted field, and since the British shells never ceased falling in the battle area, the needed supplies rarely reached the German trenches. What with the fear of slow starvation or sudden death in the muddied pits, and with the gruesome spectacle of the dead forever before their eyes, the German soldiers had all but lost their reason when the time came to withdraw. They were become as a "garrison of gibbering lunatics." Their retirement was rather a retreat to sanity than a "retreat to victory."

German Retirement Begins

Early in February, the Germans had quietly evacuated one important sector on the Ancre front, all unknown to the British, whose guns for a week or more continued to bombard the empty German trenches. Hence, the subsequent British Infantry advance was destined to converge on emptiness. Soon the whole sector was in motion and by February 21, 1917 the British had captured the villages of Beaucourt, Beaumont, Bailiescourt, Grand Court, and the outskirts of Serre.

On February 24, 1917, under cover of a curtain of mist, the Germans began a partial retirement in the sector between Gommecourt and Le Transloy. Pressing close on their heels, the British on the same day swept into possession of Serre, Miraumont, Pys, and Petit Miraumont. Two days later, the British regained Warlencourt and Irles. All that remained of these towns were huge heaps of pulverized stone and brick. The northern pivot of the German retreat was taken on February 28, 1917, when the British entered Gommecourt.

British Enter Bapaume and Perenne

Early in March, the general retirement of the German Armies set in along the great salient from Lille and Arras to Rheims. Troops now fought in the open, for the first time in two years, and cavalry was used on a large scale. On March 17, 1917, the British and French troops forced a German retirement in three places on a front of 45 miles. After stiff fighting with the German rearguard, the British entered Bapaume and the French occupied both Roye and Lassigny. By March 18, 1917, the Allied Armies had advanced ten miles and "liberated" the hideous ruins of 70 villages and towns. Peronne, Chaulny, and Nesle were soon occupied by the British, while the French took Noyon, the largest of all the strategic centers to fall.

German Vandalism in France

The Germans spared nothing in the path of their retreat. Every village throughout the countryside was destroyed with systematic and detailed destruction. In Bapaume and Peronne, they had blown up or burned all the houses which were untouched by shell fire, but in scores of villages they laid waste the cottages, the little farms and the orchards of the poor peasants.

In the cities they blew out the fronts of houses, and with picks and axes smashed mirrors, furniture, and picture frames. In the country, not only were the farmhouses destroyed, but fruit trees throughout the whole zone were either cut down or so mutilated that they would perish. Agricultural implements which could not be removed were broken up with sledge hammers or burned. Spokes of cartwheels and other vehicles were sawed off.

Thousands of French civilians succumbed to exposure and slow starvation, the greatest mortality resulting from a barbarous system of "inspection" which the Germans employed. Having first concentrated the French civilians in great camps, the Germans then ordered the peasants to present themselves at a given date for final identification. Although the temperature ranged from zero to 9 below zero, everyone—the sick carried on stretchers, the exhausted and the infirm borne on the shoulders of their less helpless friends—was forced to enter an open square and wait there in the freezing cold winter weather for six hours, until some superior German officer had arrived to take charge. At Chaulny, where 6,000 women and children and aged men underwent such an ordeal, hundreds died from pneumonia or pleurisy. The same was true of other concentration centers.

The Looting of French Cities

In some towns, weeks before the German retreat began, the population was massed in cottages, 20 or 30 persons being crowded in a single room, without heat and almost without food. As the looting proceeded, thousands of moving vans carried off to Germany furniture and valuables belonging to the thrifty people of France. Not a cow, or horse, or pig, or chicken, was overlooked by these thievish vandals. Every living animal had been killed, eaten or carried off by the Germans. The impression of a stricken and scourged land was deepened by the endless miles of flooded country in the Valleys of the Oise and Ailette, where the waters of canals had been used to flood the land and to create great desolate areas, waveless and dead.

Women and Girls Carried Off Captives

From Noyon, every woman and girl between the ages of 13 and 30 had been carried off into German captivity nine days before the retreat began. The survivors, crowded in cellars, had many hideous tales to tell. None of the French civil population had been given meat of any kind to eat for 17 months; all the captives had been restricted to a diet of black bread and rice. In consequence of this harsh dietary, thousands had died of starvation, the mortality among children being appalling. Children had been required to sleep in their unwashed clothes, without mattresses, pillows or coverings, all through that bitter cold winter. No words can describe the filthiness of these children when found by their compatriots.

The vandalism of the Prussians exceeded that of their ancestors, the Vandals, Huns, Tartars, and Mongols. Thousands of pretty and prosperous villages had been destroyed for the barbaric joy of destroying. Even the vandalic destruction witnessed in Belgium was less dreadful than that in France. In the fields, as in the towns, there was systematic ruin. Near the debris of each wrecked farmhouse, there was the inevitable record of ruined utensils, choked up wells and of orchards with prostrate fruit trees. Sacrilegious acts were of frequent occurence. Graves in numerous cemeteries were evacuated of their dead and not infrequently a tomb had been violated, a coffin opened, then emptied of its remains and filled with filth.

German "high authorities," in their attempt to forestall neutral criticism, described these acts of vandalism as "a war measure dictated by military necessity!" This from a nation which, as a signatory at the Hague Convention, had given a "guaranty against abuse of person or property!"

Germans Reach the Hindenberg Line

The German retreat ended on April 5, 1917, when the new Hindenberg line was reached. In evacuating the Somme Basin, the Germans had destroyed 2,000 towns, cities and villages. In order to hinder the Allied pursuit, they had uprooted every stretch of railroad, demolished every stone wall, leveled every building, razed every tree in their path. A thaw had set in, converting the roads into rivers of mud and hampering the Allied operations. It was especially difficult to bring forward the Allied field guns, but this feat, though delayed, was finally accomplished.

The so-called Hindenberg line, to which the Germans had retreated, was a fortified zone, 12 miles deep, consisting of parallel trench lines, covered with vast meshes of barbed wire and lined with immense concrete gun positions so spaced as to permit of deadly cross-fire upon attacking troops. Behind the main line there were support or "switch" lines, in which entire groups of armies might hide while enemy armies were attacking the front line.

The pivots of this line were Vimy Ridge, near Arras, in the North, and the Craonne Plateau, just above Soissons, in the southeast. The Douai Plain, through which it extends in its 120-mile course, is cut with many canals and rivers, which in themselves constituted a difficult barrier for an attacking army to overcome, affording especial protection against tanks. Of these waterways, the

most important were the Canal du Nord and the Scheldt. In addition, the Oise River was transformed into an impassible lake. Besides the water obstacles, there were the Havincourt Woods and Bourlon Woods, overlooking Cambrai and the St. Gobain Forest. Against all these barriers in front of their series of concrete trenches, the Germans expected the Allied attacks would spend themselves in vain.

King’s Complete History of the World War, W.C. King, published 1922, pages 274 - 277, http://timelines.com/perspectives/3fab75fcf07f01a937d85b1a600f73d4
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1 Feb 1915 to 8 Feb 1915: Third Assault on Warsaw

Russian Force, 100,000
General Russky

German Force, 150,000
Gen. Mackensen



Hindenberg, on February 1, 1915, launched his third drive on Warsaw, using for the purpose an army of 150,000, under the command of General Mackensen.

This time the movement was inaugurated with a frontal attack directed against the west side of the Polish salient opposite Bolimof, 40 miles from Warsaw. It was preceded by a violent artillery preparation which wrecked the Russian trenches.

A terrific snowstorm set in, screening the movements of the German troops. In dense masses, ten to twenty men deep, the German tidal wave advanced, surging over the first Russian trench line on a seven-mile front facing the Rawa River.

On the following day, February 2, 1915, the German flood overflowed the second and third Russian lines, advancing five miles along the Warsaw Railroad. Here it was checked for two days by the stubborn Russian resistance.

The arrival of Russian reinforcements from Warsaw on February 4, 1915, turned the tide.

In the midst of a driving blizzard the Russians furiously counter-attacked, steadily pushing back Mackensen's army, day by day, until on February 8th, the Germans had been forced back to the Rawa trenches. Mackensen's drive had failed and 20,000 German lives paid the forfeit of this third thrust at Warsaw.

http://timelines.com/1915/2/1/third-assault-on-warsaw
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Periodical, 1 February 1915: La Libre Belgique, issue No. 1



Lees verder op http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/periodical-1-february-1915-3
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RAF: No. 17 Squadron

No 17 Squadron was formed at Gosport on 1 February 1915 and after a period of training embarked for Egypt in November. On 24 December, it began to make reconnaissance flights over the Turkish lines in Sinai, also flying in support of troops engaged with Turkish army units in the Western Desert. Detachments were also to be found in Arabia until July 1916, when the Squadron was sent to Salonika as a mixed unit of twelve BE2cs for reconnaissance and a scout component of two DH2s and three Bristol Scouts. At first it was the only RFC unit in Macedonia but was later joined by others in April 1918, handed over its fighters to a newly-formed No 150 Squadron. For the rest of the war, it was engaged in tactical reconnaissance and artillery spotting on the Bulgarian border. In December 1918, the squadron re-equipped with twelve DH9s and six Camels, sending A Flight to Batum to support the White Russian forces and B and C Flights to Constantinople in January 1919. On 14 November 1919, No 17 was disbanded.

http://www.raf.mod.uk/organisation/17squadron.cfm
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U-20 and the Lusitania

Built in 1913 the diesel generated U-20 submarine gained notoriety during the First World War for its sinking of the giant Lusitania cruise vessel. (...)

Schweiger and the 32-man crew of U-20 were no stranger to controversy. On 1 February 1915, some three months prior to the Lusitania sinking, the U-20 fired at a hospital ship in the English Channel, again heralding a storm of criticism.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/atoz/u20.htm
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The Saturday Strangeness

Just previous to the First World War, as Germany prepared to release the Zeppelin air ships, a spate of phantom airship sightings took grip on the world. London was just one city in the UK to become besieged by the mysterious aircraft that had no definitive origin. Were they the first UFOs? How did such craft seem to vanish or escape pursuit? Here’s a chronicle pertaining to the capital

1st February 1915: Five Zeppelin ships headed over London and then seemed to vanish. Other ships were also reported in winds so strong that such ships should have found it impossible to take to the air. In the previous year there had been over 500 reports of phantom airships in the UK.

http://londonist.com/2007/07/the_saturday_st_9.php
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THE OPIUM MONOPOLY
BY ELLEN N. LA MOTTE

XIII - BRITISH NORTH BORNEO

BRITISH North Borneo occupies the northern part of the island of Borneo. Area, about 31,000 square miles, with a coast line of over 800 miles. Population (1911 census), 208,000, consisting mainly of Mohammedan settlers on the coast and aboriginal tribes inland. The Europeans numbered 355; Chinese 26,000; Malays, 1,612; East Indians about 5,000 and Filipinos 5,700. The number of natives cannot be more than approximately estimated, but is placed at about 170,000. The territory is under the jurisdiction of the British North Borneo Company, being held under grants from the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu (Royal Charter in 1881).

Like many other British colonies, opium is depended upon for part of the revenue. The Statesman's Year Book for 1916 observes on page 107: "Sources of revenue: Opium, birds' nests, court fees, stamp duty, licenses, import and export duties, royalties, land sales, etc. No public debt."

In this frank manner, our attention is called to opium, which appears first on the list of sources o revenue.

Going over the files of the Government reports, we will begin with the "Supplement to the Official Gazette for British North Borneo. Administration Report for the Year 1910." Published June 1, 1911. On page 3 we read: Customs and Trade: The import and export trade of the state shows a healthy expansion. . . . It is interesting to note that imports show an increase at every station. Out of the 47 headings of Tariff, there are only 7 which show decreases. . . . The largest increases appear under cloth, $147,106; opium, $132,692, and iron ware, $218,620. . . . The general all round increases . . . are of course due to the demand for supplies of all kinds in connection with the opening of rubber estates."

The Supplement to the Official Gazette, Report for 1912 (published in December, 1913) is also a report of general prosperity. Page 4: "Trade: The volume of trade for the year 1912 was $11,139,122, giving an increase over 1911 of 18 per cent. . . . Imports: As in 1911, all stations show an increase of imports. Out Of 47 headings, 33 show increases, 12 show decreases, and 2 remain stationary. Increases: There was an increase under rice, flour and grain . . . the increase under other headings include sundries, opium, machinery, etc."

The next Government Report is not so happy. Opium imports show no "healthy expansion." Thus, the Supplement to the Official Gazette, Report for 1913 (published 1 February, 1915) says on page 4: "Other decreases in imports were opium, $108,18o. The decrease in opium was due to the abolition of the Opium Farm, which also held the Labuan Farm, and opium was therefore no longer imported from Labuan for use in the West Coast and the Interior."

Still more bad news as to opium, in the report for 1914, (published 1 February, 1916). All imports drop. Page 4 records "Decrease in imports. . . . Railway and telegraph material, rice, flour, grain and opium." In this year the opium imports only amount to $58,464. This general falling off in all imports may have been due to the war. But the opium situation was apparently growing serious. On page 17 of this same report we read that "Thirty-two ordinances were passed by the Council and became laws during the year. Among them the Opium and Chandu."

The brevity and meagerness of these official reports often leave one puzzled as to their meaning. The Supplement to the Official Gazette for 1915 (published October, 1916), shows still more discouraging news as to opium. Imports that year amounted to only $31,299. But, in spite of this discouragement, hope still remains. The same report shows optimism under the head of Excise. "Excise: $627,225, against $467,078, an increase in the net revenue of $160,147, due to Government taking over the sole control of the sale of chandu (smoking opium) and the collection of other Excise duties, formerly farmed."

This explains the Ordinance passed by the Council the preceding year, regarding Opium and Chandu. Since the Government has taken over 44 sole control of the sale of chandu " and will collect the excise duties systematically and thoroughly, we may still hope for some future report which will show once more a "healthy expansion" in the opium revenue.

http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/om/om13.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 21:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First World War Diaries - 56th Infantry Battalion

February 1916: http://www.awm.gov.au/cms_images/AWM4/23/AWM4-23-73-1.pdf
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Zeppelin Raids

On the night of 31st January/1st February 1916, nine airships of the Reichskreigsmarine, the Imperial German Navy, set out from their bases on the north eastern coast of Germany to bomb targets in the Midlands and south of England.

Two of the Zeppelin's, the L21 and the L19, bombed the Black Country causing a total of thirty-five deaths. One Zeppelin dropped some of its bombs on Bradley, Bilston, killing two people.

The airship's route over England was via Narborough, King's Lynn, Grantham, Nottingham, Derby and Stafford before turning south. It reached Wolverhampton at 7.45pm.

The airship then continued on to Dudley. It appears that the airship was hopelessly lost and thought it was over Liverpool: the captain's report claims he bombed docks, harbour works and factories.

The two people killed were Maud and William Fellows. Maud was 24 and lived at 45 Daisy Street, Bradley. She worked at a butcher's shop in Bilston. William was aged 23 and lived at Castle Street, Coseley. He was employed as a stoker.

They had been walking along the canal when the noise of the Zeppelin caused them to shelter by the side of the pumping station. One of the bombs landed a few feet away, killing William instantly. Maud was taken to the 'Old Bush Inn' in Bradley Lane where she received first aid to her right side, leg and back. She never recovered from her injuries and died on 12th February of blood poisioning.

Following the attack on Bradley the Zeppelin moved on to bomb Wednesbury and Walsall before returning to its base. It arrived back at Nordhollz around 10.45pm.

There was much debate within the Borough Council's Watch (or Police) Committee about how the raid took place and what could be done to safeguard the people against future raids. The Mayor was particularly unhappy about procedures, and especially indignant that he wasn't told about the raid.

http://www.wolverhamptonhistory.org.uk/people/at_war/ww1/home_front3
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Knights of the Air: Edmond Thieffry



Thieffry was born in Etterbeek, a municipality of Brussels, and went on to study law in Leuven (hence his nickname "The Flying Judge"). After qualifying he was conscripted into the Belgian Army, joining the 10th Regiment in 1913. At the start of the First World War he saw service as a staff attaché to General Leman, but was captured by the Germans. He escaped on a stolen motorcycle to the neutral territory of the Netherlands, where he was arrested by Dutch military police. Using his legal knowledge and Dutch language skills he managed to talk his way out of internment, and travelled to Antwerp to rejoin the Belgian army.

In 1915, Thieffry joined the Compagnie des Ouvries et Aérostiers — the Belgian Army Air Corps — and with some difficulty qualified as a pilot at Étampes. He crashed more aircraft during training than any other Belgian pilot. On 1 February 1916 he joined the 3rd Squadron as an observer for artillery, where he was appreciated for his exactitude and courage. He crash-landed so many aircraft that he was promptly assigned to a single-seat fighter squadron, as no one would fly with him! He was rapidly transferred to 5th Squadron (The Comets) under Captain Jules Dony based at De Panne in December 1916.

Lees verder! http://www.dieselpunks.org/profiles/blogs/knights-of-the-air-edmond
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Woodrow Wilson Quote

America cannot be an ostrich with its head in the sand.

- Speech at Des Moines (1 February 1916)

America cannot be an ostrich with its head in the sand.
Speech at Des Moines (1 February 1916)
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John MacLean, 1879-1923

MacLean continued to remain active at work gate meetings during the day and at public meetings in the evening. On the 1st of February 1916 he was again arrested and handed over to the Military authorities in Edinburgh Castle. Public outcry forced his release from Military to Civil authorities. He appeared in private before the Sheriff on the 14th of February and released on bail of £100, the trial set for 11th of April 1916.

http://www.gcu.ac.uk/radicalglasgow/chapters/johnmclean.html
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German Submarine War Zone Announced, 1 February 1917



"The Sory of the Great War" Volume VI. Edited by Francis J Reynolds, Allen C Churchill, Francis Trevelyan Miller. Publised by John A Collier & Son Company, New York, 1920, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:German_Submarine_War_Zone_Announced_1_February_1917.jpeg
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Free Articles from February 1917 Part 1 - Site Map - The New York Times

http://spiderbites.nytimes.com/free_1917/articles_1917_02_00000.html
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WAR DIARY: MATRON-IN-CHIEF, BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, FRANCE AND FLANDERS

01.02.17
Abbeville
Reinforcements: 12 Special Probationers arrived and were posted to the Etaples area.
Duchess of Sutherland’s Barge: Millicent, Duchess of Sutherland is now staffing a Barge which is running from Aire to Calais, and on which she is taking patients seriously wounded for treatment under the Carrol Dakin treatment and admission to her hospital. She is providing the Nursing Staff. I wrote pointing out to her that until other arrangements were made, only fully trained nurses should be employed, but if she found it difficult to supply them, it would be quite easy for me to supply a Staff Nurse to work under her Sister.
16 General Hospital: Heard from SMO, Treport, that Miss Willetts, Matron, QAIMNS, 16 General Hospital, had been admitted to hospital with asthma. Arranged for the Assistant Matron from 3 General, Miss Casswell, to proceed to 16 General to act in her place, and deputed Miss Stronach to be responsible for the 2 hospitals until some other arrangement could be made, Miss Stronach saying that it would be quite easy for her to carry on under these arrangements for the present.
Arrivals, Wastage, etc.: Forwarded to DGMS a list of the arrivals, new units opened, and wastage occurring during the month of January, showing a shortage of 382 trained nurses and 44 untrained in the BEF.
Miss Wohlmann: Forwarded from the DDMS Havre to DGMS an application from Miss Wohlmann, Matron, QAIMNS asking that her name should be changed to Wellman.
Resignation: Received War Office letter accepting the resignation of Miss J. Riddell, QAIMNSR.

http://www.scarletfinders.co.uk/58.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 21:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

N.V. Wilton's Machinefabriek & Scheepswerf

Gedurende de 1e wereldoorlog verdwenen talloze schepen naar de zeebodem door toedoen van vijandelijke handelingen. De premies voor de verzekering liepen daarom ook torenhoog op maar omdat er een groot aanbod van lading was kon er toch nog lonend gevaren worden. Zo lonend dat rederijen 60% tot 100% dividend konden uitkeren.
Nadat Duitsland op 1 februari 1917 de onbeperkte duikbotenoorlog afkondigde werd het gevaar voor de Nederlandse schepen nog groter.
De vraag naar scheepsruimte was dan ook groot en er kon ook niet onbeperkt gebouwd worden vanwege beperkte Duitse staalleveranties tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog.
In maart 1918 legden de Engelsen beslag op de Nederlandse koopvaardijschepen. Men beschuldigde Nederland van het helpen van de Duitsers. Nederland kon hier weinig tegen doen, men was afhankelijk van de Engelsen voor de eigen bevoorrading over zee.
Tijdens de oorlog besloot Wilton om voor eigen rekening een aantal schepen op stapel te zetten, deze kregen de naam Eigen Hulp gevolgd door een Romeins cijfer. Niet alle schepen zijn tijdens of kort na de bouw verkocht, met enkele heeft de werf deelgenomen aan de zeevaart. Ook bouwde Wilton in 1919 een 122 BRT metend visserschip dat als RAMSAY enige jaren in eigendom van de werf voer.

http://zeevaart.web-log.nl/zeevaart/2006/03/nv_wiltons_mach.html
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The 1917 Winnipeg-St. Paul Dogsled Race

Sherburne County Times in Clear Lake, Thursday, 1 February 1917

The dog team race from Winnipeg is not coming up to expectations in the matter of speed. It was confidently expected that some of the teams would arrive in St. Paul by Wednesday, but it is now estimated that it will be Friday and possibly later before they reach their destination, being still further hampered by the storm of Tuesday and yesterday.

Unless the storm interferes too much, it is believed that the leading teams will make St. Cloud by today. The local committee will be notified when the leading teams leave that city, and will notify by phone any who wish to be apprised of the hour. The committee has obtained permission from the authorities to ring the fire alarm bell about 20 minutes before the teams arrive in the village; this will give notice to all who wish to see the teams go through an opportunity. There will be no stops made here as the road from St. Cloud to St. Paul is the ‘home stretch’ and every minute is valuable.

Latest reports are that the teams are between Alexandria and Sauk Centre and handicapped by heavy snowdrifts.

http://baldwintownship.govoffice.com/index.asp?Type=B_BASIC&SEC=%7BCEB9A555-A088-408D-9ED3-47D920F07453%7D
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kaiser Wilhelm II issued orders to U-boat commanders on 1st February, 1917.

We will frighten the British flag off the face of the waters and starve the British people until they, who have refused peace, will kneel and plead for it.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWunrestricted.htm

Alarming losses

Initially, the German campaign went well. At the end of 1916, U-boats operating under some restrictions were sinking about a third of a million tons of Allied shipping per month.

By the time the unrestricted campaign recommenced on 1 February 1917, the Germans could deploy over 110 submarines in all theatres, and the new types were technically superior to earlier models. The British authorities looked on in alarm as the tonnage of shipping lost in the Atlantic and other theatres such as the Mediterranean steadily mounted - to 465,000 tons in February, nearly 510,000 tons in March, and the horrifying total of 400,000 tons in the first half of April.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/battle_atlantic_ww1_01.shtml
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Jan 2011 21:52, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Fernand Maximillian Leon Jacquet

Claiming an Aviatik C over Beerst on 17 April 1915, Jacquet was the first Belgian pilot to score an aerial victory. In December 1916, he assumed command of 1me Escadrille and on 1 February 1917 he became Belgium's first ace, scoring all five victories flying the Maurice Farman. Jacquet was also the first pilot to fly King Albert to the front in 1917. Jacquet was promoted to Capitaine-Commandant in December 1917 and three months later, at the request of the King, he assumed command of the newly formed Belgian Groupe de Chasse.

http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/belgium/jacquet.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

J. T. Walton Newbold: "Socialism and Militarism"
Source: The Call, February 1, 1917

THERE is very great need to-day, clearly, to define what is the attitude towards Militarism which Socialism demands of its adherents because, both from the nationalist and from the sentimental wings of the movement, have been put forward views which have no foundation in our specifically Socialist principles. Whilst we cannot lower our banners and march to war beneath the alien flag of the Imperialists, or persuade ourselves that this is a struggle for Liberty against Oppression, or for Democracy against Oligarchy and Autocracy, neither can we acquiesce in many of the ideas of our whilom pacifist colleagues. Our conception of the sovereign rights of the community is such that the claim of some persons to arrogate to themselves what is the best form of service which they can render, and which are the laws which they will obey appears impossible. We cannot sympathise with those who will not undertake other work than that on which they are normally engaged at the behest of the State, but would do that same task if they were not ordered.

It is not compulsion to which we object. It is not conscription to which we oppose ourselves. What we are opposed to is the submission to a governing class which we deem to be our natural enemies, and to aiding them in the advancement of causes and the defence of interests to which we are unalterably hostile. We do not, however, expect that the State, i.e., the supreme representative of our ruling classes, will recognise our right to contract out of the engagement to which they have committed us. We would think them extraordinarily stupid or astoundingly weak or very alarmed if they did so. Socialists may have conscientious objections to participating in the war, but how they can reasonably expect their opponents to recognise these as valid is beyond the comprehension of some of us. It would appear to be due to the fact that they have not realised the character of the State as it exists to-day, and have not appreciated the truth of Liebknecht’s, dictum that the national governments are the executive committees of the junkers and the capitalists.

Similarly, the elevation of the goddess Freedom, and the importance attached to the protection of her domain puzzles us when we observe our comrades joining in the solemn rites and repeating the holy incarnations. Naturally, the middle-class, or that section of it which is out of power,is much distressed to see now this and now that prerogative slip away. For it the end of the world seems to have come just as it appeared to the minions of King Bung, ten years ago, when this same section was all-powerful.

We never persuaded ourselves that the Freedom which had been won during the ascent of the middle-class to political power would be respected by the authorities, by these new authorities, when new classes hove in sight or when the interests of the oligarchy were not consonant with freedom of speech, person and press. Freedom to us is not absolute. It is strictly relative according as social forces play one upon another, and the interests of the classes determine.

Nor do we consider Militarism as something which has intruded itself into the quiet, well-ordered world of Democratic institutions. Militarism is, in our sight, but the reflex of social forces under certain conditions, and in certain circumstances. We do not say that capitalism is, by nature, warlike, or, on the contrary, that it is pacific. It is both, as its interests determine. Capitalism, during the greater part of the 19th century, was pacific and the prominent figures amongst capitalist statesmen have, until recently, been Pacifists, Free Traders, Liberals. But there was a reason for that, there were several reasons, and many of those reasons no longer hold good for the dominant forces in modern capitalist politics.

The capitalists of the Liberal era had not yet reinforced their economic ascendancy by the conquest of political power. The agrarian and mercantile interests still dominated the situation and the laws and the executive reflected their ideology. That is the real explanation of the adherence of the Liberal statesmen to the cult of laissez-faire. The victory of Free Trade principles marked the equipoise of the old governing class and the new. The lion and the unicorn were fighting for the Crown.

Protection, Colonies, Navigation Laws, Armies, Fleets were all the means of defence and aggression used by the landlords and the “planters” in their competition with similar interests in other countries as well as in their social warfare with the rising capitalist, class. Their effect was to divert profits from the industrial magnates to the governing classes as interest on public debts, official salaries, rents, freightages, etc. They increased the cost of production and diminished the share of profits which came to the Cobdens and the Horrockses, the Peases and the Chamberlains. These latter did not require public assistance to market their commodities, because they were, as yet, without serious competitors. Their handicaps were in the vested interests of the established order.

But in the last generation all that has changed. The industrial capitalists have won almost everything that they required, whilst the landed interests have, in turn, merged with the capitalists by marriage, investment, and the industrial development of their properties. The Bates have become capitalist coal-owners and railway magnates, the Peases have become landowners with a stake, also, in the Empire. At the same time foreign countries have succumbed to capitalism and industrial competition has become fiercely keen between all the nations with big industries creating immense volumes of surplus value and exporting unsaleable commodities to “civilize” the heathen. Large scale production, the big business, has swollen the ranks of the proletariat, driven thousands of the middle class downwards, and has begun to stimulate intense class consciousness wherever capitalism has developed most highly. Each community of capitalists now looks to its organised self, the Government, for protection and assistance in maintaining its mastery at home and abroad. Each and all, the capitalist dominated Governments, have become Militarist and are becoming increasingly Imperialist and Protectionist.

We, needless to say, are irrevocably hostile to capitalism, whether, the Rochdale brand or the Birmingham kind. We see the New overwhelming the Old and smile, not because we love one more than the other, but because we see them both swirling down to the Social Revolution along the appointed channel of historic necessity. Capitalism is in rout whilst it shouts of victory. It is doomed, and it has become, and will increasingly become, brutally ruthless and ingenuously unscrupulous. This assurance, this conviction dominates our whole attitude to public affairs, to Peace, to War. Across the stormiest years of human history, over the blood-soaked battlefields, and the crowded gaols and the industrial slave compounds, we see the promise of Socialism and our thoughts go back to the titan—Marx!

http://marxists.anu.edu.au/archive/newbold/1917/02/01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 21:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frank De Natale, a 12-year old barber.



Lathers and shaves customers in father's shop, 416 Hanover Street, after school and Saturday. Location: Boston, Massachusetts. Photograph by Lewis Wickes Hine, 1 February 1917.

From the National Child Labor Committee Collection at the Library of Congress, http://www.flickr.com/photos/trialsanderrors/3389845630/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 21:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from 2683 William Albert Wenham to his mother, 1 Fevruary 1917



"Feb 1/17

BED No. 4251

Lc.Cpl. Wenham
2683. 5 Batt Lincs Regt
Kriegsgefangenen Lazarett
Alexandrinen Strasse
Berlin Germany

Dear Mother
Just a line hoping you are all in real good health, as it leaves me a lot better just at present. I have had a letter from Lily, and am anxiously for one from you Dear Mother. Will you get George to write to my Regt. Head QRs. and tell them to send me clothes and boots.You will be able to guess my build. I should like my boots to be size 10 and I can wear two pair of sock's this cold weather. I hope he will oblige me. I hope Tom is in good health. You must let me know as soon as possible. I hope you have written to Ted for me. Well Dear Mother I am getting real well now. I am pleased to say I shall be none the worse for my adventure very soon, so we must hope to see one another very soon. I expect Syd will be quite a man now. I have nearly forgotten what you are all like as it seem's ages since I saw you all.Well Dear Mother you must take care of yourself especially this winter. Give my love to Maria & Tom. A kiss for the children xxx. Please remember me to everyone I know. Don't forget to tell George. I must now conclude with very Best Love from Your Ever Loving Son Billy xxxxxx"

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/8730?REC=7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 22:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Selections from War Poems by Siegfried Sassoon

Memory

(Limerick, 1 February 1918)

When I was young my heart and head were light,
And I was gay and feckless as a colt
Out in the fields, with morning in the may,
Wind on the grass, wings in the orchard bloom.
O thrilling sweet, my joy, when life was free
And all the paths led on from hawthorn-time
Across the carolling meadows into June.

But now my heart is heavy-laden. I sit
Burning my dreams away beside the fire:
For death has made me wise and bitter and strong;
And I am rich in all that I have lost.
O starshine on the fields of long-ago,
Bring me the darkness and the nightingale;
Dim wealds of vanished summer, peace of home,
and silence; and the faces of my friends
.

http://www.radix.net/~bbrown/sassoon.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WAR DIARY - 1/8th (ARDWICK) BATTALION MANCHESTER REGIMENT - FEBRUARY 1918

FEBRUARY 1 1918 - BEUVRY - B Coy. on working party for R.E. A Company bathing & cleaning equipment. C Coy. on Range at LE QUESNOY in moring & D Coy. in afternoon. D Coy. in morning and C Coy. in afternoon, section & platoon drill, bayonet fighting, respirator drill, etc.

http://www.themanchesters.org/wd191802.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 22:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1 februari 1919 - Twee goederentreinen reden op elkaar op de Moerdijkbrug.

http://www.nuentoen.nl/fotos/99270/goederentreinen-op-elkaar-op-moerdijkbrug.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 22:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Picture Play Magazine [United States] (February 1919)



http://www.whosdatedwho.com/tpx_5099957/picture-play-magazine-united-states-february-1919/
Meer covers: http://www.whosdatedwho.com/sections/magazines/archive/1919/february
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 22:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 1 Februari 1919.

Valkenswaard. Geraffineerde oplichtersstreek. Een sigarenfabrikant uit Valkenswaard was in relatie gekomen met zekeren B. wonende Marnixstraat 198 te Amsterdam, zich noemende commissionair in sigaren. Hij had, zoo verhaalt het Hbld. voor rekening van hem en een handelsvriend er 85.000 gekocht, die gisteren door den sigarenfabrikant naar A’dam werden verzonden. Deze kwam mee om de transactie onmiddellijk te doen afloopen. Tegen betaling van de koopsom zou de vrachtbrief worden overhandigd. Eén van het tweetal koopers ging met den fabrikant naar een restaurant om af te rekenen; op weg daarheen haalde de compagnon van den commissionair het tweetal in, vroeg of hij de papieren der zending kon ontvangen, want de knechts waren nu juist in staat de partij te lossen. B. zou wel afrekenen. De niets kwaads vermoedende sigarenfabrikant gaf de stukken, daarna ging hij met B. naar een restaurant, waar deze eenigen tijd sprak over het voortzetten der handelsbetrekkingen. Plotseling werd de kooper aan de telefoon geroepen, hij verontschuldigde zich, verdween en ... moet nóg verschijnen. Inmiddels is het de politie gelukt de partij op te sporen en in beslag te nemen. Het tweetal commissionair's is nog niet boven water.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 22:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'The War Illustrated', 1st February, 1919: 'Why They Want Secrecy'
by Hamilton Fyfe

I wonder if the significance of the tussle over publicity at the Peace Conference has been generally understood. I am afraid we shall have many more such tussles before we get rid of secrecy in carrying on the nation's business. Tradition is hard to kill, especially when it' has a powerful vested interest working overtime to keep it alive. Yet if we do not kill the tradition of secrecy in dealing with foreign affairs we shall have fought the Great War in vain. We shall fall back into that morass of deception and rouddle- headedness in which w plunged and wallowed before.

To discover how the traditions arose we must trace diplomacy to its origin. We must go back to the time when foreign affairs were not the affairs of nations but the personal transactions of their rulers. Ambassadors were sent to foreign countries by monarchs to keep their masters informed of what went on. There were no other means of getting this information; no newspapers with correspondents in every capital, no students of contemporary politics writing articles in reviews, no cables to flash news all over the world, not even regular posts. It was the duty of ambassadors to send word not only of what would now be called public matters, but to transmit also the gossip of courts, the scandals in Royal families, the talk about possible Royal marriages. Did a monarch want a bride for his son? The ambassador had to arrange it, and sometimes to marry the lady as a proxy and convey her to her new home.

Diplomacy's "Close Corporation"

All this had to be done secretly. Ambassadors were chosen for their tact and discretion. They were the personal servants of their sovereign. The people were not told anything about alliances, or brewing troubles, until treaties had been signed or until war was declared.

When peoples began to take into their own hands the business of government, to entrust it to men whom they elected instead of leaving it to irresponsible and usually incompetent emperors and kings, they ought to have altered the machinery which had been created to suit the old system and which was out of keeping with the new. . They ought to have insisted upon the discussion of foreign affairs being as free and open as the debates upon taxation or schooling. They ought to have replaced the old diplomacy by a system suited to modern conditions.

Unfortunately, the men whom they chose to carry on the government were for a long time of the same type as those who had been employed by monarchs. Not until thirty- five years after the great Reform Act was a plain Mister made Prime Minister in this country. To this day diplomacy is considered an occupation for which the aristocracy are specially qualified. Occasionally men like Sir Robert Morier or Lord Bryce have been given the highest posts, but all who are acquainted with the insides of embassies and legations will admit that diplomacy is not a career open to talent; it is a close corporation in which those who are backed by family influence or .by wealth have the best chances.

One reason, therefore, besides tradition, for the keeping up of secrecy in foreign affairs is that governing men find it more convenient. This is why they say that publicity would cause far more trouble than it would dispel, and why they spread the notion that foreign affairs are too complicated and abstruse, for the common man or woman to grasp. This second assertion is easily disposed of. If the public in any self-governing country are told as much about foreign affairs as they are told about domestic matters they will be quite as capable of making up their minds about the one set of questions as about the other. The public do not fully grasp finance or economics, yet no one suggests that decisions in these spheres should be taken over their heads. Compared with financial and economic problems, foreign affairs are simple. Take the word of one who has spent most of his life in the study of both.

Wars Made in Secret

Coming to the contention that open diplomacy would cause quarrels among peoples to be more frequent, and not fewer as the opponents of secrecy argue, I submit that the probability is all the other way. Take the Crimean War, in which, as Lord Salisbury admitted, we backed the wrong horse, by which he meant that it was an error to take sides with Turkey against Russia. Can anyone maintain that either the French or the British people would have been in favour of fighting if they had known exactly what the quarrel was about? They would have said that the squabble over the custody of the Holy Sepulchre and the protection of pilgrims was both disgraceful and ridiculous, and that bloodshed upon such a pretext would be criminal.

Again, no one who is familiar with the events which led up to the Franco-Prussian War— for which, you must remember, the Emperor Napoleon III. was held at the time even more responsible than Bismarck—can deny that publicity would have given the French nation, at any rate, a very much clearer view of the cause of the disturbance. Thiers, the most famous Frenchman of his day, told Lord Granyille, soon after the war began in 1870, that "neither France nor Paris was in favour of war, but the Empress pressed it, and the Emperor decided it. The generals promoted it in the hope of becoming marshals, and the marshals because they desired to be dukes or princes." It was a "noisy minority" which shouted for war. In seventy-one out of eight-seven Departments, official reports showed war to be unpopular. It broke out because neither nation knew enough about the quarrel between the sovereigns.

Guilty Consciences

The reasons for desiring secrecy about the discussions at the Peace Conference are easy enough to guess. France wants to announce as a settled act the pushing back of Germany beyond the Rhine and the complete Frenchification of Alsace-Lorraine. Italy does not feel that her claims to the eastern shore of the Adriatic and her unsympathetic attitude toward the Southern Slavs Can be openly proclaimed without exciting general indignation. The Poles do not, I imagine, hanker after publicity which will show up their quarrels among themselves and, in particular, the sharp division between Polish Christians and Polish Jews, the Hebrews being as much in fear of the Christians as the Christians say they are of the Bolshevists, That clever old Serbian statesman, M. Pasitch, would rather, I am sure, work in secret, hoping to "put it across" everybody and secure Macedonia, which is as much Greek as Serbian, and no less Bulgarian than Greek.

More reasons of the same order could be set forth until they filled the page, but enough have been adduced to show that, far from being good reasons for secrecy, they are the best arguments for reporting the Peace Conference in full. The very anxiety of the Old Gang statesmen and diplomatists for secrecy proves that they have guilty consciences. They want to play the old game and lay their cards upon the table only when the rubber is ended. Then, rather than risk unsettling everything again, the nations will have to put up with what has been done.

If the peoples, are to control foreign policy they must watch every card that is about to be played; they must effectively control the men who represent them. These men resent control, and will make the strongest efforts of which they are capable to avoid it. Only the younger and more active-minded of the publicmen of any country—men like Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Henry Bentinck, and, I rather fancy, Mr. Lloyd George among us ; like M. Albert Thomas in France, and in Italy Signor Orlando—see that to stifle criticism of the acts of diplomatists now must sow the seed of future irritations, misunderstandings, and wars.

The Only Hope

The only hope for a future saner and more peaceful than the past is a settlement to which all shall subscribe, not perhaps willingly but with the feeling that, though some have had to suffer, and though many hopes have been disappointed, there has been a square deal, with nothing tricky or underhand to leave bitterness behind.

No one with a knowledge of human nature and of the method of diplomatic negotiation can expect that publicity will smooth away all disputes, or will make it impossible for one negotiator to over-reach another. However "open" the Peace Conference at Portsmouth, U.S.A., had been, the Japanese would none the less have got the better of the Russians. They succeeded in this by maintaining stiffly until the very end their demand for a large war indemnity, in addition to the other terms which they called upon Russia to accept. The Russian diplomats were doubtful about making peace on these terms. They knew their country could continue the war. They did not know that Japan had come to the end of her money. When the Japanese suddenly dropped the indemnity demand the Russians believed they had won a diplomatic victory, and agreed to the other terms at once. In reality, Japan had won.

Such victories as that will be won, however fully discussions are reported, and there is no reason why cleverness should not draw its rewards. Under an "open system," indeed, cleverness will be more necessary than it is at present. That is another, and perhaps the chief, of the Old Gang's objections to it.

http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/1919/Fyfe_Versailles_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 23:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bloody Friday

On 1 February 1919, tanks and soldiers patrolled the streets of Glasgow after Bloody Friday when 20,000 strikers gathered in George Square.

By the time the strike ended in early February, up to 10,000 troops had been sent to the city. No Scots troops were deployed, as the government feared they would join the workers if a revolutionary situation had developed in Glasgow. The strike had been called to demand a 40-hour week. After it ended, strikers in the shipbuilding industry negotiated a 47-hour week settlement.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/history/onthisday/february/01
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Jan 2011 23:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lieutenant Milton Fowler Gregg, V.C., M.C., The RCR



Citation: Bar to the Military Cross (London Gazette 1 February, 1919)

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. During the attack on Bois de Sart on 26th August, 1918, he became detached from his company with his platoon, and being subjected to withering machine gun fire, he led a bombing party forward and rushed two machine-gun crews, killing them. Pushing on with his platoon, he found his position isolated, so dug in, and by a personal reconnaissance connected up with the left flank, and by skillfully disposing his men enabled an enemy counter-attack to be repulsed. His courage and good leadership saved a critical situation. (M.C. gazetted 1st January, 1918.)

http://www.theroyalcanadianregiment.ca/history/20questions_young_officer/20qs_young_officer.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Feb 2011 9:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Last WWI vet turns 110 today
February 1, 2011

CHARLES TOWN - Frank W. Buckles, the last surviving soldier to have served on the Western Front during World War I, will turn 110 today, and two artists have united to share his legacy with the world.

Frank Woodruff Buckles was born in 1901. He has survived WWI and World War II, is lobbying for a National World War I Memorial in Washington, D.C., and is the oldest person to have ever testified before the U.S. Senate. The Charles Town resident now becomes the oldest person to become a filmmaker as he adds film producer to his resume.

When Buckles was born, motion pictures were just six years old.

Buckles and his family will be paid as writers and producers and share in any proceeds that the film generates. The project is being led by David DeJonge and his nonprofit organization Survivor Quest, which is based in Hudsonville, Mich.

Four years ago, DeJonge interviewed Buckles as part of his documentary on the last survivors or World War I and has been shooting high definition footage of the soldier ever since. The two later unveiled that collection in the Oval Office and the Pentagon and have educated more than 50,000 students with the traveling exhibit.

After accumulating hundreds of hours of footage and interviews, the time has come to kick off a fundraising campaign and complete the film.

On Monday at 11:11 a.m., a kickstarter.com campaign was launched to raise at least $150,000 to complete the feature-length film.

"My family and I have self-funded this project for four years and it has been a priceless experience. We are, however, now at a point where we need to expand our team and complete this project to share Frank's incredible life story with the world," DeJonge said in a news release Monday.

Kickstarter is a website where individuals can participate and fund creative projects. It is an all-or-nothing campaign, meaning that if funding is not reached, no money will exchange hands and the project will have to look elsewhere to be completed.

Sculptor Gregory Marra contacted DeJonge about a year ago to discuss the idea of a bronze statue to honor Buckles. The two immediately hit it off and began discussing the project.

"Honoring our fighting men and women with figurative bronze work is the best way to thank our defenders for their courage bravery and valor. This statue of Frank Buckles is mandatory," Marra said in the news release.

Ultimately, a larger-than-life bronze statue of a young Frank Buckles leading Gen. Pershing's riderless horse was selected. Buckles met Gen. John J. "Black Jack" Pershing after WWI and was an equestrian during the '20s and '30s.

A campaign to offset development of the bronze is under way now and a kickstarter campaign for the sculpture will launch soon. Both projects have links online from frankbuckles.org and tax-deductible contributions can be made online.

The campaign website is www.kickstarter.com/projects/frankbuckles.

DeJonge added that Buckles will spend today at home with close family and friends, enjoying his 110th birthday.

Buckles continues to be optimistic about life. He said earlier this week, "I look forward to living to be 115."

The veteran has been recognized many times during his long life. One of his most significant awards came from former French President Jacques Chirac in 1999 at the French Embassy in Washington, when Buckles received the French Legion of Honor pin and spoke to Chirac in French.

Buckles met with former President George W. Bush and top Pentagon officials in March 2008, and he received the Distinguished West Virginian Award from then-Gov. Joe Manchin in August 2007.

Congresswoman Shelley Moore Capito, R-W.Va., issued a statement Monday in honor of Buckles' birthday.

"Mr. Buckles represents the very best of this great country - service, determination and patriotism. He has lived through some of the most historic events in American history, from the Great Depression to two World Wars to the invention the Internet, reminding us of the immense progress we have made as a nation," she said. "Anyone who knows Frank cannot help but be inspired by his love for his country, humility and compassion. West Virginia is truly grateful to call him one of our own."

http://www.journal-news.net/page/content.detail/id/555295.html
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